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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618823

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the experience of 4 oculoplastic surgeons with porcine bladder matrix for periocular anterior lamella and donor site skin defects either as stand-alone treatment or in conjunction with other reconstructive procedures. The authors hypothesized that defect size and location influence the requirement for additional matrix treatments or ancillary procedures. METHODS: Following the Institutional Review Board approval, the authors conducted a retrospective review of 17 patients treated with porcine bladder matrix at 2 oculoplastic practices between 2016 and 2018. Powdered matrix was applied to the skin defect and overlaid with a matrix sheet. Subsequent rounds of matrix treatment or other reconstructive procedures were performed as necessary. Defect size and location were correlated to the number of ancillary matrix treatments or surgical procedures via univariate analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-five sites (21 primary and 4 donor) in 17 individuals (8-95 years, M = 58.8 years, 10 males) were treated with porcine bladder matrix. All wounds healed successfully. Additional matrix treatments were administered at 5 sites. Ancillary procedures were performed for 7 sites. Upper lid involvement and larger defect size tended to require additional ancillary procedures (p = 0.006), while lower eyelid and other periocular defects required fewer procedures (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Porcine bladder matrices are useful adjuncts to healing periocular anterior lamella defects in various settings. Such repairs are useful in nonsurgical candidates, but must take into account varying levels of complexity based on lesion location. Smaller defects are more conducive to application of matrices as stand-alone treatment, while larger or upper eyelid defects often require additional procedures.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parent-child interaction therapies are commonly used by speech and language therapists (SLTs) when providing services to young children with language learning difficulties. However, the way parents react to the demands of such interventions is clearly important, especially for those from socially disadvantaged backgrounds. Parents play a central role in the therapy process so to ensure parent engagement, and to maximize intervention effectiveness, parents' views must be considered. AIMS: To explore the expectations and experiences of parents from socially disadvantaged backgrounds who had taken part in a parent-child interaction programme aimed at promoting language development in 2-3 year olds with language difficulties. METHODS & PROCEDURES: The sample included parents who had a child aged 2-3 years and had attended a parent-child interaction programme to promote their child's language development. Parents were eligible to take part if they were living in the 30% most deprived areas in a city in the North of England that constituted the study site. Ten parents participated in a qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interview in the home. Framework analysis was used to analyse the interview transcripts. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Parents' expectations before taking part in parent-child interaction interventions contribute to how they may engage throughout the intervention process. Barriers include parents' uncertainty about the nature of the intervention and differing attitudes regarding intervention approaches and strategies. Facilitators during the intervention process include gaining support from other parents, reassurance from the SLT regarding their child's language development, and their own ability to support their child's language learning, as well as increased confidence in how they support their child's development. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Parents respond very differently to parent-child interaction intervention for children with language difficulties, depending on their expectations and attitudes towards intervention. Thus, it is critical that these different perspectives are understood by practitioners before intervention commences to ensure successful engagement. What this paper adds What is already known on this subject Parent-child interaction interventions are widely used to promote child language development. Parents play a central role in the therapy process of such interventions, so to maximize effectiveness, parents must be appropriately 'engaged' in that intervention. This involves attending, fully participating and having appropriate attitudinal and/or emotional involvement. The reciprocal nature of engagement means that parents are more likely to become engaged in intervention over time when they are supported by their SLT. What this paper adds to existing knowledge Parental expectations about the intervention process vary considerably and often need to be negotiated before the start of intervention. Reassurance and supporting positive attitudes to co-working with their SLT may be particularly important for families living with social disadvantage. Supporting parent engagement in parent-child interaction programmes can contribute to the parents' capability to continue implementing language-promoting strategies outside the intervention context and beyond the end of therapy. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? Parents have different expectations regarding programme involvement. Therefore, having a two-way, open dialogue between parents and SLTs from the beginning is clearly important, not only as a way of sharing information but also to build on parents' understanding of what the intervention will involve and trust that the SLT will be able to deliver the intervention in collaboration with the parent. SLTs can enhance parent engagement by supporting parents to feel confident and providing reassurance in terms of their child's development and how they can support their child's language learning.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467521

