Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 110
Filtrar
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1155, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441847

RESUMO

Predicting lithium response prior to treatment could both expedite therapy and avoid exposure to side effects. Since lithium responsiveness may be heritable, its predictability based on genomic data is of interest. We thus evaluate the degree to which lithium response can be predicted with a machine learning (ML) approach using genomic data. Using the largest existing genomic dataset in the lithium response literature (n = 2210 across 14 international sites; 29% responders), we evaluated the degree to which lithium response could be predicted based on 47,465 genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms using a supervised ML approach. Under appropriate cross-validation procedures, lithium response could be predicted to above-chance levels in two constituent sites (Halifax, Cohen's kappa 0.15, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.07, 0.24]; and Würzburg, kappa 0.2 [0.1, 0.3]). Variants with shared importance in these models showed over-representation of postsynaptic membrane related genes. Lithium response was not predictable in the pooled dataset (kappa 0.02 [- 0.01, 0.04]), although non-trivial performance was achieved within a restricted dataset including only those patients followed prospectively (kappa 0.09 [0.04, 0.14]). Genomic classification of lithium response remains a promising but difficult task. Classification performance could potentially be improved by further harmonization of data collection procedures.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 132: 38-43, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038564

RESUMO

Childhood adversity is an early life stressor associated with increased risk of several psychiatric disorders such as depression. Epigenetic changes, primarily DNA methylation, can be affected by early life stress, which in turn might contribute to altered disease susceptibility later in life. One plausible biomarker of early life stress is methylation of the ionotropic glutamate receptor NMDA type subunit 2B (GRIN2B) gene, which has been previously shown to be epigenetically affected by prenatal environmental stressors. Here, we set out to investigate if stress-inducing adversity during childhood is associated with changes in methylation of GRIN2B in adulthood. We studied 186 individuals from a Swedish naturalistic population-based cohort who had provided saliva samples (DNA) as well as information regarding both childhood adversity (CA) and depressive symptoms (dep) (nCA,dep = 41, nCA,no-dep = 56, nno-CA,dep = 40, Nno-CA,no-dep = 49). Methylation at four CpG sites in a regulatory region of GRIN2B was analysed using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Associations for methylation status to childhood adversity and to depression status were investigated using linear regression models. Our study shows that childhood adversity is associated with increased methylation levels of GRIN2B in adulthood, for three of the measured CpGs (p = 0.007, 0.006 and 5 × 10-14). This indicates that GRIN2B methylation is susceptible to early life stress, and that methylation at this gene is persistent over time. No association was found between GRIN2B methylation and depression status. Yet, this does not rule out a role for alterations in GRIN2B methylation for other neuropsychological outcomes not studied here.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 586083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132941

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is a severe psychiatric disorder which affects more than 1% of the world's population and is a leading cause of disability among young people. For the past 50 years, lithium has been the drug of choice for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder due to its potent ability to prevent both manic and depressive episodes as well as suicide. However, though lithium has been associated with a multitude of effects within different cellular pathways and biological systems, its specific mechanism of action in stabilizing mood remains largely elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction and telomere shortening have been implicated in both the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and as targets of lithium treatment. Interestingly, it has in recent years become clear that these phenomena are intimately linked, partly through reactive oxygen species signaling and the subcellular translocation and non-canonical actions of telomerase reverse transcriptase. In this review, we integrate the current understanding of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and telomere shortening in bipolar disorder with documented effects of lithium. Moreover, we propose that lithium's mechanism of action is intimately connected with the interdependent regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and telomere maintenance.

5.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 41: 118-131, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160793

