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2.
Health Promot Int ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268353

RESUMO

International migration is a complex phenomenon that touches on a multiplicity of economic, social and security aspects affecting our daily lives. In the Nordic countries' migration is a contentious political topic as the number of migrants has significantly increased in recent decades. The aim of this study is to analyse governmental policy documents on migrants in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and to identify and compare how they are described within an empowerment perspective. A critical discourse analysis was undertaken of each Nordic country. The findings revealed that all four documents placed migrants in a passive position in regard to decision-making and that an empowerment perspective was lacking. Migrants are similarly treated in each Nordic country as a problem to deal with rather than as a possible resource for the society and the approach seeks to protect the welfare state and the culture of the country. The lack of empowerment perspective may be having a negative impact on the health and well-being of migrants and on their integration in the Nordic society. The article concludes by raising several questions in regard to migration and empowerment in the Nordic context.

6.
Electron Physician ; 9(9): 5270-5278, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the core of health promotion, proper assessment of empowerment is a base for planning for a process that increases people's control on their decisions, lifestyle, and effective activities for their health. OBJECTIVE: To design and develop a special tool to assess the empowerment of NGO women in Iran. METHODS: This successive exploratory study of combinational type was conducted in 2015 in two steps. In the first step, using comments of participants and the help of authentic texts related to this field, dimensions of psychological empowerment were developed. In the second step, psychometric properties of the scale or tool were determined using formal content, and structural validity and reliability were determined using internal consistency and stability via SPSS version 21. RESULTS: In the first step, the initial tool including 58 items was developed in the form of eight domains. In the second step, based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the number of items was reduced to 37. Considering the eigenvalues of higher than one, items were classified into eight factors. KMO index was 0.896 in this study. Reliability of the tool was 0.81 using Cronbach's alpha. This tool is able to predict 66.1% of total changes in psychological empowerment. CONCLUSION: A questionnaire with relevant reliability and validity, including eight domains of participation, motivation, cognitive thinking, critical thinking, self-efficacy, intention, perceived control and social support was developed to measure psychological empowerment of NGO women in Iran.

7.
Glob Health Promot ; 23(1): 79-82, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518037

RESUMO

The ongoing outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa is the largest on record; it has undermined already fragile healthcare systems and presented new challenges to contain the spread of the disease. Based on our observations in the field and insights from referenced sources, we aimed to identify key experiences of community engagement and social mobilization efforts in the current Ebola response. We concluded that there is no excuse not to actively involve local people and that the United Nations (UN) agencies and other partners did learn from their earlier mistakes to make a genuine attempt to better engage with communities. However, bottom-up approaches have not been widely implemented during the response and the reasons for not doing so must be further assessed. Health promotion can make an important contribution, because it shows how to enable people to take more control over their lives and health. This commentary can provide a guide to agencies to understand an appropriate way forward when the next Ebola outbreak inevitably occurs.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Organizações , Saúde Pública/normas , Nações Unidas
8.
Glob Health Promot ; 20(3): 49-52, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23986382

RESUMO

Health activism is an action on behalf of a cause, action that goes beyond what is conventional or routine in society. It involves a challenge to the existing order whenever it is perceived to lead to a social injustice or inequality. Today social injustice is killing people on a grand scale and it is timely for health activism to be used as a way forward to improve health during difficult economic and political times. Health activism is essential because it can create the necessary conditions for people to take control over their own lives when others cannot or will not act on their behalf. Health promotion agencies and the practitioners that they employ, professional organisations and researchers can also play an important role. What is clear is that if greedy corporations and complacent governments are not challenged, we will continue to have limited success in improving health.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Defesa do Paciente , Política Pública/economia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Justiça Social , Recessão Econômica , Saúde Global , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Política , Poder Psicológico , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas
9.
Obstet Gynecol Int ; 2013: 348248, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23737795

RESUMO

The prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is reducing in almost all countries in which it is a traditional practice. There are huge variations between countries and communities though, ranging from no change at all to countries and communities where the practice has been more than halved from one generation to the next. Various interventions implemented over the last 30-40 years are believed to have been instrumental in stimulating this reduction, even though in most cases the decrease in prevalence has been slow. This raises questions about the efficacy of interventions to eliminate FGM and an urgent need to channel the limited resources available, where it can make the most difference in the abandonment of FGM. This paper is intended to contribute to the design of more effective interventions by assessing existing knowledge of what works and what does not and discusses some of the most common approaches that have been evaluated: health risk approaches, conversion of excisers, training of health professionals as change agents, alternative rituals, community-led approaches, public statements, and legal measures.

