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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1228-1232, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473684

RESUMO

Viral infections are a common cause of myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium) that can result in hospitalization, heart failure, and sudden death (1). Emerging data suggest an association between COVID-19 and myocarditis (2-5). CDC assessed this association using a large, U.S. hospital-based administrative database of health care encounters from >900 hospitals. Myocarditis inpatient encounters were 42.3% higher in 2020 than in 2019. During March 2020-January 2021, the period that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk for myocarditis was 0.146% among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during an inpatient or hospital-based outpatient encounter and 0.009% among patients who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, patients with COVID-19 during March 2020-January 2021 had, on average, 15.7 times the risk for myocarditis compared with those without COVID-19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.1-17.2); by age, risk ratios ranged from approximately 7.0 for patients aged 16-39 years to >30.0 for patients aged <16 years or ≥75 years. Overall, myocarditis was uncommon among persons with and without COVID-19; however, COVID-19 was significantly associated with an increased risk for myocarditis, with risk varying by age group. These findings underscore the importance of implementing evidence-based COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination, to reduce the public health impact of COVID-19 and its associated complications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Miocardite/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1191-1194, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473685

RESUMO

Harmful algal and cyanobacterial blooms (harmful algal blooms) are large colonies of algae or cyanobacteria that can harm humans, animals, and the environment (1-3). The number of algal blooms has been increasing in the United States, augmented by increasing water temperatures and nutrients in water from industry and agricultural run-off (4,5). The extent to which harmful algal bloom exposures cause human illness or long-term health effects is unknown. As the number of blooms increases annually, the likelihood of negative health outcomes (e.g., respiratory or gastrointestinal illness) from exposure also increases (4,5). To explore the utility of syndromic surveillance data for studying health effects from harmful algal bloom exposures, CDC queried emergency department (ED) visit data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) for harmful algal bloom exposure-associated administrative discharge diagnosis codes and chief complaint text terms related to harmful algal bloom exposure (6). A total of 321 harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits were identified during January 1, 2017-December 31, 2019. An increase in harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits occurred during warmer months (June-October), consistent with seasonal fluctuations of blooms and recent publications (6,7). Although syndromic surveillance data are helpful for understanding harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits in the United States, exposures were documented infrequently with discharge diagnosis codes; 67% of harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits were identified through querying chief complaint text. Improving the documentation of harmful algal bloom exposures in medical records would further benefit future health studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações do Diabetes , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Multimorbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade , Transtornos Fóbicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S24-S31, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on risk for adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among pregnant women is still emerging. We examined the association between COVID-19 at delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal complications, and severe illness, and whether these associations differ by race/ethnicity, and describe discharge status by COVID-19 diagnosis and maternal complications. METHODS: Data from 703 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database during March-September 2020 were included. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) overall and stratified by race/ethnicity were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Proportion not discharged home was calculated by maternal complications, stratified by COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 489 471 delivery hospitalizations, 6550 (1.3%) had a COVID-19 diagnosis. In adjusted models, COVID-19 was associated with increased risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (aRR, 34.4), death (aRR, 17.0), sepsis (aRR, 13.6), mechanical ventilation (aRR, 12.7), shock (aRR, 5.1), intensive care unit admission (aRR, 3.6), acute renal failure (aRR, 3.5), thromboembolic disease (aRR, 2.7), adverse cardiac event/outcome (aRR, 2.2), and preterm labor with preterm delivery (aRR, 1.2). Risk for any maternal complications or for any severe illness did not significantly differ by race/ethnicity. Discharge status did not differ by COVID-19; however, among women with concurrent maternal complications, a greater proportion of those with (vs without) COVID-19 were not discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of implementing recommended prevention strategies to reduce risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and further inform counseling and clinical care for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S5-S16, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late sequelae of COVID-19 have been reported; however, few studies have investigated the time course or incidence of late new COVID-19-related health conditions (post-COVID conditions) after COVID-19 diagnosis. Studies distinguishing post-COVID conditions from late conditions caused by other etiologies are lacking. Using data from a large administrative all-payer database, we assessed type, association, and timing of post-COVID conditions following COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (release date, 20 October 2020) data, during March-June 2020, 27 589 inpatients and 46 857 outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 (case-patients) were 1:1 matched with patients without COVID-19 through the 4-month follow-up period (control-patients) by using propensity score matching. In this matched-cohort study, adjusted ORs were calculated to assess for late conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients. Incidence proportion was calculated for conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients during 31-120 days following a COVID-19 encounter. RESULTS: During 31-120 days after an initial COVID-19 inpatient hospitalization, 7.0% of adults experienced ≥1 of 5 post-COVID conditions. Among adult outpatients with COVID-19, 7.7% experienced ≥1 of 10 post-COVID conditions. During 31-60 days after an initial outpatient encounter, adults with COVID-19 were 2.8 times as likely to experience acute pulmonary embolism as outpatient control-patients and also more likely to experience a range of conditions affecting multiple body systems (eg, nonspecific chest pain, fatigue, headache, and respiratory, nervous, circulatory, and gastrointestinal symptoms) than outpatient control-patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence of late health conditions possibly related to COVID-19 in adults following COVID-19 diagnosis and can inform healthcare practice and resource planning for follow-up COVID-19 care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adulto , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 523-527, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830982