RESUMO

Peripheral immune activation can influence neurodevelopment and is increased in autism, but is less explored in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients with ADHD often display comorbid autism traits and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Plasma protein levels of two acute phase reactants, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA), and two endothelial adhesion molecules, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), which share important roles in inflammation, were analyzed in 154 patients with ADHD and 61 healthy controls. Their associations with ADHD diagnosis, severity, medication and comorbid autistic symptoms, emotion dysregulation and GI symptoms were explored. The ADHD patients had increased levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 compared to healthy controls (p = 8.6e-05, p = 6.9e-07, respectively). In children with ADHD, the sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were higher among those with ADHD medication than among children (p = 0.0037, p = 0.0053, respectively) and adults (p = 3.5e-09, p = 1.9e-09, respectively) without ADHD medication. Among the adult ADHD patients, higher sICAM-1 levels were associated with increased comorbid autistic symptoms in the domains attention to detail and imagination (p = 0.0081, p = 0.00028, respectively), and higher CRP levels were associated with more GI symptoms (p = 0.014). sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were highly correlated with each other, and so were CRP and SAA levels. To conclude, vascular inflammatory activity may be overrepresented in ADHD, with elevated sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels and this may in children be a consequence of current ADHD medication, and in adults relate to increased comorbid autistic symptoms. Replication is warranted.

6.
J Adolesc Health ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039272

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stress potentiates the smoking reward, decreases the ability to resist smoking, and increases the risk of smoking relapse in adulthood. This study aimed to clarify if salivary cortisol, as an indicator of stress, may be prospectively associated with the onset and phenotype of tobacco use in adolescents. METHODS: This study was based on a cohort of Swedish adolescents, among whom saliva specimens were collected from a nested sample. We included adolescents with salivary cortisol measurements and without a history of tobacco use (n = 381, aged 13-14 years). Quartiles of morning and afternoon cortisol concentration and cortisol area under the curve were considered as predictors. We categorized tobacco use according to the product mainly used: cigarette smoking, snus use, or either type of tobacco. For each product use, two outcomes were considered: initiation and duration of use. Poisson regression models were used to calculate rate ratios. RESULTS: A quartile increase in morning cortisol levels and cortisol area under the curve was consistently associated with a 1.2- to 1.4-fold increased risk of initiation of cigarette smoking snus use, or any tobacco use. Similar results were obtained examining the dose-response relationship and using the duration of use as outcome. No associations were apparent between afternoon cortisol concentration and any of the outcomes. All associations were similar between sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Morning cortisol concentration, an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, is prospectively associated with tobacco use in adolescents. Whether this activation indicates the cumulative effect of stressors during the life course remains to be elucidated.

