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1.
Pediatrics ; 145(Suppl 1): S20-S29, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To summarize baseline data and lessons learned from the Autism Learning Health Network, designed to improve care and outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe challenging behaviors, co-occurring medical conditions, quality of life (QoL), receipt of recommended health services, and next steps. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of children 3 to 12 years old with ASD receiving care at 13 sites. Parent-reported characteristics of children with ASD were collected as outcome measures aligned with our network's aims of reducing rates of challenging behaviors, improving QoL, and ensuring receipt of recommended health services. Parents completed a survey about behavioral challenges, co-occurring conditions, health services, and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Health Measure and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist to assess QoL and behavior symptoms, respectively. RESULTS: Analysis included 530 children. Challenging behaviors were reported by the majority of parents (93%), frequently noting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, irritability, and anxiety. Mean (SD) scores on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist hyperactivity and irritability subscales were 17.9 (10.5) and 13.5 (9.2), respectively. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Health Measure total score of 23.6 (3.7) was lower than scores reported in a general pediatric population. Most children had received recommended well-child (94%) and dental (85%) care in the past 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: This baseline data (1) affirmed the focus on addressing challenging behaviors; (2) prioritized 3 behavior domains, that of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, irritability, and anxiety; and (3) identified targets for reducing severity of behaviors and strategies to improve data collection.

2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838492

RESUMO

The Interactive Autism Network (IAN) administered a survey to caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) on their interventions for elopement behavior (EB). Data from 526 respondents were analyzed. Most families reported multiple interventions for EB and rated interventions overall as effective but burdensome. Several interventions such as fencing and window locks had favorable effectiveness/burden profiles. Tracking devices were used infrequently and rated as having low effectiveness. Behavioral specialists were commonly used, rated as effective, and most often provided by insurance. Medications were rated as having low effectiveness for EB, whether taken off-label for EB or for other reasons. Further study is needed to identify EB interventions that are effective, affordable, and easy to implement are needed.

3.
Autism ; 23(7): 1711-1719, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729799

RESUMO

This study explored sex differences in employment, reasons for unemployment, benefits, and supports among a large, international sample of adults with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 443 adults with autism spectrum disorder (60% female; 74% residing in the United States) who consented to be part of an autism research registry and completed an Internet survey. Outcome variables included current employment status, number of hours working, number of jobs in the past 5 years, reasons for unemployment, as well as the number of benefits received and the amount of financial support currently being received from families of origin. Using multiple regression models, we found that males and females were working at similar rates. Females were more likely than males to say that their unemployment was a result of choosing to withdraw from the labor market. Similar percentages of males and females reported receiving some form of benefits or family support, but of those receiving benefits/family support, males received more than females. These results are consistent with other studies finding subtle, but potentially important sex differences in life-course outcomes of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

4.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 58(2): 191-198, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362824

RESUMO

To understand how parents and physicians make decisions regarding antibiotics and whether a potential associated risk of obesity would alter decisions, we conducted a qualitative study of parents and physicians who care for children. Parent focus groups and physician interviews used a guide focused on experience with antibiotics and perceptions of risks and benefits, including obesity. Content analysis was used to understand how a risk of obesity would influence antibiotic decisions. Most parents (n = 59) and physicians (n = 22) reported limited discussion about any risks at the time of antibiotic prescriptions. With an acute illness, most parents prioritized symptomatic improvement and chose to start antibiotics. Physicians' treatment preferences were varied. An obesity risk did not change most parents' or physicians' preferences. Given that parent-physician discussion at the time of acute illness is unlikely to change preferences, public health messaging may be a more successful approach to counter obesity and antibiotics overuse.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pediatrics ; 141(4)2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. Understanding the endophenotype of children with both ASD and ADHD may impact clinical management. In this study, we compare the comorbidity of anxiety and mood disorders in children with ASD, with and without ADHD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of children with ASD who were enrolled in the Interactive Autism Network, an Internet-mediated, parent-report, autism research registry. Children ages 6 to 17 years with a parent-reported, professional, and questionnaire-verified diagnosis of ASD were included. Data were extracted regarding parent-reported diagnosis and/or treatment of ADHD, anxiety disorder, and mood disorder. ASD severity was measured by using Social Responsiveness Scale total raw scores. RESULTS: There were 3319 children who met inclusion criteria. Of these, 1503 (45.3%) had ADHD. Comorbid ADHD increased with age (P < .001) and was associated with increased ASD severity (P < .001). A generalized linear model revealed that children with ASD and ADHD had an increased risk of anxiety disorder (adjusted relative risk 2.20; 95% confidence interval 1.97-2.46) and mood disorder (adjusted relative risk 2.72; 95% confidence interval 2.28-3.24) compared with children with ASD alone. Increasing age was the most significant contributor to the presence of anxiety disorder and mood disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Co-occurrence of ADHD is common in children with ASD. Children with both ASD and ADHD have an increased risk of anxiety and mood disorders. Physicians who care for children with ASD should be aware of the coexistence of these treatable conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 39(2): 168-176, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the data available in 3 large databases for use in conducting studies of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: The article describes the data structure, data elements, and strengths and weaknesses of the 3 data sets. RESULTS: Each of the 3 data sets, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN), the Autism Treatment Network (ATN), and PEDSnet have large cohorts of children with ASD. IAN has strengths in patient-reported measures, ATN in clinical characterization, and PEDSnet in health care encounters and electronic medical record data. CONCLUSION: The data sets described here have potential for further studies that could help improve the care and well-being of children with ASD and their families.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Pesquisa Biomédica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Pediatria , Humanos
7.
Curr Dev Disord Rep ; 4(4): 137-144, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188169