RESUMO

Approximately 375,000 deaths during 2020 were attributed to COVID-19 on death certificates reported to CDC (1). Concerns have been raised that some deaths are being improperly attributed to COVID-19 (2). Analysis of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnoses on official death certificates might provide an expedient and efficient method to demonstrate whether reported COVID-19 deaths are being overestimated. CDC assessed documentation of diagnoses co-occurring with an ICD-10 code for COVID-19 (U07.1) on U.S. death certificates from 2020 that had been reported to CDC as of February 22, 2021. Among 378,048 death certificates listing U07.1, a total of 357,133 (94.5%) had at least one other ICD-10 code; 20,915 (5.5%) had only U07.1. Overall, 97.3% of 357,133 death certificates with at least one other diagnosis (91.9% of all 378,048 death certificates) were noted to have a co-occurring diagnosis that was a plausible chain-of-event condition (e.g., pneumonia or respiratory failure), a significant contributing condition (e.g., hypertension or diabetes), or both. Overall, 70%-80% of death certificates had both a chain-of-event condition and a significant contributing condition or a chain-of-event condition only; this was noted for adults aged 18-84 years, both males and females, persons of all races and ethnicities, those who died in inpatient and outpatient or emergency department settings, and those whose manner of death was listed as natural. These findings support the accuracy of COVID-19 mortality surveillance in the United States using official death certificates. High-quality documentation of co-occurring diagnoses on the death certificate is essential for a comprehensive and authoritative public record. Continued messaging and training (3) for professionals who complete death certificates remains important as the pandemic progresses. Accurate mortality surveillance is critical for understanding the impact of variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and of COVID-19 vaccination and for guiding public health action.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Atestado de Óbito , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1695-1699, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180754