7.
Hum Reprod ; 35(10): 2336-2347, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866965

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated with increased risks for a broad spectrum of psychiatric and mild neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Maternal PCOS and/or anovulatory infertility is independently, and jointly with maternal obesity, perinatal problems, cesarean delivery and gestational diabetes, associated with increased risks in offspring for almost all groups of psychiatric and mild neurodevelopmental disorders with onset in childhood or adolescence. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Maternal PCOS was previously associated with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and possibly developmental delay in offspring. Few studies have investigated the association between maternal PCOS and other psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a population-based cohort study in Finland including all live births between 1996 and 2014 (n = 1 105 997). After excluding births to mothers with symptoms similar to PCOS, a total of 1 097 753 births by 590 939 mothers remained. Children were followed up until 31 December 2018, i.e. up to the age of 22 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: National registries were used to link data of the included births and their mothers. Data from 24 682 (2.2%) children born to mothers with PCOS were compared with 1 073 071 (97.8%) children born to mothers without PCOS. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders in relation to maternal PCOS. Stratified analyses were performed to test the independent role of PCOS and the joint effects of PCOS with maternal obesity, perinatal problems, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes and use of fertility treatment. The analysis was adjusted for maternal age, country of birth, marriage status at birth, smoking, parity, psychiatric disorders, prescription of psychotropic N05/N06 during pregnancy and systemic inflammatory diseases when applicable. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 105 409 (9.8%) children were diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorder. Firstly, maternal PCOS was associated with any psychiatric diagnosis (HR 1.32; 95% CI 1.27-1.38) in offspring. Particularly, the risk was increased for sleeping disorders (HR 1.46; 95% CI 1.27-1.67), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and conduct disorders (HR 1.42; 95% CI 1.33-1.52), tic disorders (HR 1.42; 95% CI 1.21-1.68), intellectual disabilities (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.24-1.60), autism spectrum disorder (HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.26-1.57), specific developmental disorders (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.30-1.43), eating disorders (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.15-1.61), anxiety disorders (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.26-1.41), mood disorders (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.18-1.35) and other behavioral and emotional disorders (ICD-10 F98, HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.39-1.59). In short, there was no significant difference between sexes. The results were robust when restricting the analyses to the first-born children or births to mothers without psychiatric diagnosis or purchase of psychotropic medication. Secondly, stratified analysis according to maternal BMI showed that the risk of any neuropsychiatric disorder was increased in offspring to normal-weight mothers with PCOS (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.09-1.32), and markedly higher in those to severely obese mothers with PCOS (HR 2.11; 95% CI 1.76-2.53) compared to offspring to normal-weight mothers without PCOS. When excluding perinatal problems, mothers with PCOS were still associated with increased risks of any neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.22-1.34) compared to mothers without PCOS. However, an additional increase was observed for PCOS in combination with perinatal problems (HR 1.99; 95% CI 1.84-2.16). Likewise, excluding cases with maternal gestational diabetes (HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.25-1.36), cesarean delivery (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.23-1.35) or fertility treatment (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.25-1.36) did not eliminate the associations. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The register-based prevalence of PCOS was lower than previously reported, suggesting that this study may capture the most severe cases. To combine anovulatory infertility with PCOS diagnosis as PCOS exposure might introduce diagnostic bias. It was not feasible to distinguish between subtypes of PCOS. Furthermore, familial factors might confound the association between maternal PCOS and neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Maternal BMI was available for birth cohort 2004-2014 only and there was no information on gestational weight gain. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This study provides further evidence that maternal PCOS and/or anovulatory infertility, independently and jointly with maternal obesity, perinatal problems, gestational diabetes and cesarean delivery, implies a broad range of adverse effects on offspring neurodevelopment. These findings may potentially help in counseling and managing pregnancies. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by the joint research funding of Shandong University and Karolinska Institute (SDU-KI-2019-08 to X.C and C.L.), THL Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare: Drug and pregnancy project [M.G.], the Swedish Research Council [2014-10171 to C.L.], the regional agreement on medical training and clinical research (ALF) between Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institute Stockholm County Council [SLL20170292 to C.L.], the Swedish Brain Foundation [FO2018-0141 and FO2019-0201 to C.L.]. X.C. was supported by the China Scholarship Council during her training in Karolinska Institute. L.K. was supported by the China Scholarship Council for his PhD study in Karolinska Institute. The authors have no competing interests to disclose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

8.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(10): 1981-2000, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494038

RESUMO

Obesity and diabetes is a worldwide public health problem among women of reproductive age. This narrative review highlights recent epidemiological studies regarding associations of maternal obesity and diabetes with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring, and provides an overview of plausible underlying mechanisms and challenges for future human studies. A comprehensive search strategy selected terms that corresponded to the domains of interest (maternal obesity, different types of diabetes, offspring cognitive functions and neuropsychiatric disorders). The databases searched for articles published between January 2010 and April 2019 were PubMed, Web of Science and CINAHL. Evidence from epidemiological studies strongly suggests that maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with increased risks for autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and cognitive dysfunction with modest effect sizes, and that maternal diabetes is associated with the risk of the former two disorders. The influence of maternal obesity on other psychiatric disorders is less well studied, but there are reports of associations with increased risks for offspring depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and eating disorders, at modest effect sizes. It remains unclear whether these associations are due to intrauterine mechanisms or explained by confounding family-based sociodemographic, lifestyle and genetic factors. The plausible underlying mechanisms have been explored primarily in animal models, and are yet to be further investigated in human studies.