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screener for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) validated for age 4.0 +. There is a clinical need for an ASD screener for children beyond the 30-month age limit of the M-CHAT-R/F. We evaluate the literature on the use of the SCQ in children < 4.0 years. Recent Findings: Recent studies have used very large samples; included typically developing children, rather than just those with developmental disorders; compared the SCQ Lifetime and Current versions; and increased scrutiny of internal validity. Summary: The sensitivity-specificity balance in distinguishing between ASD and other developmental disorders is poor, which has led to development of abbreviated versions of the SCQ; however, sensitivity-specificity balance is better in a more general population. The SCQ Lifetime (not Current) version should be used. Future research relating should focus on further validation of the SCQ as a screener for children 30-48 months.

8.
Rehabil Psychol ; 59(3): 340-8, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25019309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about accessibility to health care transition (HCT) services (HCT) for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined how often youth with ASD receive HCT services and how access varied by individual, family, and health system characteristics. METHOD: Questionnaires were completed by 101 parents of youth with ASD (ages 12-17 years) enrolled in a national online autism registry. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were used to examine a composite HCT variable and its components. RESULTS: Fewer than 15% of youth received HCT services. Although 41% received at least 1 HCT discussion, only 3% received all 3. One-quarter had a discussion with their health care provider about transitioning to an adult provider, adult health care needs, or insurance retention, and 31% of providers encouraged youth to take on more responsibilities. Most caregivers reported not needing 1 or more of the discussions. RESULTS varied significantly when the sample was divided by age, with older youth more likely to have received transition services than younger adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a significant disparity in access to HCT services for youth with ASD. Further research is needed to understand this disparity and develop interventions to improve HCT both for youth with ASD and those with other disabling health conditions. Additionally, many caregivers do not recognize the importance of HCT services. Education and training for caregivers, youth, and providers is essential to ensure all parties are working together to address transition issues early and often.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/reabilitação , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transição para Assistência do Adulto/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
9.
Matern Child Health J ; 18(3): 672-80, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23793533