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a complex clinical illness with potential complications that might require ongoing clinical care (1-3). Few studies have investigated discharge patterns and hospital readmissions among large groups of patients after an initial COVID-19 hospitalization (4-7). Using electronic health record and administrative data from the Premier Healthcare Database,* CDC assessed patterns of hospital discharge, readmission, and demographic and clinical characteristics associated with hospital readmission after a patient's initial COVID-19 hospitalization (index hospitalization). Among 126,137 unique patients with an index COVID-19 admission during March-July 2020, 15% died during the index hospitalization. Among the 106,543 (85%) surviving patients, 9% (9,504) were readmitted to the same hospital within 2 months of discharge through August 2020. More than a single readmission occurred among 1.6% of patients discharged after the index hospitalization. Readmissions occurred more often among patients discharged to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) (15%) or those needing home health care (12%) than among patients discharged to home or self-care (7%). The odds of hospital readmission increased with age among persons aged ≥65 years, presence of certain chronic conditions, hospitalization within the 3 months preceding the index hospitalization, and if discharge from the index hospitalization was to a SNF or to home with health care assistance. These results support recent analyses that found chronic conditions to be significantly associated with hospital readmission (6,7) and could be explained by the complications of underlying conditions in the presence of COVID-19 (8), COVID-19 sequelae (3), or indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic (9). Understanding the frequency of, and risk factors for, readmission can inform clinical practice, discharge disposition decisions, and public health priorities such as health care planning to ensure availability of resources needed for acute and follow-up care of COVID-19 patients. With the recent increases in cases nationwide, hospital planning can account for these increasing numbers along with the potential for at least 9% of patients to be readmitted, requiring additional beds and resources.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of quantifying retinal damage. Defining the extent of anterior visual pathway injury is important in multiple sclerosis (MS) as a way to document evidence of prior disease, including subclinical injury, and setting a baseline for patients early in the course of disease. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness is typically classified as low if values fall outside of a predefined range for a healthy population. In adults, an interocular difference (IOD) in RNFL thickness greater than 5 µm identified a history of unilateral optic neuritis (ON). Through our PERCEPTION (PEdiatric Research Collaboration ExPloring Tests in Ocular Neuroimmunology) study, we explored whether RNFL IOD informs on remote ON in a multicenter pediatric-onset MS (POMS) cohort. METHODS: POMS (defined using consensus criteria and first attack <18 years) patients were recruited from 4 academic centers. A clinical history of ON (>6 months prior to an OCT scan) was confirmed by medical record review. RNFL thickness was measured on Spectralis machines (Heidelberg, Germany). Using a cohort of healthy controls from our centers tested on the same machines, RNFL thickness <86 µm (<2 SDs below the mean) was defined as abnormal. Based on previously published findings in adults, an RNFL IOD >5 µm was defined as abnormal. The proportions of POMS participants with RNFL thinning (<86 µm) and abnormal IOD (>5 µm) were calculated. Logistic regression was used to determine whether IOD was associated with remote ON. RESULTS: A total of 157 participants with POMS (mean age 15.2 years, SD 3.2; 67 [43%] with remote ON) were enrolled. RNFL thinning occurred in 45 of 90 (50%) ON eyes and 24 of 224 (11%) non-ON eyes. An IOD >5 µm was associated with a history of remote ON (P < 0.001). An IOD >5 µm occurred in 62 participants, 40 (65%) with remote ON. Among 33 participants with remote ON but normal RNFL values (≥86 µm in both eyes), 14 (42%) were confirmed to have ON by IOD criteria (>5 µm). CONCLUSIONS: In POMS, the diagnostic yield of OCT in confirming remote ON is enhanced by considering RNFL IOD, especially for those patients with RNFL thickness for each eye in the normal range. An IOD >5 µm in patients with previous visual symptoms suggests a history of remote ON.

10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(15): 4299-4313, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648649

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) negatively impacts the visual pathway as well as motor processing speed. Relationships between MS-related diffuse structural damage of gray and white matter (WM) tissue and cortical responses to visual and motor stimuli remain poorly understood. We used magnetoencephalography in 14 POMS patients and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to assess visual gamma (30-80 Hz), motor gamma (60-90 Hz), and motor beta (15-30 Hz) cortical oscillatory responses to a visual-motor task. Then, 3T MRI was used to: (a) calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) of the posterior visual and corticospinal motor WM pathways and (b) quantify volume and thickness of the cuneus and primary motor cortex. Visual gamma band power was reduced in POMS and was associated with reduced FA of the optic radiations but not with loss of cuneus volume or thickness. Activity in the primary motor cortex, as measured by postmovement beta rebound amplitude associated with peak latency, was decreased in POMS, although this reduction was not predicted by structural metrics. Our findings implicate loss of WM integrity as a contributor to reduced electrical responses in the visual cortex in POMS. Future work in larger cohorts will inform on the cognitive implications of this finding in terms of visual processing function and will determine whether the progressive loss of brain volume known to occur in POMS ultimately contributes to both progressive dysfunction in such tasks as well as progressive reduction in cortical electrical responses in the visual cortex.