9.
Brain Behav Immun ; 89: 9-19, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497779

RESUMO

Some prebiotics and probiotics have been proposed to improve psychiatric symptoms in children with autism. However, few studies were placebo-controlled, and there is no study on persons with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. Our aim was to study effects of Synbiotic 2000 on psychiatric symptoms and functioning in children and adults with ADHD without an autism diagnosis. Children and adults (n = 182) with an ADHD diagnosis completed the nine weeks randomized double-blind parallel placebo-controlled trial examining effects of Synbiotic 2000 on the primary endpoints ADHD symptoms, autism symptoms and daily functioning, and the secondary endpoint emotion regulation, measured using the questionnaires SNAP-IV, ASRS, WFIRS, SCQ, AQ and DERS-16. Levels at baseline of plasma C-reactive protein and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), central to leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion facilitating inflammatory responses in tissues, were measured using Meso Scale Discovery. Synbiotic 2000 and placebo improved ADHD symptoms equally well, and neither active treatment nor placebo had any statistically significant effect on functioning or sub-diagnostic autism symptoms. However, Synbiotic 2000, specifically, reduced sub-diagnostic autism symptoms in the domain restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors in children, and improved emotion regulation in the domain of goal-directed behavior in adults. In children with elevated sVCAM-1 levels at baseline as well as in children without ADHD medication, Synbiotic 2000 reduced both the total score of autism symptoms, and the restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In adults with elevated sVCAM-1 at baseline, Synbiotic 2000 significantly improved emotion regulation, both the total score and four of the five subdomains. To conclude, while no definite Synbiotic 2000-specific effect was detected, the analysis of those with elevated plasma sVCAM-1 levels proposed a reduction of autism symptoms in children and an improvement of emotion regulation in adults with ADHD. Trial registration number: ISRCTN57795429.

10.
Psychiatry Res ; 286: 112865, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114208

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) may be associated with accelerated cellular aging. However, previous studies on telomere length (TL), an important biomarker of cellular aging, have yielded mixed results in BD. We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that BD is associated with telomere shortening and whether this is counteracted by long-term lithium treatment. We also sought to determine whether long-term lithium treatment is associated with increased expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase. We determined TL and TERT expression in 100 BD I patients and 100 healthy controls. We also genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with TL. TERT expression was significantly increased in BD I patients currently on lithium treatment. TERT expression was also significantly positively correlated with duration of lithium treatment in patients treated for 24 months or more. However, we did not find any significant effect of lithium treatment on TL. Neither did we find significant differences in TL between BD patients and controls. We suggest that long-term lithium treatment is associated with an increase in the expression of TERT. We hypothesize that an increase in TERT expression may contribute to lithium's mood stabilizing and neuroprotective properties by improving mitochondrial function and decreasing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Antimaníacos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Senescência Celular/genética , Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Telomerase/metabolismo , Adulto , Envelhecimento/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/sangue , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Telomerase/efeitos dos fármacos , Telomerase/genética , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 161, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity and compulsivity are related to emotional and social maladjustment and often underlie psychiatric disorders. Recently, alterations in microbiota composition have been shown to have implications for brain development and social behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, the exact mechanisms are not fully identified. Recent evidence suggests the modulatory effect of synbiotics on gut microbiota and the contribution of these agents in ameliorating symptoms of many psychiatric diseases. To date, no randomized controlled trial has been performed to establish the feasibility and efficacy of this intervention targeting the reduction of impulsivity and compulsivity. We hypothesize that supplementation with synbiotics may be an effective treatment in adults with high levels of impulsivity and/or compulsivity. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial with two arms: treatment with a synbiotic formula versus placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the response rate at the end of the placebo-controlled phase (response defined as a Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale score of 1 or 2 = very much improved or much improved, plus a reduction in the Affective Reactivity Index total score of at least 30% compared with baseline). A total of 180 participants with highly impulsive behavior and a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or borderline personality disorder, aged 18-65 years old, will be screened at three study centers. Secondary outcome measures, including changes in general psychopathology, ADHD symptoms, neurocognitive function, somatic parameters, physical activity, nutritional intake, and health-related quality of life, will be explored at assessments before, during, and at the end of the intervention. The effect of the intervention on genetics, microbiota, and several blood biomarkers will also be assessed. Gastrointestinal symptoms and somatic complaints will additionally be explored at 1-week follow-up. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of supplementation with synbiotics on reducing impulsive and compulsive behavior. This clinical trial can contribute to explaining the mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between the intestinal microbiome and the brain. If effects can be established by reducing impulsive and compulsive behavior, new cost-effective treatments might become available to these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03495375. Registered on 26 February 2018.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/microbiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1920787, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031649