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between having access to a medical home and unmet needs for specialty care services for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Parents of children enrolled in a national autism registry were invited to complete an online Access to Care Questionnaire. The resulting sample consisted of 371 parents-child dyads. Bivariate and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to determine whether having a medical home was associated with the number of unmet needs for specialty care. Less than one in five children with ASD had a medical home (18.9%). Nearly all parents reported that their child had a personal doctor or nurse as well as a usual source of care, but less than one-third received coordinated care (29.9%) and less than one-half received family-centered care (47.1%). Many children had unmet needs (63%), and the highest unmet need was for behavioral therapy. Having a medical home was associated with fewer unmet specialty care needs, even after demographic, child and family characteristics were taken into account. Children with ASD who have a medical home are more likely to have adequate access to needed services. Unfortunately, relatively few children have a medical home that includes family-centered and coordinated care. Enhancements in the delivery of primary care for children with ASD may make a real difference in access to needed specialty care services, potentially improving child and family outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Pediatrics ; 130(5): 870-7, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23045563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Anecdotal reports suggest that elopement behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) increases risk of injury or death and places a major burden on families. This study assessed parent-reported elopement occurrence and associated factors among children with ASDs. METHODS: Information on elopement frequency, associated characteristics, and consequences was collected via an online questionnaire. The study sample included 1218 children with ASD and 1076 of their siblings without ASD. The association among family sociodemographic and child clinical characteristics and time to first elopement was estimated by using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Forty-nine percent (n = 598) of survey respondents reported their child with an ASD had attempted to elope at least once after age 4 years; 26% (n = 316) were missing long enough to cause concern. Of those who went missing, 24% were in danger of drowning and 65% were in danger of traffic injury. Elopement risk was associated with autism severity, increasing, on average, 9% for every 10-point increase in Social Responsiveness Scale T score (relative risk 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.16). Unaffected siblings had significantly lower rates of elopement across all ages compared with children with ASD. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of children with ASD were reported to engage in elopement behavior, with a substantial number at risk for bodily harm. These results highlight the urgent need to develop interventions to reduce the risk of elopement, to support families coping with this issue, and to train child care professionals, educators, and first responders who are often involved when elopements occur.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Família , Comportamento Errante/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Autism Res Treat ; 2012: 435646, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22934172

RESUMO

Mood disorders occur more frequently in family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than in the general population. There may be associations between maternal mood disorder history patterns and specific ASD phenotypes. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal mood disorders and child autism spectrum disorders in 998 mother-child dyads enrolled in a national online autism registry and database. Mothers of children with ASD completed online questionnaires addressing their child's ASD as well as their own mood disorder history. In multivariate logistic regression models of ASD diagnoses, the odds of an Asperger disorder versus autistic disorder diagnosis were higher among those children whose mothers had a lifetime history of bipolar disorder (OR 2.11, CI 1.20, 3.69) or depression (OR 1.62, CI 1.19, 2.19). Further, maternal mood disorder onset before first pregnancy was associated with higher odds (OR 2.35, CI 1.48, 3.73) of an Asperger versus autism diagnosis among this sample of children with ASD. These data suggest that differences in maternal mood disorder history may be associated with ASD phenotype in offspring.

13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 42(2): 257-65, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21468770

RESUMO

Growing interest in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research requires increasingly large samples to uncover epidemiologic trends; such a large dataset is available in a national, web-based autism registry, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). The objective of this study was to verify parent-report of professional ASD diagnosis to the registry's database via a medical record review on a sample of IAN Research participants. Sixty-one percent of families agreed to participate; 98% (n = 116) of whom provided documentation verifying a professionally diagnosed ASD. Results of this study suggest that information collected from parents participating in IAN Research is valid, participants can be authenticated, and that scientists can both confidently use IAN data and recruit participants for autism research.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Pais , Sistema de Registros , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 41(1): 110-21, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20473589

RESUMO

The study's objectives were to assess diagnostic stability of initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in community settings and identify factors associated with diagnostic instability using data from a national Web-based autism registry. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the relative risk of change in initial ASD diagnosis as a function of demographic characteristics, diagnostic subtype, environmental factors and natural history. Autistic disorder was the most stable initial diagnosis; pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified was the least stable. Additional factors such as diagnosing clinician, region, when in time a child was initially diagnosed, and history of autistic regression also were significantly associated with diagnostic stability in community settings. Findings suggest that the present classification system and other secular factors may be contributing to increasing instability of community-assigned labels of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Autism Res Treat ; 2011: 405849, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22937248

RESUMO

We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

16.
Autism Res Treat ; 2011: 874619, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22937257

RESUMO

Entry into early intervention depends on both age of first parent concern (AOC) and age at initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (AOD). Using data collected from a national online registry from 6214 children diagnosed with an ASD between 1994 and 2010 in the US, we analyzed the effect of individual, family, and geographic covariates on AOC and AOD in a multivariate linear regression model with random effects. Overall, no single modifiable factor associated with AOC or AOD emerged but cumulative variation in certain individual- and family-based features, as well as some geographic factors, all contribute to AOC and AOD variation. A multipronged strategy is needed for targeted education and awareness campaigns to maximize outcomes and decrease disparities in ASD care.