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Injury to the eye and/or orbital and adnexal structures associated with antiquated muzzle-loading firearms has not, to our knowledge, been characterized with the exception of a single case report. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 7 patients treated at Vanderbilt University Medical Center from 2003 to 2017 who sustained traumatic injuries to the ocular and/or orbital structures secondary to the discharge of muzzle-loading firearms. The study was approved by the Vanderbilt Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: In 6/7 cases, injuries occurred secondary to the muzzle-loading firearm exploding due to dysfunction or misuse. Foreign material deriving from the firearm was retained in 3/7 patients. Initial examination of the orbit and adnexa revealed 5/7 individuals sustaining orbital fractures and 6/7 with facial lacerations (including 2 with eyelid lacerations); none had evidence of a lacrimal duct injury. Three patients suffered globe injuries (1 closed-globe and 2 open-globe). Visual acuity at last follow-up was ≥20/20 in 12/14 eyes examined. Surgical intervention was required in the treatment of 4/7 individuals (including 3/7 requiring intervention for sustained orbital fractures). No individuals were wearing eye protection at the time of injury. All individuals survived their injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The operation of muzzle-loading firearms poses a unique risk of injury to the operator. The resultant injuries in this case series were primarily due to the explosion of the firearm, which subsequently appear similar to orbital and ocular blast injuries caused by explosive weapons. Orbital injuries and more potentially more devastating ocular injuries may have been prevented by protective eyewear.

4.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 213: 57-61, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the relative effectiveness of combined recession-resection of vertical rectus muscles versus superior rectus recession with inferior oblique weakening for patients who underwent surgical correction of chin-down abnormal head position (AHP) associated with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series. METHODS: This is a review of 22 patients who underwent surgical correction of chin-down vertical AHP associated with INS at an academic institution. The primary outcome was collapse of AHP. Unfavorable outcomes included repeat surgery and induced strabismus, in addition to failure of collapse of AHP. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients had chin-down AHP. Recession-resection (bilateral superior rectus recession 6-9 mm; bilateral inferior rectus resection 5-9 mm) was performed in 11 cases; weakening of both elevators (bilateral superior rectus recession 5-8 mm, bilateral inferior oblique recession or myectomy) occurred in 11 cases. Unfavorable outcome rates were 64% (7/11) compared with 18% (2/11), respectively (P = .03). Reoperation was performed for 6 of 22 patients. Five patients were from the recession-resection group, namely 3 for induced V-pattern esotropia, 1 for alternating esotropia, and 1 to correct recurrent AHP. The last of the 6 who required reoperation was in the elevator weakening group, and required correction of a recurrent AHP (P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: While recession-resection of the vertical recti and weakening of both elevators each produce acceptable collapse of chin-down AHP, the former frequently induces a V-pattern esotropia requiring reoperation.


Assuntos
Cabeça/fisiologia , Nistagmo Congênito/cirurgia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Postura/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Queixo/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nistagmo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
5.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 210: 3-7, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term outcomes of surgical treatment for abnormal head positioning (AHP) associated with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Review of 150 patients who underwent surgery for AHP associated with nystagmus. Outcomes included head positioning, duction limitations, and strabismus, and were evaluated several times postoperatively. Successful collapse of AHP was defined as being ≤10°. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients had surgery for AHP in the pitch (chin up/down) position, whereas 119 had surgery for a horizontal AHP. In addition, 54 underwent 50%-60% augmentation, 19 underwent 40% augmentation, 5 underwent less than 40% augmentation. Thirty-eight had surgical dose modified to correct strabismus, and 3 underwent surgery different from standard Kestenbaum procedures. Collapse of AHP: At the 1-3-week follow-up (n = 131), 125 patients (95%) had collapse of AHP. The percentage trended down at the 2-5-month (91%, n = 106) and 2-year follow-ups (83%, n = 57). However, at 5 and 10 years, it was 93% (n = 42) and 93% (n = 14), respectively, due to reoperation in a small minority. Over- and undercorrection: At 1-3 weeks, 5% of patients were overcorrected whereas 0% were undercorrected. Over- and undercorrection rates peaked at 2 years postoperatively. Ten years out, there were no overcorrections and 7% undercorrections. Four percent of patients required reoperation for overcorrection (mean 2.7 years) and 5% did for undercorrection (mean 3.9 years). CONCLUSION: Surgery for the head positioning associated with INS produces excellent outcomes throughout 10 years postoperatively. Overcorrection presents early and resolves either over time or with additional surgery. Undercorrection develops later and can persist despite reoperation.