RESUMO

Importance: Maternal obesity, pregestational type 1 and 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes have been reported to increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the mothers' offspring. However, the associations of maternal diabetes disorders and body mass index jointly with psychiatric disorders among offspring are less well documented, especially for type 2 diabetes. Objective: To examine the associations of different types of maternal diabetes, separately and together with maternal obesity, with psychiatric disorders in the mothers' offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from nationwide registries in Finland encompassing all 649 043 live births occurring between 2004 and 2014. The study and data analysis were conducted from January 1, 2019, to July 5, 2019. Exposures: Maternal prepregnancy body mass index, insulin-treated pregestational diabetes, and pregestational type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes without insulin treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Psychiatric diagnoses and prescription of psychotropic drugs among the mothers' offspring. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for birth year, sex, mode of delivery, maternal age, number of fetuses, parity, mother's country of birth, mother's marital status, maternal smoking, maternal psychiatric disorder, and maternal systemic inflammatory disease. Results: The mean (SD) age of mothers was 30.20 (5.37) years; 357 238 of 394 302 mothers (90.6%) were born in Finland. Of the 647 099 births studied, 4000 fetuses (0.62%) were exposed to maternal insulin-treated pregestational diabetes, 3724 (0.57%) were exposed to type 2 diabetes, and 98 242 (15.18%) were exposed to gestational diabetes; 34 892 offspring (5.39%) later received a diagnosis of a mild neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorder. Non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in severely obese mothers, compared with normal-weight mothers without diabetes, was associated with psychiatric disorders in the offspring (hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.64-2.37), although with a lower effect size than that for severely obese mothers with insulin-treated pregestational diabetes (hazard ratio, 2.71; 95% CI, 2.03-3.61). The largest effect sizes were found for mood disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorders, and autism. Gestational diabetes in severely obese mothers had a lower overall effect size (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.50-1.72). Diabetes in normal-weight mothers was not associated with psychopathologic disorders in the offspring. Conclusions and Relevance: Severe obesity in mothers with diabetes was associated with an increased overall risk for psychiatric disorders in their offspring. The risk was highest for those exposed to insulin-treated pregestational diabetes, followed by non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. These findings may have implications for managing pregnancies.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Gravidez em Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(2): e14615, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate levels of physical activity (PA) and good cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with profound health benefits for individuals with mobility disability (MD). Despite the vast amount of research published in the field of PA interventions, little attention has been given to individuals with MD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of an app-based versus a supervised exercise and health coaching program to support adults with MD to increase levels of PA, CRF, and improve body composition. METHODS: Participants with self-perceived MD, aged 18 to 45 years, were included in this 12-week parallel-group randomized controlled trial and allocated at random to an app-based intervention, using commercially available apps-the Swedish Military training app (FMTK), the Acupedo walking app, and the LogMyFood food photography app-or a supervised exercise and health coaching intervention, including 1 weekly supervised exercise session and healthy lifestyle coaching. The primary outcome was the level of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) measured with accelerometers. Secondary outcomes included CRF measured by a submaximal test performed on a stationary bicycle and body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance. All outcomes were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the between-group differences, as well as the within-group changes through time, in each intervention group. RESULTS: A total of 110 participants with MD were randomized to an app-based intervention (n=55) or a supervised exercise and health intervention (n=55). The mean age of participants was 34.9 years (SD 6.1), and 81.8% (90/110) of the participants were women. CRF showed a moderate increase in both groups after 12 weeks-1.07 (95% CI -0.14 to 2.27) mL/kg/min increase in the app-based group and 1.76 (95% CI 0.70 to 2.83) mLkg/min increase in the supervised exercise group. However, the intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences between the groups in MVPA or CRF after 12 weeks. Waist circumference was significantly lower in the app-based intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Commercially available apps increased levels of CRF and improved body composition over 12 weeks to the same extent as supervised exercise sessions, showing that both are equally effective. However, neither the app-based intervention nor the supervised exercise intervention increased MVPA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 22387524; http://isrctn.com/ISRCTN22387524.

