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3.
Heart ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619206

RESUMO

Postmenopausal (PM) hormone therapy (HT) was extremely popular for years as a treatment for many conditions, including cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) prevention. The adverse results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) ended the widespread prescriptive use of HT for nearly 20 years. The WHI findings have been broadly and unfairly applied to all hormone formulations, including modern treatments using human-identical hormones. Although CV health is indisputably linked to oestrogen status, HT involving any combination of hormones currently is not recommended for primary or secondary prevention of CVD. In the wake of more positive results from recent studies and re-evaluation of the WHI, HT has re-emerged as an issue for specialists in CVD to discuss with their patients. Rigorous scientific analysis is needed to explain the paradox of cardioprotection conferred by endogenous ovarian hormones with apparent cardiotoxicity inflicted by HT. This review will cover the origins of HT, hormone terminology and function, and key studies that contribute to our current understanding. Based on evolving evidence, if HT is to be used, we propose it be initiated immediately after cessation of ovarian hormone production and dosed as transdermal oestradiol combined with cyclic dosing of human-identical progesterone (P4).

4.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445534

RESUMO

Interest in the potential cardiovascular (CV) benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3) began in the 1940s and was amplified by a subsequent landmark trial showing reduced CV disease (CVD) risk following acute myocardial infarction. Since that time, however, much controversy has circulated due to discordant results among several studies and even meta-analyses. Then, in 2018, three more large, randomized trials were released-these too with discordant findings regarding the overall benefits of Ω-3 therapy. Interestingly, the trial that used a higher dose (4 g/day highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) found a remarkable, statistically significant reduction in CVD events. It was proposed that insufficient Ω-3 dosing (<1 g/day EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), as well as patients aggressively treated with multiple other effective medical therapies, may explain the conflicting results of Ω-3 therapy in controlled trials. We have thus reviewed the current evidence regarding Ω-3 and CV health, put forth potential reasoning for discrepant results in the literature, highlighted critical concepts such as measuring blood levels of Ω-3 with a dedicated Ω-3 index and addressed current recommendations as suggested by health care professional societies and recent significant scientific data.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacocinética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 203-217, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413819

RESUMO

Patients with the severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been frequently found to suffer from both arterial and venous thrombotic events due to the perpetuation of a hypercoagulable state. This phenomenon, termed COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, is now considered a major component of the pathophysiology of this novel infectious disease, leading to widespread thrombosis. While at first, the vascular insults may be limited to the pulmonary microvasculature, as the disease progresses, systemic involvement occurs, culminating in distant organ thrombosis and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. In this review article, we discuss recent insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and review the clinical, histopathologic, and laboratory evidence, which leads us to conclude that COVID-19 is both a pulmonary and vascular disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiopatologia , /fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos
9.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 36(1): 10-16, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074935

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to synthesize the current evidence supporting and against the use of wearable devices to detect underlying heart conditions in athletes and the most significant limitations. RECENT FINDINGS: Although several large studies have been conducted to evaluate the ability of wearables devices to identify atrial fibrillation among the general population, no studies evaluating their ability to detect other exercise-related arrhythmias in athletes are very sparse. Most of the studies or case reports are focused on the wearables' reliability and accuracy compared with standard ECG. Only small studies evaluating the accuracy of one wearable device in athletes have been carried out to date. Unfortunately, none of them have investigated their ability to detect specific arrhythmias in the athletic population. SUMMARY: Rapidly detecting dangerous arrhythmias in a symptomatic athlete continues to be an elusive goal. The use of smartphone ECG monitors can provide diagnostic data in athletes with symptoms that could represent a helpful instrument. However, many uncertainties remain and need to be addressed and validated in large-scale trials to incorporate these devices into the healthcare system and be part of an athlete's daily monitoring and healthcare.

10.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 151-159, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To utilize publicly reported, state-level data to identify factors associated with the frequency of cases, tests, and mortality in the USA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study using publicly reported data collected included the number of COVID-19 cases, tests and mortality from March 14th through April 30th. Publicly available state-level data was collected which included: demographics comorbidities, state characteristics and environmental factors. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the significantly associated factors with percent mortality, case and testing frequency. All analyses were state-level analyses and not patient-level analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1,090,500 COVID-19 cases were reported during the study period. The calculated case and testing frequency were 3332 and 19,193 per 1,000,000 patients. There were 63,642 deaths during this period which resulted in a mortality of 5.8%. Factors including to but not limited to population density (beta coefficient 7.5, p < .01), transportation volume (beta coefficient 0.1, p < .01), tourism index (beta coefficient -0.1, p = .02) and older age (beta coefficient 0.2, p = .01) are associated with case frequency and percent mortality. CONCLUSIONS: There were wide variations in testing and case frequencies of COVID-19 among different states in the US. States with higher population density had a higher case and testing rate. States with larger population of elderly and higher tourism had a higher mortality. Key messages There were wide variations in testing and case frequencies of COVID-19 among different states in the USA. States with higher population density had a higher case and testing rate. States with larger population of elderly and higher tourism had a higher mortality.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 46(1): 100411, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917889

