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1.
J Safety Res ; 73: 189-193, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563392

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The volume of new data that is created each year relevant to injury and violence prevention continues to grow. Furthermore, the variety and complexity of the types of useful data has also progressed beyond traditional, structured data. In order to more effectively advance injury research and prevention efforts, the adoption of data science tools, methods, and techniques, such as natural language processing and machine learning, by the field of injury and violence prevention is imperative. METHOD: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Injury Prevention and Control has conducted numerous data science pilot projects and recently developed a Data Science Strategy. This strategy includes goals on expanding the availability of more timely data systems, improving rapid identification of health threats and responses, increasing access to accurate health information and preventing misinformation, improving data linkages, expanding data visualization efforts, and increasing efficiency of analytic and scientific processes for injury and violence, among others. RESULTS: To achieve these goals, CDC is expanding its data science capacity in the areas of internal workforce, partnerships, and information technology infrastructure. Practical Application: These efforts will expand the use of data science approaches to improve how CDC and the field address ongoing injury and violence priorities and challenges.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(16): 496-498, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324720

RESUMO

On January 19, 2020, the state of Washington reported the first U.S. laboratory-confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 (1). As of April 19, a total of 720,630 COVID-19 cases and 37,202 associated deaths* had been reported to CDC from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and four U.S. territories (2). CDC recommends, with precautions, the proper cleaning and disinfection of high-touch surfaces to help mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (3). To assess whether there might be a possible association between COVID-19 cleaning recommendations from public health agencies and the media and the number of chemical exposures reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS), CDC and the American Association of Poison Control Centers surveillance team compared the number of exposures reported for the period January-March 2020 with the number of reports during the same 3-month period in 2018 and 2019. Fifty-five poison centers in the United States provide free, 24-hour professional advice and medical management information regarding exposures to poisons, chemicals, drugs, and medications. Call data from poison centers are uploaded in near real-time to NPDS. During January-March 2020, poison centers received 45,550 exposure calls related to cleaners (28,158) and disinfectants (17,392), representing overall increases of 20.4% and 16.4% from January-March 2019 (37,822) and January-March 2018 (39,122), respectively. Although NPDS data do not provide information showing a definite link between exposures and COVID-19 cleaning efforts, there appears to be a clear temporal association with increased use of these products.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Public Health Rep ; 134(5): 552-558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Foodborne disease is a pervasive problem caused by consuming food or drink contaminated by infectious or noninfectious agents. The 55 US poison centers receive telephone calls for advice on foodborne disease cases that may be related to a foodborne disease outbreak (FBDO). Our objective was to assess whether poison center call records uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) can be used for surveillance of noninfectious FBDOs in the United States. METHODS: We matched NPDS records on noninfectious FBDO agents in the United States with records in the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) for 2000-2010. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis comparing NPDS matched and unmatched records to assess features of NPDS records that may indicate a confirmed noninfectious FBDO. RESULTS: During 2000-2010, FDOSS recorded 491 noninfectious FBDOs of known etiology and NPDS recorded 8773 calls for noninfectious foodborne disease exposures. Of 8773 NPDS calls, 469 (5.3%) were matched to a noninfectious FBDO reported to FDOSS. Multivariable logistic regression indicated severity of medical outcome, whether the call was made by a health care professional, and etiology as significant predictors of NPDS records matching an FDOSS noninfectious FBDO. CONCLUSIONS: NPDS may complement existing surveillance systems and response activities by providing timely information about single cases of foodborne diseases or about a known or emerging FBDO. Prioritizing NPDS records by certain call features could help guide public health departments in the types of noninfectious foodborne records that most warrant public health follow-up.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Notificação de Abuso , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(2): 125-131, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046868