14.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112677, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810747

RESUMO

AKT1 encodes a serine/threonine kinase that has as one of its best-known substrates glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), a primary target for lithium. AKT1 has been previously been implicated as a vulnerability gene for bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to associate genetic variants in the AKT1 gene with subgroups of BD. BD patients from a Swedish cohort (N = 831) were phenotyped in regards to their psychotic episodes according to mood-congruence in depression and manias, and compared to controls (N = 1,496). All participants were genotyped for SNPs in AKT1 previously implicated to have a role: rs3730358, rs1130214 and rs3803300. None of the effects reported in earlier studies were statistically significant, including the association between rs3803300 and BD without any psychotic symptoms, rs3803300 and mood-congruent psychosis, rs3803300 and the combined groups, as well as the association between the haplotypes formed by rs3730358 and rs1130214 and risk for BD. In a Bayesian analysis, all Bayes' Factors using default priors supported the null hypothesis in the replication set by a factor of between 5 and 1300 times. Analysis of genome wide association data did not reveal any association between BD and the AKT1 region. We conclude AKT1 is less likely to be a vulnerability gene in BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Suécia/epidemiologia
15.
J Neurochem ; 154(6): 635-646, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784978

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are a group of fatty acids predominantly produced during the fermentation of dietary fibers by the gut anaerobic microbiota. SCFAs affect many host processes in health and disease. SCFAs play an important role in the 'gut-brain axis', regulating central nervous system processes, for example, cell-cell interaction, neurotransmitter synthesis and release, microglia activation, mitochondrial function, and gene expression. SCFAs also promote the growth of neurospheres from human neural stem cells and the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into neural cells. It is plausible that maternally derived SCFAs may pass the placenta and expose the fetus at key developmental periods. However, it is unclear how SCFA exposure at physiological levels influence the early-stage neural cells. In this study, we explored the effect of SCFAs on the growth rate of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), generated from human embryonic stem cell line (HS980), with IncuCyte live-cell analysis system and immunofluorescence. We found that physiologically relevant levels (µM) of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate) increased the growth rate of hNPCs significantly and induced more cells to undergo mitosis, while high levels (mM) of SCFAs had toxic effects on hNPCs. Moreover, no effect on apoptosis was observed in physiological-dose SCFA treatments. In support, data from q-RT PCR showed that SCFA treatments influenced the expression of the neurogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis-related genes ATR, BCL2, BID, CASP8, CDK2, E2F1, FAS, NDN, and VEGFA. To conclude, our results propose that SCFAs regulates early neural system development. This might be relevant for a putative 'maternal gut-fetal brain-axis'. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.14761.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 597-603, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TIA1 gene encodes a prion-related RNA-binding protein that regulates stress-dependent synaptic plasticity and fear memory in mice. It is unknown whether genetic variation in human TIA1 is associated with differences in stress- and fear-related behavior in people. METHODS: A longitudinal, population-based survey was conducted in Sweden to collect information on demographics, socioeconomic status, exposure to stressful life events and psychiatric symptoms. DNA samples were obtained from study participants to allow genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human TIA1 locus. RESULTS: We identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human TIA1 gene that interacts with exposure to previous-year stressful life events to predict the development of pathological anxiety symptoms in a non-clinical cohort. LIMITATIONS: Sample population is limited in both size and scope, and we did not perform functional analysis of allelic variants of TIA1. CONCLUSIONS: TIA1 may represent a susceptibility locus for stress-dependent psychopathology. These studies support an evolutionarily conserved role of TIA1 in the mammalian brain, and may provide molecular and genetic insight into the development of stress-related psychiatric conditions such as PTSD and anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Antígeno-1 Intracelular de Células T/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18142, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792337

RESUMO

Genetic risk score (GRS) is used to demonstrate the genetic variants contributing to the polygenic architecture of complex diseases. By using a GRS, we have investigated the additive impact of the known adult glioma susceptibility loci on the pediatric brain tumor (PBT) risk and assessed the proportion of PBT heritability attributable to these susceptibility loci. A GRS was generated for PBTs based on the alleles and associated effect sizes derived from a previously published genome-wide association study on adult glioma. The GRS was calculated in CEFALO, a population-based case-control study of brain tumors in children and adolescents including saliva DNA of 245 cases and 489 controls. The unconditional logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between standardized GRS and risk of PBTs. To measure the variance explained by the effect of GRS, Nagelkerke pseudo-R2 was calculated. The GRS for adult brain tumors was associated with an increased risk of PBTs (OR 1.25 [95% CI 1.06-1.49], p = 0.009) and 0.3% of the variance in PBTs could be explained by the effect of GRS on the liability scale. This study provides evidence that heritable risks of PBTs are in-part attributable to some common genetic variants associated with adult glioma.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 340, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852887