11.
Health Promot Int ; 27(4): 429-34, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22923451
13.
Glob Health Promot ; 19(2): 63-5, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24801785

RESUMO

For many years the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided the global direction and leadership that has helped to shape the way we view health promotion today. The future role of the WHO is now uncertain and the lack of global leadership for health promotion and identification of who will provide the future direction are issues that need to be addressed. The crucial question posed in this commentary is: Where are the individuals and organisations that will provide the global leadership and vision for health promotion in the future? We need named champions for the future leadership of health promotion practice - people and organisations who offer a leadership style that will maintain its global profile, be representative across sectors and have the ability to maintain its political efficacy. The two key health promotion approaches, top-down and bottom-up, do not always share the same goals, and they demand different styles of leadership. This is an important consideration in our goal to find champions who can work with both approaches and understand how to accommodate them as a part of the future direction of health promotion. This commentary raises key questions to stimulate discussion and action towards addressing the lack of global leadership in health promotion. It discusses some of the key players, leadership characteristics and the contradictions in style that are inherent in achieving a goal of charismatic global champions.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Internacionalidade , Liderança , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Health Promot Int ; 26 Suppl 2: ii258-62, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22080081

RESUMO

To mark the 25th anniversary of the Ottawa Charter, this paper will discuss what remains to be achieved in strengthening community actions as an integral part of health promotion practice. To do this, the paper discusses four key elements for the future of health promotion programmes: (1) engage communities to share priorities; (2) build community capacity; (3) mechanisms for flexible and transparent funding; and (4) being creative in order to expand or replicate successful local initiatives. The paper uses a number of international case study examples of how these key elements can be achieved in health promotion programmes. A major challenge for the future is how health promotion agencies can develop and maintain the trust of communities, especially socially marginalized communities in society. The paper concludes by identifying a number of short and longer term challenges to achieve these goals and offers a way forward for a brighter future direction of health promotion practice.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Organização do Financiamento , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Poder Psicológico
16.
Glob Health Promot ; 17(1): 33-8, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20357350

RESUMO

The New Zealand Prostitutes Collective (NZPC) formed in 1987 with the intention of reforming the policy that governed prostitution. The Prostitution Reform Act 2003 was created to protect sex workers from exploitation and to give them the same rights as other workers by protecting their occupation health and safety. It is an example of community empowerment in which a small and relatively powerless group of women strived to achieve social justice and equity for all sex workers. This article provides, for the first time, the story of how the NZPC was not only able to decriminalize prostitution but also to form a framework that safeguarded the rights of all sex workers in New Zealand. It is a fascinating case study that provides insightful information into how one civil society group had a direct influence on public policy. The implications of the case study to health promotion practice are discussed and will be of interest to planners and practitioners involved in the strengthening of community empowerment.


Assuntos
Trabalho Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Poder Psicológico , Política Pública
17.
Lancet ; 372(9642): 962-71, 2008 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18790319

RESUMO

Primary health care was ratified as the health policy of WHO member states in 1978.(1) Participation in health care was a key principle in the Alma-Ata Declaration. In developing countries, antenatal, delivery, and postnatal experiences for women usually take place in communities rather than health facilities. Strategies to improve maternal and child health should therefore involve the community as a complement to any facility-based component. The fourth article of the Declaration stated that, "people have the right and duty to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of their health care", and the seventh article stated that primary health care "requires and promotes maximum community and individual self-reliance and participation in the planning, organization, operation and control of primary health care". But is community participation an essential prerequisite for better health outcomes or simply a useful but non-essential companion to the delivery of treatments and preventive health education? Might it be essential only as a transitional strategy: crucial for the poorest and most deprived populations but largely irrelevant once health care systems are established? Or is the failure to incorporate community participation into large-scale primary health care programmes a major reason for why we are failing to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 for reduction of maternal and child mortality?


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/tendências , Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/tendências , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Rural/tendências , Mulheres
18.
Pac Health Dialog ; 14(2): 95-100, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19588613

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiences of building capacity toward improved health outcomes in a rural Fijian community. The paper defines the concept of community capacity situating this within the context of health programming. The tension that exists between the two key forms of health programming, top-down and bottom-up, is also discussed in terms of its resolution through the approach of 'parallel-tracking'. A practical means of visually representing the concept of community capacity is given using the spider-web configuration. The paper will be of interest to the planners and evaluators of health programmes that aim to build and measure community capacity.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde , Saúde Pública , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Fiji , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Características de Residência , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 24(1): 113-20, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16796158

RESUMO

This paper reviews the literature on how empowerment can lead to an improvement in the health status of an individual, group, or community. There is a broad body of literature on empowerment, and this review has been designed to identify material, particularly case studies, that can be included within the following 'empowerment domains': Participation; Community-based organizations; Local leadership; Resource mobilization; Asking 'why'; Assessment of problems; Links with other people and organizations; Role of outside agents; and Programme management. The paper discusses the results of the literature review and provides examples, from both developed and developing countries, of how each of the 'empowerment domains' has led to an improvement in health outcomes. The results of the review should be of interest to the planners and practitioners of health, population and nutrition programmes that have a particular focus on empowerment.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Participação da Comunidade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Poder Psicológico , Processos Grupais , Educação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
20.
Health Promot Int ; 18(2): 99-106, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12746381

RESUMO

This paper discusses the design of a methodology for 'building capable communities' in a health promotion programme context. The design of the methodology builds upon previous work and offers a new approach, through the use of nine 'operational domains', for the assessment and strategic planning of community empowerment. The purpose is to go beyond the rhetoric of participation and empowerment, and to provide a better understanding of how community empowerment goals can be made to be operational in a health promotion programme context. The experiences of implementing the methodology in two rural Fijian communities are discussed briefly. The common themes for the successful application of the methodology have been identified. The paper will be of interest to the planners and evaluators of health promotion programmes that aim to build community capacity and promote empowerment.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Participação da Comunidade , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Fiji , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Administração em Saúde Pública
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