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Official counts of deaths attributed to disasters are often under-reported, thus adversely affecting public health messaging designed to prevent further mortality. During the Oklahoma (USA) May 2013 tornadoes, Oklahoma State Health Department Division of Vital Records (VR; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma USA) piloted a flagging procedure to track tornado-attributed deaths within its Electronic Death Registration System (EDRS). To determine if the EDRS was capturing all tornado-attributed deaths, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia USA) evaluated three event fatality markers (EFM), which are used to collate information about deaths for immediate response and retrospective research efforts. METHODS: Oklahoma identified 48 tornado-attributed deaths through a retrospective review of hospital morbidity and mortality records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia USA) analyzed the sensitivity, timeliness, and validity for three EFMs, which included: (1) a tornado-specific flag on the death record; (2) a tornado-related term in the death certificate; and (3) X37, the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) code in the death record for Victim of a Cataclysmic Storm, which includes tornadoes. RESULTS: The flag was the most sensitive EFM (89.6%; 43/48), followed by the tornado term (75.0%; 36/48), and the X37 code (56.2%; 27/48). The most-timely EFM was the flag, which took 2.0 median days to report (range 0-10 days), followed by the tornado term (median 3.5 days; range 1-21), and the X37 code (median >10 days; range 2-122). Over one-half (52.1%; 25/48) of the tornado-attributed deaths were missing at least one EFM. Twenty-six percent (11/43) of flagged records had no tornado term, and 44.1% (19/43) had no X37 code. Eleven percent (4/36) of records with a tornado term did not have a flag. CONCLUSION: The tornado-specific flag was the most sensitive and timely EFM. Using the flag to collate death records and identify additional deaths without the tornado term and X37 code may improve immediate response and retrospective investigations. Moreover, each of the EFMs can serve as quality controls for the others to maximize capture of all disaster-attributed deaths from vital statistics records in the EDRS.Issa AN, Baker K, Pate D, Law R, Bayleyegn T, Noe RS. Evaluation of Oklahoma's Electronic Death Registration System and event fatality markers for disaster-related mortality surveillance - Oklahoma USA, May 2013. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):125-131.


Assuntos
Atestado de Óbito , Planejamento em Desastres , Tornados , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(30): 815-818, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070980

RESUMO

Tianeptine (marketed as Coaxil or Stablon) is an atypical tricyclic drug used as an antidepressant in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In the United States, tianeptine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medical use and is an unscheduled pharmaceutical agent* (1). Animal and human studies show that tianeptine is an opioid receptor agonist (2). Several case studies have reported severe adverse effects and even death from recreational abuse of tianeptine (3-5). To characterize tianeptine exposures in the United States, CDC analyzed all exposure calls related to tianeptine reported by poison control centers to the National Poison Data System (NPDS)† during 2000-2017. Tianeptine exposure calls, including those for intentional abuse or misuse, increased across the United States during 2014-2017, suggesting a possible emerging public health risk. Most tianeptine exposures occurred among persons aged 21-40 years and resulted in moderate outcomes. Neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal signs and symptoms were the most commonly reported health effects, with some effects mimicking opioid toxicity. A substantial number of tianeptine exposure calls also reported clinical effects of withdrawal. Among 83 tianeptine exposures with noted coexposures, the most commonly reported coexposures were to phenibut, ethanol, benzodiazepines, and opioids.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Tiazepinas/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 56(7): 646-652, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235366

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC's notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. METHODS: We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. DISCUSSION: NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Dados , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Saúde Pública , Detergentes/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Epidemiologistas , Humanos , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
7.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 11(5): 562-567, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28438227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved ashore near Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing widespread morbidity and mortality, $30 to $50 billion in economic damage, and 8.5 million households to be without power. The combination of power outages and unusually low temperatures led people to use alternate power sources, placing many at risk for CO exposure. METHODS: We examined Hurricane Sandy-related CO exposures from multiple perspectives to help identify risk factors and develop strategies to prevent future exposures. This report combined data from 3 separate sources (health departments, poison centers via the National Poison Data System, and state and local public information officers). RESULTS: Results indicated that the number of CO exposures in the wake of Hurricane Sandy was significantly greater than in previous years. The persons affected were mostly females and those in younger age categories and, despite messaging, most CO exposures occurred from improper generator use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the continued importance of CO-related communication and ongoing surveillance of CO exposures to support public health response and prevention during and after disasters. Additionally, regional poison centers can be a critical resource for potential on-site management, public health promotion, and disaster-related CO exposure surveillance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:562-567).


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Tempestades Ciclônicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Envenenamento/economia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Neve , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tempestades Ciclônicas/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey/epidemiologia , New York/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Virginia/epidemiologia
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(8): 223-226, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253227

RESUMO

Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Etanol/envenenamento , Higienizadores de Mão/envenenamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(29): 748-9, 2016 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27466822

RESUMO

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4). Published case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, and deaths (5,6). Because deaths have been attributed to kratom in the United States (7), some jurisdictions have passed or are considering legislation to make kratom use a felony (8). CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015. The NPDS is a national database of information logged by the country's regional poison centers serving all 50 United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico and is maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. NPDS case records are the result of call reports made by the public and health care providers.