RESUMO

Several studies have shown disparities in outcome in the patients with Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) based on several factors. Treatment might differ based on insurance type. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed National Inpatient Sample (NIS 2016) data to identify the impact of different types of insurances on mortality outcome in patients admitted with ACS. ICD-CM-10 codes were used to identify hospital discharges with a principal diagnosis of ACS. Observations were stratified based on insurance (Medicare, Medicaid, Private, and No insurance). Primary and secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, length of stay and total cost. Any potential confounders were adjusted using multivariate logistic regression. STATA/IC 15.1 Stata Corp LLC was used for analysis. A total of 8,01,195 hospitalizations with the primary diagnosis of ACS were identified, of which 59.2% had Medicare, 9.72% had Medicaid, 26.8% had Private insurance, and 4.3% had no insurance. Higher odds of mortality were seen in the patients with Medicare, Medicaid, and Noninsured group. Adjusted Odds ratio for mortality in Medicare was 1.01 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.1; P = 0.65), in Medicaid was 1.16 (CI: 1.03-1.30; P = 0.01) and in uninsured group was 1.46 (CI: 1.26-1.69; P ≤ 0.01). However, the patients with private insurance adjusted odds ratio for mortality were 0.77 (CI: 0.70-0.84; P ≤ 0.01) compared to the patients with other insurance groups. Above results show that the disparity exists in the outcome of patients admitted with ACS based on their insurance types, particularly for Medicaid patients. We need further studies to understand the root cause of this disparity.

12.
Postgrad Med ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275479

RESUMO

The novel pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a global public health emergency, seems to be having a major impact on physical activity (PA) behaviors. Older adults are at high risk of death from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Health authorities around the world have been implementing preventive health measures, including quarantine and self-isolation, to mitigate the COVID-19 outbreak. This period is characterized by cessation of outdoor exercising. During this period of lockdown, PA has been one of the rare reasons for going out in some countries. To avoid the harmful effects of periods of exercise cessation, PA could be prescribed to older adults, which is of great importance for breaking their sedentary lifestyle and improving their immunity. The present review discusses the potential impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in older adults. The importance of performing PA to reduce the harmful effects of COVID-19 pandemic is discussed, and useful recommendations on home-based exercise for the older adults to maintain their level of independence, physical and mental health as well as their wellbeing are provided.

13.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(12): 2674-2683, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden in hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of coronavirus from the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 era in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified hospitalized adults with a diagnosis of coronavirus in a large US administrative database, the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, from January 1, 2016, to December 3, 2017, to study patient demographic characteristics, clinical comorbidities, and outcomes (in-hospital mortality and health care resource utilization) based on the presence or absence of CVD. RESULTS: A total of 21,300 hospitalized adults with a diagnosis of coronavirus in 2016 and 2017 from all across the United States were included in the final analysis; the mean age was 63.6 years, 11,033 (51.8%) were female, and 15,911 (74.7%) had public insurers. Among these hospitalized patients, 11,930 (56.0%) had a diagnosis of CVD. Compared with those without CVD, the patients with CVD were older (70.1 vs 55.4 years) and had higher Charlson comorbidity index scores (2.5 vs 1.6) and Elixhauser comorbidity index scores (4.3 vs 2.4) (all P<.001). After multivariable risk adjustment, patients with CVD had higher mortality than those without CVD (5.3% [632 of 11,930] vs 1.5% [140 of 9370]; adjusted odds ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4]; P=.008). The mean length of hospital stay (6.9 vs 6.1 days; P=.003), hospital charges ($78,377 vs $66,538; P=.002), and discharge to nursing home (24.6% [2945 of 11,930] vs 12.9% [1208 of 9370]; P<.001) were higher in those with CVD compared with the patients without CVD. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular disease was present in a notable proportion of hospitalized patients with coronavirus in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 era in United States and was associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality and health care resource utilization.