Assuntos
Cabeça/fisiologia , Nistagmo Patológico/cirurgia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Postura/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Nistagmo Patológico/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/cirurgia
6.
Child Dev ; 91(2): e365-e382, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697706

RESUMO

This study investigates associations between trajectories of children's vocabulary development and subsequent behavioral and emotional difficulties via two potential mediating mechanisms; literacy and peer problems. Nationally representative data from 4,983 Australian children were used to examine trajectories of receptive vocabulary (4-5, 6-7, and 8-9 years) and hyperactivity-inattention, conduct problems and emotional symptoms (8-9, 10-11, 12-13, 14-15 years), and literacy and peer problems (8-9 years). Lower growth in vocabulary was related to trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention, conduct problems, and emotional symptoms. Literacy was a key mediator explaining these associations. Results were consistent for children below the 50th percentile for vocabulary at 4-5 years compared to the full sample. These findings suggest that early literacy-based interventions may alleviate declining academic, emotional and behavioral functioning in adolescence.

7.
J Endocr Soc ; 3(12): 2411-2426, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777769

RESUMO

Objective: The interaction between thyroid status and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation is complex. We assessed the effect of autoimmune hypothyroidism (ATD) in female children on BAT activation, measured using infrared thermography. Design: Twenty-six female participants (14 with ATD and 12 healthy controls) between 5 and 17 years of age attended a single study session. Thermal images were taken of the supraclavicular region before, and after, the introduction of a cool stimulus. Results: Participants with ATD had lower resting (hypothyroid, 34.9 ± 0.7°C; control, 35.4 ± 0.5°C; P = 0.03) and stimulated (hypothyroid, 35.0 ± 0.6°C; control, 35.5 ± 0.5°C; P = 0.04) supraclavicular temperatures compared with controls, but there was no difference between groups in the temperature increase with stimulation. BAT activation, calculated as the relative temperature change comparing the supraclavicular temperature to a sternal reference region, was reduced in participants with ATD (hypothyroid, 0.1 ± 0.1°C; control, 0.2 ± 0.2°C; P = 0.04). Children with ATD were frequently biochemically euthyroid due to replacement therapy, but, despite this, increased relative supraclavicular temperature was closely associated with increased TSH (r = 0.7, P = 0.01) concentrations. Conclusions: Girls with ATD had an attenuated thermogenic response to cold stimulation compared with healthy controls, but, contrary to expectation, those with suboptimal biochemical control (with higher TSH) showed increased BAT activation. This suggests that the underlying disease process may have a negative effect on BAT response, but high levels of TSH can mitigate, and even stimulate, BAT activity. In summary, thyroid status is a complex determinant of BAT activity in girls with ATD.

8.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 208: 342-346, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472158

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is no consensus on the surgical management of head position associated with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) when strabismus coexists, and few outcome data have been published. We propose classifying strabismus into concordant or discordant based on the relationship between head positioning and strabismus and then modifying surgery accordingly. Our objective is to describe this system and to review surgical outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with INS and coexisting horizontal strabismus underwent surgery for horizontal head positioning and had ≥2 months of follow-up from 1995-2018 at the Vanderbilt Eye Institute. Outcome variables included head positioning (minimal, ≤10°; mild, 11-30°; moderate 31-44°; and severe ≥45°), strabismus (range 0-70 prism diopters [PDs]; minimal ≤10 PD), and reoperation rates. Nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank, Fisher exact, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-one cases were concordant and 7 were discordant; the mean follow-up was 4.1 years. Ninety-six percent of patients had moderate to severe head positioning at baseline. Correction rates (to minimal) were 100% at 2-5 months postoperatively and 86% at last follow-up (P < .0001 at both time points compared with preoperatively). The magnitude of strabismus decreased compared with preoperative strabismus (30.8 ± 10.8 PDs; n = 28), strabismus at 2-5 months (9.1 ± 11.9 PDs; P = .0001; n = 26), and last follow-up (12.0 ± 14.1 PDs; P = .0003; n = 28). The overall reoperation rate was 32%. CONCLUSIONS: Our classification system in patients with INS allows a systematic way to surgically improve head positioning and strabismus in cases of moderate to severe baseline head positioning.