11.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 40(2): 148-156, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-contrast visual acuity (HCVA) changes with age, yet little is known about pediatric-specific age- and sex-normative values for low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA). We define maturational changes in monocular and binocular HCVA and LCLA in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Normally sighted youth (ages 5-20 years, without neurologic or ophthalmologic disease and best-corrected HCVA of 20/25 or better in each eye) were recruited. Mean monocular and binocular scores using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (for HCVA) and 2.5% and 1.25% Sloan (for LCLA) charts and the magnitude of binocular summation were calculated using 2-year bins. Relationships between scores and age were explored using scatterplots with Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS) and analysis of variance that accounts for intereye correlation, followed by test of linear trend for age effect. RESULTS: Among 101 (202 eyes) healthy participants (mean age 13 years, 42% males), monocular and binocular scores varied by age, with highest mean scores achieved in the 13 to 14-year age group for both HCVA and LCLA. Between the ages of 5 and 14.9 years, monocular scores increased linearly with age (0.76 letter/year for HCVA, 1.11 letters/year for 2.5% LCLA, and 0.97 letter/year for 1.25% LCLA; all P < 0.0001). Binocular HCVA scores also increased with age between 5 and 14.9 years (0.71 letters/year, P < 0.0001). The magnitude of binocular summation for HCVA or LCLA did not change with age. CONCLUSIONS: HCVA and LCLA abilities mature into adolescence, peak between 13 and 14.9 years of age, and then plateau into adulthood. Evaluation of patients with visual deficits should consider age-expected normal visual acuity.

12.
J Neuroimaging ; 29(6): 760-770, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is associated with focal inflammatory lesions and the loss of cortical and deep gray matter. Optic neuritis (ON) and white matter (WM) lesions in the visual pathway can directly contribute to visual cortical mantle thinning. We determine the relative contributions of MS insult on anterior and posterior visual pathway integrity. METHODS: High- and low-contrast visual acuity, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and 3T MRI scans were obtained from 20 POMS patients (10 with remote ON) and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cortical mantle thickness was measured using FreeSurfer. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity were calculated for postchiasmal optic radiations (with and without WM lesions). Groups were compared using Student's t-test (adjusted for multiple comparisons), and simple linear regression was used to investigate interrelationships between measures. RESULTS: Mean cortical thickness of the whole brain was reduced in patients (2.49 mm) versus controls (2.58 mm, P = .0432) and in the visual cortex (2.07 mm vs. 2.17 mm, P = .0059), although the foveal confluence was spared. Mean FA of the optic radiations was reduced in POMS (.40) versus controls (.43, P = .0042) and correlated with visual cortical mantle thickness in POMS (P = .017). Visual acuity, OCT measures, and lesion volumes in the optic radiations were not associated with cortical mantle thickness. CONCLUSIONS: POMS negatively impacts the integrity of the anterior visual pathway, but it is the loss of WM integrity that drives anterograde loss of the cortical mantle. Preserved visual acuity and foveal sparing imply some degree of functional and structural resilience.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurite Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Visuais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Neurite Óptica/complicações , Neurite Óptica/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Córtex Visual/patologia , Vias Visuais/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mult Scler ; 25(4): 515-522, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADSs) are monophasic (mono-ADS) in 70% of cases and represent the first attack of multiple sclerosis (MS) in 30%. Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for adult-onset MS. Little is known about whether SHS presents an additive risk beyond genetic factors and other environmental exposures associated with pediatric MS. METHODS: This study examined SHS exposure in 216 children with mono-ADS and 81 children with MS. Interactions between SHS, HLA-DRB1*15 alleles, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and serological evidence of remote Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exposure were evaluated. RESULTS: SHS exposure was more common in children with MS (37% exposed) compared to mono-ADS (29.5% exposed). Compared to mono-ADS, SHS exposure was not an independent risk factor for MS. When both SHS exposure and HLA-DRB1*15 were present, the odds for MS increased (odds ratio (OR) = 3.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-11.9) compared to mono-ADS. Interactions between SHS and vitamin D or EBV did not associate with MS. CONCLUSION: Exposure to SHS is a risk factor for central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Results suggest that SHS exposure and HLA-DRB1*15 interact to increase risk for MS in children diagnosed with mono-ADS.