14.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 4(6): 775-785, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283161

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), also known as stress cardiomyopathy and broken heart syndrome, is a neurocardiac condition that is among the most dramatic manifestations of psychosomatic disorders. This paper is based on a systematic review of TTS and stress cardiomyopathy using a PubMed literature search. Typically, an episode of severe emotional or physical stress precipitates regions of left ventricular hypokinesis or akinesis, which are not aligned with a coronary artery distribution and are out of proportion to the modest troponin leak. A classic patient with TTS is described; one who had chest pain and dyspnea while watching an anxiety-provoking evening news program on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An increase in the incidence of TTS appears to be a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, with the TTS incidence rising 4.5-fold during the COVID-19 pandemic even in individuals without severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Takotsubo syndrome is often mistaken for acute coronary syndrome because they both typically present with chest pain, electrocardiographic changes suggesting myocardial injury/ischemia, and troponin elevations. Recent studies report that the prognosis for TTS is similar to that for acute myocardial infarction. This review is an update on the mechanisms underlying TTS, its diagnosis, and its optimal management.

15.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal activity intelligence (PAI) is a metric developed to simplify a physically active lifestyle for the participants. Regardless of following today's advice for physical activity, a PAI score ≥100 per week at baseline, an increase in PAI score, and a sustained high PAI score over time were found to delay premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a large population of Norwegians. However, the association between long-term temporal change in PAI and mortality in other populations have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To test whether temporal change in PAI is associated with CVD and all-cause mortality in a large population from the United States. METHODS: We studied 17,613 relatively healthy participants who received at least two medical examinations in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study between 1974 and 2002. The participant's weekly PAI scores were estimated twice, and adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CVD and all-cause mortality related to changes in PAI between baseline and last examination were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 9.3 years [interquartile range, 2.6-16.6; 181,765 person-years], there were 1144 deaths, including 400 CVD deaths. We observed an inverse linear association between change in PAI and risk of CVD mortality (P=0.007 for linear trend, and P=0.35 for quadratic trend). Compared to participants with zero PAI at both examinations, multivariable-adjusted analyses demonstrated that participants who maintained high PAI scores (≥100 PAI at both examinations) had a 51% reduced risk of CVD mortality [AHR, 0.49: 95% CI, 0.26-0.95)], and 42% reduced risk of all-cause mortality [AHR, 0.58: 95% CI, 0.41-0.83)]. For participants who increased their PAI scores over time (PAI score of zero at first examination and ≥100 at last examination), the AHRs were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.55-1.02) for CVD mortality, and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.69-0.99) for all-cause mortality. Participants who maintained high PAI score had 4.8 (95% CI, 3.3-6.4) years of life gained. For those who increased their PAI score over time, the corresponding years gained were 1.8 years (95% CI, 0.1-3.5). CONCLUSION: Among relatively healthy participants, an increase in PAI and maintaining a high PAI score over time was associated with reduced risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. CONDENSED ABSTRACT: Our objective was to investigate the association between temporal changes in PAI and mortality in a large population from the United States. In this prospective cohort study of 17,613 relatively healthy participants at baseline, maintaining a high PAI score and an increase in PAI score over an average period of 6.3 years was associated with a significant reduction in CVD and all-cause mortality. Based on our results, clinicians can easily recommend that patients obtain at least 100 PAI for most favourable protection against CVD- and all-cause mortality, but can also mention that significant benefits also occur at maintaining low-to-moderate PAI levels.

16.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Class II obesity (body mass index BMI ≥35 kg/m2) is a contraindication to heart transplantation (HT). Although few single-center studies (case reports/series and small cohorts) have reported promising outcomes of bariatric surgery (BS) in patients with obesity and ventricular assist devices, low sample sizes have made their analysis and interpretation challenging. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic search in ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar, and most relevant bariatric and heart failure journals. We extracted baseline and outcome individual participant data for every ventricular assist device patient undergoing BS with reported postoperative BMI and their respective timepoints when BMI data were measured. Fourteen references with 29 patients were included. The mean age was 41.9 ± 12.2 years, 82.8% underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and 39.3% had reported perioperative adverse events. The mean pre-BS BMI was 45.5 ± 6.6 kg/m2 and decreased significantly during follow-up (rho -0.671; P< .00001). Among 23 patients with documented listing status, 78.3% got listed for HT. Thirteen of 28 patients (46.4%) underwent HT at 14.4 ± 7.0 months. There were no reported deaths for the HT-free 1-year period. Median follow-up was 24 months (interquartile range, 12-30 months). Twenty-two of 28 patients (78.6%) achieved the composite outcome (BMI of<35 kg/m2/HT/listing for HT/myocardial recovery) at 11 months (interquartile range, 3-17 months). Patients with a BMI<45 kg/m2 had a higher chance of achieving the composite outcome (P< .003). CONCLUSIONS: BS may help patients with obesity and ventricular assist devices to lose a significant amount of weight and improve their candidacy for HT or even achieve myocardial recovery.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369719