Assuntos
Cabeça/fisiologia , Nistagmo Congênito/cirurgia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Postura/fisiologia , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Nistagmo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Planejamento , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/fisiopatologia , Tenotomia , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
9.
Eur J Public Health ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine whether the Parental Responsiveness Rating Scale (PaRRiS) completed at child age 24-30 months can be used by community child health nurses (CCHNs) to reliably measure the quality of parent-child interactions in practice. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was used involving CCHNs working in public health settings. Five CCHNs recruited from the North-East of England were trained to use PaRRiS. Thirty parent-child dyads attending their routine 24-30-month check were observed. Nurses rated parent-child dyads during 5 min of free-play using PaRRiS. The free-play sessions were video recorded and rated blind by the first author to the nurse observation. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with the five CCHNs once observations of parent-child interactions were complete. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymized and thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Two-thirds of participating parents were mothers. Half the families (15/30) were from the 10% most deprived areas based on the English Index of Multiple Deprivation. The average PaRRiS score was 3.03 [standard deviation (SD) = 0.8; all ratings were <5.0]. Reliability between the first author ('gold standard') and CCHNs was excellent [Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67-0.93]. CCHNs found PaRRiS aligned well with current practice and was acceptable to parents. There was no evidence of a relationship between social disadvantage and PaRRiS scores. CONCLUSIONS: With further development and evaluation work, PaRRiS could potentially be incorporated into existing universal health services to provide child health nurses with an additional tool for identifying families most likely to be in need of parent-child interaction interventions.

11.
J Commun Disord ; 82: 105922, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between parental input and child language development has had a complex history. It has become clear that indirect parent training for the parents of children with delayed language development is an important feature of interventions offered by speech and language therapists in the anglophone countries. Yet we know less about how this type of approach is realised in other countries. METHODS: In this paper we report the results of a survey of practice undertaken as part of the work of COST Action IS1406, a European Union (EU) funded research network. The focus of this paper is specifically on parent-related questions and responses referring to children under the age of twelve. The survey was devised by members of the Action and circulated electronically during the summer of 2017. In all, 4024 practitioners responded from 60 countries, the majority of whom came from EU member countries. FINDINGS: Respondents to the survey indicated that indirect therapy is commonly carried out via the parent in the early years and via teachers later. A range of professional groups, in addition to speech and language therapists, is likely to adopt this approach; including teachers, pedagogues and psychologists. A variety of interventions is reported, some of which have a reasonable evidence-base underpinning them. It is interesting to see the widespread involvement of fathers and other family members in interventions. Finally, the fact that practitioner characteristics (age, experience, location of practice etc.) are not related to the use of indirect techniques points to the universal recognition of the value of these approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very different traditions in the practice of intervention across countries, there is clearly a widespread recognition of the importance of indirect approaches to intervention and specifically those focusing on parents. The mixture of family members being involved in interventions is a very promising indication of the role sharing commonly associated with the contemporary family. Yet the number of specific intervention approaches identified is relatively small given the number of respondents. There is a need for a better understanding of what exactly practitioners are doing when they involve parents in intervention or carry out parent-child interaction interventions and how well these interventions work in routine practice. This also has implications for the application of evidence-based practice and the precise nature of the interventions concerned (advice to parents, video interaction training etc.).

12.
Trials ; 20(1): 499, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that experiences in the early years play a major role in children's development in terms of health, wellbeing and educational attainment. The Trial of healthy relationship initiatives for the very early years (THRIVE) aims to evaluate two antenatal group interventions, Enhanced Triple P for Baby and Mellow Bumps, designed for those with additional health or social care needs in pregnancy. As both interventions aim to improve maternal mental health and parenting skills, we hypothesise that in the longer term, participation may lead to an improvement in children's life trajectories. METHODS: THRIVE is a three-arm, longitudinal, randomised controlled trial aiming to recruit 500 pregnant women with additional health or social care needs. Participants will be referred by health and social care professionals, predominately midwives. Consenting participants will be block randomised to one of the three arms: Enhanced Triple P for Baby plus care as usual, Mellow Bumps plus care as usual or care as usual. Groups will commence when participants are between 20 and 34 weeks pregnant. DISCUSSION: The population we aim to recruit are traditionally referred to as "hard to reach", therefore we will monitor referrals received from maternity and social care pathways and will be open to innovation to boost referral rates. We will set geographically acceptable group locations for participants, to limit challenges we foresee for group participation and retention. We anticipate the results of the trial will help inform policy and practice in supporting women with additional health and social care needs during antenatal and early postnatal periods. This is currently a high priority for the Scottish and UK Governments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN) Registry, ISRCTN:21656568 . Registered on 28 February 2014 (registered retrospectively (by 3 months)).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Saúde Materna , Saúde Mental , Mães/educação , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Serviço Social , Fatores de Tempo , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9104, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235722