17.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 153B(6): 1119-26, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20552678

RESUMO

While strong familial evidence supports a substantial genetic contribution to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), specific genetic abnormalities have been identified in only a small minority of all cases. In order to comprehensively delineate the genetic components of autism including the identification of rare and common variants, overall sample sizes an order of magnitude larger than those currently under study are critically needed. This will require rapid and scalable subject assessment paradigms that obviate clinic-based time-intensive behavioral phenotyping, which is a rate-limiting step. Here, we test the accuracy of a web-based approach to autism phenotyping implemented within the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). Families who were registered with the IAN and resided near one of the three study sites were eligible for the study. One hundred seven children ascertained from this pool who were verbal, age 4-17 years, and had Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) scores > or =12 (a profile that characterizes a majority of ASD-affected children in IAN) underwent a clinical confirmation battery. One hundred five of the 107 children were ASD positive (98%) by clinician's best estimate. One hundred four of these individuals (99%) were ASD positive by developmental history using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and 97 (93%) were positive for ASD by developmental history and direct observational assessment (Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule or expert clinician observation). These data support the reliability and feasibility of the IAN-implemented parent-report paradigms for the ascertainment of clinical ASD for large-scale genetic research.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Internet , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Tamanho da Amostra
18.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 40(3): 342-51, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19806445

RESUMO

Patterns of current psychotropic medication use among 5,181 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enrolled in a Web-based registry were examined. Overall, 35% used at least one psychotropic medication, most commonly stimulants, neuroleptics, and/or antidepressants. Those who were uninsured or exclusively privately insured were less likely to use >or=3 medications than were those insured by Medicaid. Psychiatrists and neurologists prescribed the majority of psychotropic medications. In multivariate analysis, older age, presence of intellectual disability or psychiatric comorbidity, and residing in a poorer county or in the South or Midwest regions of the United States increased the odds of psychotropic medication use. Factors external to clinical presentation likely affect odds of psychotropic medication use among children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med ; 163(10): 907-14, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19805709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine patterns of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) inheritance and other features in twin pairs by zygosity, sex, and specific ASD diagnosis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Internet-based autism registry for US residents. PARTICIPANTS: Survey results from 277 twin pairs (210 dizygotic [DZ] and 67 monozygotic [MZ]) aged 18 years or younger with at least 1 affected twin. MAIN EXPOSURES: Zygosity and sex. OUTCOME MEASURES: Concordance within twin pairs of diagnosis, natural history, and results from standardized autism screening. RESULTS: Pairwise ASD concordance was 31% for DZ and 88% for MZ twins. Female and male MZ twins were 100% and 86% concordant, respectively, and DZ twin pairs with at least 1 female were less likely to be concordant (20%) than were male-male DZ twin pairs (40%). The hazard ratio for ASD diagnosis of the second twin after a first-twin diagnosis was 7.48 for MZ vs DZ twins (95% confidence interval, 3.8-14.7). Affected DZ individual twins had an earlier age at first parental concern and more frequent diagnoses of intellectual disability than did MZ twins; MZ twins had a higher prevalence of bipolar disorder and Asperger syndrome and higher concordance of the latter. Results of autism screening correlated with parent-reported ASD status in more than 90% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support greater ASD concordance in MZ vs DZ twins. Overall higher functioning, psychiatric comorbidity, and Asperger syndrome concordance among affected MZ vs DZ twins may also suggest differential heritability for different ASDs. For families in which one MZ twin is diagnosed with ASD, the second twin is unlikely to receive an ASD diagnosis after 12 months. In addition, Internet parent report of ASD status is valid.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Asperger/genética , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 39(8): 1099-111, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19294498

RESUMO

We analyzed predictors of parent-reported initial diagnosis (autistic disorder [AD], pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS], pervasive developmental disorder ['PDD'] and autism spectrum disorder ['ASD'], and Asperger syndrome [AS]), among 6,176 individuals with autism spectrum disorders diagnosed from 1994 through 2007. Overall, distribution of diagnoses was influenced by a secular time trend factor; other significant factors included ethnicity, white race, geographic location, urbanicity, and initial evaluator. Since 2001, most initial diagnoses of AD and AS have remained steady while 'PDD' and PDD-NOS have decreased. 'ASD' diagnoses have increased, especially among school-based teams; AS diagnoses also increased uniquely among these evaluators. Findings from this study suggest that current diagnostic guidelines may not be meeting all community evaluator needs.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/classificação , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Síndrome de Asperger/classificação , Síndrome de Asperger/diagnóstico , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos
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