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia and gout have been linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease, stroke, hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, possibly through a proinflammatory milieu. However, not all the drugs used in gout treatment improve CV outcomes; colchicine has shown improved CV outcomes in patients with recent myocardial infarction and stable coronary artery disease independent of lipid-lowering effects. There is resurging interest in colchicine following publication of the COLCOT, LoDoCo, LoDoCo2, LoDoCo-MI trials, and COLCORONA trial which will shed light on its utility in COVID-19. Our aim is to review the CV use of colchicine beyond pericardial diseases, as well as CV outcomes of the available gout therapies, including allopurinol and febuxostat. The CARES trial and its surrounding controversies, which lead to the US FDA 'black box' warning on febuxostat, in addition to the recent FAST trial which contradicts this and finds febuxostat to be non-inferior, are discussed in this paper.

18.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383060

RESUMO

There is a strong evidence that more marked lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) leads to progressively lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The evidence on validity of this hypothesis comes from epidemiological, genetic and clinical studies. The hypothesis "the lower the better" has been recently strongly supported by the results of secondary prevention trials with PCSK9 inhibitors. The combination of PCSK9 inhibitors and statins has resulted in achieving extremely low LDL-C levels with additional reduction of CVD events in secondary prevention. However, despite large clinical benefits, the safety of aggressive LDL-C lowering should be always taken into consideration, and there is still an ongoing discussion on whether very low LDL-C might result in some non-CVD adverse events. However, based on the available knowledge, so far the serious adverse events associated with achieving of very low LDL-C levels or intensive drug therapy have not been noted. These positive clinical effects were reflected in current ESC/EAS Guidelines (2019) for dyslipidaemia management. The experts strongly recommended the LDL-C lowering to levels that have been achieved in trials of PCSK9 inhibitors. In this state of the art review, we aimed to finally justify the critical need for LDL-C reduction to very low levels in secondary prevention patients in order to be as low as possible, as early as possible, and preferably lifelong.

19.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189764

RESUMO

Higher levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship of aerobic PA and CRF with risk of atherosclerotic CVD outcomes and heart failure (HF) seem to be distinct. Furthermore, recent studies have raised concerns of potential toxicity associated with extreme levels of aerobic exercise, with higher levels of coronary artery calcium and incident atrial fibrillation noted among individuals with very high PA levels. In contrast, the relationship between PA levels and measures of left ventricular structure and function and risk of HF is more linear. Thus, personalizing exercise levels to optimal doses may be key to achieving beneficial outcomes and preventing adverse CVD events among high risk individuals. In this report, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the associations of aerobic PA and CRF levels with risk of adverse CVD outcomes and the preceding subclinical cardiac phenotypes to better characterize the optimal exercise dose needed to favorably modify CVD risk.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196516

RESUMO

: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 6 million patients worldwide. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been increasingly recognized complication in these patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the factors associated with development of DVT in patients with COVID-19 have not been elucidated due to the novelty of the virus. We performed a meta-analysis of published studies comparing laboratory results in COVID-19 patients with and without DVT with the aim of identifying risk factors. We searched major databases for studies evaluating DVT in COVID-positive patients and performed a meta-analysis of baseline laboratory markers associated with development of DVT. A total of six studies with 678 patients were included in the pooled analyses. Of the 678 patients, 205 of patients had a DVT. Patients diagnosed with DVT were more likely to be older [mean difference 4.59 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-7.92], and needing admission to ICU (relative risk 1.96, 95% CI 1.09-3.51). Patients with DVT had significantly higher white cell count (mean difference 1.36 × 10/l, 95% CI 0.33-2.40) and D-dimer levels (mean difference 3229.8, 95% CI 1501.5-4958.1). Lymphocyte count was lower in patients with DVT (mean difference -0.19 × 10/l, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.02). Patients with COVID-19 who develop DVT are more likely to be older and have leukocytosis with lymphopenia. Moreover, D-dimer is statistically higher and patients that are admitted to the ICU are at great risk to develop DVT.

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