RESUMO

Telomere attrition is a hallmark of cellular aging and shorter telomeres have been reported in mood and anxiety disorders. Telomere shortening is counteracted by the enzyme telomerase and cellular protection is also provided by the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Here, telomerase, GPx, and telomeres were investigated in 46 social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients in a within-subject design with repeated measures before and after cognitive behavioral therapy. Treatment outcome was assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (self-report), administered three times before treatment to control for time and regression artifacts, and posttreatment. Venipunctures were performed twice before treatment, separated by 9 weeks, and once posttreatment. Telomerase activity and telomere length were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and GPx activity in plasma. All patients contributed with complete data. Results showed that social anxiety symptom severity was significantly reduced from pretreatment to posttreatment (Cohen's d = 1.46). There were no significant alterations in telomeres or cellular protection markers before treatment onset. Telomere length and telomerase activity did not change significantly after treatment, but an increase in telomerase over treatment was associated with reduced social anxiety. Also, lower pretreatment telomerase activity predicted subsequent symptom improvement. GPx activity increased significantly during treatment, and increases were significantly associated with symptom improvement. The relationships between symptom improvement and putative protective enzymes remained significant also after controlling for body mass index, sex, duration of SAD, smoking, concurrent psychotropic medication, and the proportion of lymphocytes to monocytes. Thus, indices of cellular protection may be involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of psychological treatment for anxiety.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fobia Social/sangue , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Fobia Social/terapia , Telomerase/sangue , Telômero/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 317, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772217

RESUMO

Early life exposure to infection, anti-infectives and altered immune activity have been associated with elevated risk of some psychiatric disorders. However, the risk from exposure in fetal life has been proposed to be confounded by familial factors. The hypothesis of this study is that antibiotic drug exposure during the fetal period and the first two postnatal years is associated with risk for later development of psychiatric disorders in children. All births in Finland between 1996 and 2012, 1 million births, were studied for antibiotic drug exposure: mothers during pregnancy and the children the first two postnatal years. The children were followed up for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic drug treatment until 2014. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate effects of antibiotic drug exposure on offspring psychiatric disorders. Modestly (10-50%) increased risks were found on later childhood development of sleep disorders, ADHD, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disorders, and other behavioral and emotional disorders with childhood onset (ICD-10 F98), supported by increased risks also for childhood psychotropic medication. The prenatal exposure effects detected were not explained by explored familial confounding, nor by registered maternal infections. To conclude, this longitudinal nation-wide study shows that early life antibiotic drug exposure is associated with an increased risk for childhood development of psychopathology. Given the high occurrence of early-life antibiotic exposure, these findings are of public health relevance. Whether the associations reflect effects of the antibiotic drug use or of the targeted infections remains to be explored further.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712720

RESUMO

Panic disorder (PD) has a lifetime prevalence of 2-4% and heritability estimates of 40%. The contributory genetic variants remain largely unknown, with few and inconsistent loci having been reported. The present report describes the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PD to date comprising genome-wide genotype data of 2248 clinically well-characterized PD patients and 7992 ethnically matched controls. The samples originated from four European countries (Denmark, Estonia, Germany, and Sweden). Standard GWAS quality control procedures were conducted on each individual dataset, and imputation was performed using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. A meta-analysis was then performed using the Ricopili pipeline. No genome-wide significant locus was identified. Leave-one-out analyses generated highly significant polygenic risk scores (PRS) (explained variance of up to 2.6%). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression analysis of the GWAS data showed that the estimated heritability for PD was 28.0-34.2%. After correction for multiple testing, a significant genetic correlation was found between PD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. A total of 255 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < 1 × 10-4 were followed up in an independent sample of 2408 PD patients and 228,470 controls from Denmark, Iceland and the Netherlands. In the combined analysis, SNP rs144783209 showed the strongest association with PD (pcomb = 3.10 × 10-7). Sign tests revealed a significant enrichment of SNPs with a discovery p-value of <0.0001 in the combined follow up cohort (p = 0.048). The present integrative analysis represents a major step towards the elucidation of the genetic susceptibility to PD.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...