RESUMO

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is able to rapidly generate heat and metabolise macronutrients, such as glucose and lipids, through activation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Diet can modulate UCP1 function but the capacity of individual nutrients to promote the abundance and activity of UCP1 is not well established. Caffeine consumption has been associated with loss of body weight and increased energy expenditure, but whether it can activate UCP1 is unknown. This study examined the effect of caffeine on BAT thermogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Stem cell-derived adipocytes exposed to caffeine (1 mM) showed increased UCP1 protein abundance and cell metabolism with enhanced oxygen consumption and proton leak. These functional responses were associated with browning-like structural changes in mitochondrial and lipid droplet content. Caffeine also increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha expression and mitochondrial biogenesis, together with a number of BAT selective and beige gene markers. In vivo, drinking coffee (but not water) stimulated the temperature of the supraclavicular region, which co-locates to the main region of BAT in adult humans, and is indicative of thermogenesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that caffeine can promote BAT function at thermoneutrality and may have the potential to be used therapeutically in adult humans.

14.
Child Care Health Dev ; 45(5): 719-736, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preschool language and behavioural difficulties impact on multiple domains of the child's early life and can endure into adulthood, predicting poor educational, social, and health outcomes. Highlighting risk factors associated with poor outcomes following language and behavioural difficulties raised in early childhood may facilitate early identification and intervention. METHODS: Data from the Growing Up in Scotland national birth cohort study were used. Language and behavioural difficulties were assessed at age 4 years using parent-reported language concerns and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Measures of adjustment were collated into four key outcome domains: attitude to school life, language and general development, behaviour, and general health at age 6 years. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted in order to explore independent associations between language and behavioural difficulties at age 4 years and adjustment to life circumstances at age 6 years, whilst controlling for other risk factors. RESULTS: Language difficulties at age 4 years increased the odds of the child experiencing difficulty with language and general development, poorer health outcomes, and behavioural difficulties at age 6 years. Behavioural difficulties alone at age 4 years were associated with increased odds of the child experiencing all of the aforementioned outcomes and difficulties in early school life. Lone parent family, low income, and male gender were identified as risk factors for poorer outcomes in the domains measured. At age 4 years, there was no additive effect found with the presence of behaviour difficulties on the relationship between language difficulties and language and developmental outcomes at 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: This paper demonstrates language and behavioural difficulties are associated with poor social, educational, health, and behavioural outcomes. Taking seriously parent-reported concerns and identifying risk factors could limit negative outcomes for the child, their family, and society.

15.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 71(4): 168-175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048575