Assuntos
Doenças Desmielinizantes/induzido quimicamente , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/induzido quimicamente , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Doenças Desmielinizantes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1146-1153, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349849

RESUMO

Background: We previously identified air quality as a risk factor of interest for pediatric multiple sclerosis. The purpose of this study is to more closely examine the association between the six criteria air pollutants and pediatric MS as well as identify specific areas of toxic release using data from the Toxic Release Inventory. Methods: Pediatric MS cases (N = 290) and healthy controls (N = 442) were included as part of an ongoing case-control study. We used the National Emissions Inventory system to estimate particulate exposure by county of residence for each participant. Proximity to Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) sites was also assessed using ArcGIS mapping tools. Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) classified counties at risk to exposure of environmental toxic releases. Results: Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), and lead air emissions were associated with increased odds for pediatric MS (P < 0.01) for those residing within 20 miles of an MS center. Most study participants (75%) resided within 5 miles of at least one TRI site; however, the mean total pounds of stack air releases was higher for sites near MS cases (81,000 tons) compared to those near healthy controls (35,000 tons, P = 0.002). Average RSEI scores did not differ significantly between cases and controls. Conclusion: Out of several air pollutants examined, we show that fine particulate matter and three other criteria pollutants (SO 2, CO, and lead) were statistically associated with higher odds for pediatric MS.

17.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 18: 164-169, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a presumed autoimmune disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. It is hypothesized that environmental exposures (such as air and water quality) trigger the innate immune response thereby activating a pro-inflammatory cascade. OBJECTIVE: To examine potential environmental factors in pediatric MS using geographic information systems (GIS). METHODS: Pediatric MS cases and healthy controls were identified as part of an ongoing multicenter case-control study. Subjects' geographic locations were mapped by county centroid to compare to an Environmental Quality Index (EQI). The EQI examines 5 individual environmental components (air, land, water, social, built factors). A composite EQI score and individual scores were compared between cases and controls, stratified by median proximity to enrollment centers (residence <20 or ≥20 miles from the recruiting center), using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 287 MS cases and 445 controls, 46% and 49% respectively live in areas where the total EQI is the highest (worst environmental quality). Total EQI was not significantly associated with the odds for MS (p = 0.90 < 20 miles from center; p = 0.43 ≥ 20 miles); however, worsening air quality significantly impacted the odds for MS in those living near a referral center (OR = 2.83; 95%CI 1.5, 5.4) and those who reside ≥ 20 miles from a referral center (OR = 1.61; 95%CI 1.2, 2.3). CONCLUSION: Among environmental factors, air quality may contribute to the odds of developing MS in a pediatric population. Future studies will examine specific air constituents and other location-based air exposures and explore potential mechanisms for immune activation by these exposures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Razão de Chances , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos , Qualidade da Água
18.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 4(4): e356, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs) to detect visual pathway involvement in pediatric-onset MS. METHODS: Pediatric-onset MS participants (onset <18 years) and healthy controls (HCs) underwent OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) and pVEPs. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer to inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL), and P100 pVEP latency were measured. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare the groups, adjusting for age and intereye correlations. RESULTS: Twenty-four pediatric MS participants, 14 with a history of remote (>6 months) optic neuritis (ON) in one eye (8 participants) or both the eyes (6 participants), and 24 HCs were enrolled. RNFL thinning (<83 µm, 2 SDs below HC eyes) occurred in 50% of ON eyes vs 5% of non-ON eyes. Prolonged VEP latency (>109 msec) occurred in 58% of ON eyes and 55% of non-ON eyes. A clinical history of ON predicted RNFL (p < 0.001) and GCL-IPL thinning (p = 0.011), whereas prolonged pVEP latency in children with MS occurred independent of ON history. CONCLUSIONS: OCT and pVEPs provide complementary but distinct insights. OCT is sensitive to retinal changes in the context of clinical ON, whereas pVEPs are useful to detect disseminated lesions of the visual pathway in children with MS.