RESUMO

Speech and language therapists often contribute to public awareness campaigns as well as supporting, teaching and promoting the facilitation of speech, language, communication, and safe swallowing with the general public and health and social care professionals. These are sometimes considered as public health interventions. It is important to consider the objectives, costs, and impact of this involvement in the same way as reviewing the evidence associated with the more personally targeted interventions with individuals or groups of clients with specific conditions. This opinion piece discusses speech and language therapy in the context of public health, clarifies the terminology, and proposes different approaches to demonstrate its influence associated with its objectives. The content has been informed by a Working Party of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (2017-2018).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Comunicação/terapia , Comunicação , Terapia da Linguagem/organização & administração , Idioma , Saúde Pública , Fonoterapia/organização & administração , Fala , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos da Comunicação/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Comunicação/reabilitação , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Objetivos , Educação em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Internacionalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Terminologia como Assunto , Reino Unido
16.
J Pediatr ; 210: 166-172.e1, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in school-age children differs between the sexes and to explore the impact of dietary intake, sedentary behavior, and picky/fussy eating. STUDY DESIGN: Children aged 8.5-11.8 years of age (n = 36) underwent infrared thermography to determine the temperature of the skin overlying the main superficial BAT depot in the supraclavicular region before and after 5 minutes of mild cold exposure (single-hand immersion in cool tap water at about 20°C). The relationships between the supraclavicular region temperature and parental reports of food consumption, eating behavior, and inactivity were explored. RESULTS: The supraclavicular region temperature was higher in boys (n = 16) at baseline, and after cold exposure. Boys displayed a greater thermogenic response to cold. Strong negative correlations were observed between the supraclavicular region temperature and body mass index percentile, and differences in supraclavicular region temperature between girls and boys persisted after adjustment for body mass index percentile. A negative linear relationship was observed between protein and vegetable intake and supraclavicular region temperature in girls only, but did not persist after adjustment for multiple comparisons. There was no difference in the adjusted supraclavicular region temperature between active or inactive children, or picky and nonpicky eaters. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate sexual dimorphism in BAT thermogenic activity and a sex-specific impact of diet. Future studies should aim to quantify the contribution of BAT to childhood energy expenditure, energy imbalance, and any role in the origins of childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Termografia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Temperatura Baixa , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Termogênese , Verduras
17.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 54(3): 362-376, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between social disadvantage and early language development is commonly reported in the literature, but less attention has been paid to the way that different aspects of social disadvantage affect both expressive and receptive language in the first 2 years of life. AIMS: To examine the contributions of gender, parental report of early language skills and proximal social variables (the amount of stimulation in the home, the resources available to the child and the attitudes/emotional status of the primary carer and the support available to him/her) controlling for distal social variables (family income and maternal education) to children's expressive and receptive language development at 2 years in a community ascertained population cohort. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Data from 1314 children in the Children in Focus (CiF) sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were analyzed. Multivariable regression models identified the contribution of proximal (what parents do with their children) measures of social disadvantage adjusting for more distal (e.g., family income and material wealth) measures as well as early language development at 15 months to the development of verbal comprehension, expressive vocabulary and expressive grammar (word combinations) at 2 years of age. OUTCOME & RESULTS: In the final multivariable models gender, earlier language and proximal social factors, co-varying for distal factors predicted 36% of the variance for expressive vocabulary, 22% for receptive language and 27% for word combinations at 2 years. Language development at 15 months remained a significant predictor of outcomes at 24 months. Environmental factors were associated with both expressive scales but the picture was rather more mixed for receptive language suggesting that there may be different mechanisms underlying the different processes. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: This study supports the argument that social advantage makes a strong contribution to children's language development in the early years. The results suggest that what parents/carers do with their children is critical even when structural aspects of social disadvantage such as family income and housing have been taken into consideration although this relationship varies for different aspects of language. This has the potential to inform the targeting of public health interventions focusing on early language and pre-literacy skills on the one hand and home learning environments on the other and, potentially, the two in combination.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Poder Familiar , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Leitura , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis
18.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 251: 259-282, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980912

RESUMO

Historically, brown adipose tissue has been elusive and not easy to detect, hence its relative obscurity in human physiology until its rediscovery in 2009. At that point, it was proven that the symmetrical artefacts frequently detected on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which resolved if the environment was kept warm, were brown adipose tissue deposits. PET-CT has remained the stalwart of human brown adipose tissue research and is still considered the gold standard. However, PET-CT exposes the participant to ionising radiation, limiting studies to large, but retrospective, review of clinical imaging or a small-scale, but prospective, design. Within this context, alternative imaging modalities have been sought. Due to the heat-generating properties of brown adipose tissue, infrared thermography is a natural candidate for measuring its activity and the supraclavicular depot is relatively superficial, allowing detection of the heat signature. Infrared thermography is a non-invasive, non-contact technique for measuring temperature remotely. Recent developments in image analysis techniques have facilitated the use of infrared thermography to study brown adipose tissue activation in populations, and in ways, not previously feasible.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Termografia , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Temperature (Austin) ; 5(2): 147-161, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393752

RESUMO

Interest in brown adipose tissue has increased in recent years as a potential target for novel obesity, diabetes and metabolic disease treatments. One of the significant limitations to rapid progress has been the difficulty in measuring brown adipose tissue activity, especially in humans. Infrared thermography (IRT) is being increasingly recognized as a valid and complementary method to standard imaging modalities, such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT). In contrast to PET/CT, it is non-invasive, cheap and quick, allowing, for the first time, the possibility of large studies of brown adipose tissue (BAT) on healthy populations and children. Variations in study protocols and analysis methods currently limit direct comparison between studies but IRT following appropriate BAT stimulation consistently shows a change in supraclavicular skin temperature and a close association with results from BAT measurements from other methods.

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