19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 10: 73-78, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27919503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome measures to capture disability, such as the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), were developed to enhance outcome measurements for clinical trials in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The MSFC initially included three components: a timed 25-foot walk [T25FW], 9-hole peg test [9HPT], and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task [PASAT]. Modifications to the original MSFC, such as adding binocular low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) or substituting the symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) for the PASAT, improved the capacity to capture neurologic impairment in adults. Similar outcome scales for pediatric MS have not yet been established. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the three-component MSFC or a modified MSFC with LCLA and the SDMT better identifies neurological deficits in pediatric MS. METHODS: We evaluated 5 measures (T25FW, 9HPT, Children's PASAT [ChiPASAT], SDMT, and binocular LCLA [Sloan charts, 1.25% contrast]) in children with MS (disease onset <18 years) and healthy controls. To be able to compare measures whose scores have different scales, Z-scores were also created for each test based on the numbers of standard deviations from a control group mean, and these individual scale scores were combined to create composite scores. Logistic regression models, accounting for age, were used to determine whether the standard 3-component MSFC or modified versions (including 4 or 5 metrics) best distinguished children with MS from controls. RESULTS: Twenty pediatric-onset MS subjects, aged 6-21 years, and thirteen healthy controls, aged 6-19 years, were enrolled. MS subjects demonstrated worse scores on the 9HPT (p=0.004) and SDMT (p=0.001), but not the 25FTW (adjusted for height, p=0.63) or the ChiPASAT (p=0.10): all comparisons adjusted for age. Decreased (worse) binocular LCLA scores were associated with MS (vs. control status, p=0.03, logistic regression; p=0.08, accounting for age). The MSFC composite score for the traditional 3 components did not differ between the groups (p=0.28). Replacing the ChiPASAT with the SDMT (OR 0.72, p=0.05) better distinguished MS from controls. A modified MSFC-4 with the SDMT replacing the ChiPASAT and including binocular 1.25% LCLA had the greatest capacity to distinguish pediatric MS from controls (OR 0.89, p=0.04, logistic regression). Including all 5 metrics as a composite MSFC-5 did not improve the model (p=0.18). CONCLUSIONS: A modified MSFC (25FTW, 9HPT, SMDT, and binocular 1.25% LCLA) is more sensitive than the traditional MSFC or its components to capture the subtle impairments that characterize pediatric MS and should be validated in order to be considered for future pediatric MS trials.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 9: 5-10, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27645335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) during childhood or adolescence is increasingly recognized in the United States. Administrative databases quantify healthcare utilization as measured by hospital admissions, providing insight into the impact of MS in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: We examine the frequency of hospital admissions for pediatric MS in the US using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database. METHODS: Data was extracted from the PHIS database using the ICD-9 code for MS (340.00) and reviewed to verify case ascertainment. Mean, median, and range values were determined for the number of inpatient hospitalizations per patient, number of days in the hospital, and cost of each encounter. A trend analysis was performed to evaluate the annual frequency of MS-related admissions over the study period. RESULTS: After case verification, the PHIS database extraction reported 2068 hospital inpatient encounters for 1422 unique pediatric MS patients between 2004 and 2013. The median number of hospitalizations per patient was 2 with a median hospital stay of 4 days. Admission rates for MS increased from 2.37 per 10,000 in 2004 to 4.13 per 10,000 in 2013. CONCLUSION: The number of admissions due to pediatric MS has increased since the start of the PHIS database collection, concurrent with increased disease awareness and the establishment of dedicated pediatric MS centers.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitais Pediátricos/economia , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/economia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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