Assuntos
Mitragyna/envenenamento , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Med Toxicol ; 12(4): 350-357, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette use is increasing, and the long-term impact on public health is unclear. We described the acute adverse health effects from e-cigarette exposures reported to U.S. poison centers. METHODS: We compared monthly counts and demographic, exposure, and health effects data of calls about e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes made to poison centers from September 2010 through December 2014. RESULTS: Monthly e-cigarette calls increased from 1 in September 2010, peaked at 401 in April 2014, and declined to 295 in December 2014. Monthly conventional cigarette calls during the same period ranged from 302 to 514. E-cigarette calls were more likely than conventional cigarette calls to report adverse health effects, including vomiting, eye irritation, and nausea. Five e-cigarette calls reported major health effects, such as respiratory failure, and there were two deaths associated with e-cigarette calls. CONCLUSION: E-cigarette calls to U.S. poison centers increased over the study period, and were more likely than conventional cigarettes to report adverse health effects. It is important for health care providers and the public to be aware of potential acute health effects from e-cigarettes. Developing strategies to monitor and prevent poisonings from these novel devices is critical.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Linhas Diretas/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(22): 618-9, 2015 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26068566

RESUMO

On April 6, 2015, CDC received notification of an increase in telephone calls to U.S. poison centers related to synthetic cannabinoid use. Monthly calls to all poison centers are tracked by the National Poison Data System, which reported that adverse health effects or concerns about possible adverse health effects related to synthetic cannabinoid use increased 330% from 349 in January 2015 to 1,501 in April 2015. Synthetic cannabinoids include various psychoactive chemicals or a mixture of such chemicals that are sprayed onto plant material, which is then often smoked or ingested to achieve a "high." These products are sold under a variety of names (e.g., synthetic marijuana, spice, K2, black mamba, and crazy clown) and can be sold in retail outlets as herbal products. Law enforcement agencies have regulated a number of these substances; however, manufacturers of synthetic cannabinoids frequently change the formulation to avoid detection and regulation. After the initial notification, CDC analyzed information from the National Poison Data System on reported adverse health effects related to synthetic cannabinoid use for the period January-May 2015.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/envenenamento , Drogas Desenhadas/envenenamento , Linhas Diretas/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canabinoides/síntese química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Drogas Desenhadas/síntese química , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Legislação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 29(5): 521-4, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25205009

RESUMO

The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Biovigilância/métodos , Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento em Desastres , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(13): 292-3, 2014 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24699766

RESUMO

Electronic nicotine delivery devices such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine, flavorings (e.g., fruit, mint, and chocolate), and other chemicals via an inhaled aerosol. E-cigarettes that are marketed without a therapeutic claim by the product manufacturer are currently not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In many states, there are no restrictions on the sale of e-cigarettes to minors. Although e-cigarette use is increasing among U.S. adolescents and adults, its overall impact on public health remains unclear. One area of concern is the potential of e-cigarettes to cause acute nicotine toxicity. To assess the frequency of exposures to e-cigarettes and characterize the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarettes, CDC analyzed data on calls to U.S. poison centers (PCs) about human exposures to e-cigarettes (exposure calls) for the period September 2010 (when new, unique codes were added specifically for capturing e-cigarette calls) through February 2014. To provide a comparison to a conventional product with known toxicity, the number and characteristics of e-cigarette exposure calls were compared with those of conventional tobacco cigarette exposure calls.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/efeitos adversos , Linhas Diretas/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/envenenamento , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
14.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 51(1): 41-6, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23043524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March of 2011, an earthquake struck Japan causing a tsunami that resulted in a radiological release from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Surveillance for potential radiological and any iodine/iodide product exposures was initiated on the National Poison Data System (NPDS) to target public health messaging needs within the United States (US). Our objectives are to describe self-reported exposures to radiation, potassium iodide (KI) and other iodine/iodide products which occurred during the US federal response and discuss its public health impact. METHODS: All calls to poison centers associated with the Japan incident were identified from March 11, 2011 to April 18, 2011 in NPDS. Exposure, demographic and health outcome information were collected. Calls about reported radiation exposures and KI or other iodine/iodide product ingestions were then categorized with regard to exposure likelihood based on follow-up information obtained from the PC where each call originated. Reported exposures were subsequently classified as probable exposures (high likelihood of exposure), probable non-exposures (low likelihood of exposure), and suspect exposure (unknown likelihood of exposure). RESULTS: We identified 400 calls to PCs associated with the incident, with 340 information requests (no exposure reported) and 60 reported exposures. The majority (n = 194; 57%) of the information requests mentioned one or more substances. Radiation was inquired about most frequently (n = 88; 45%), followed by KI (n = 86; 44%) and other iodine/iodide products (n = 47; 24%). Of the 60 reported exposures, KI was reported most frequently (n = 25; 42%), followed by radiation (n = 22; 37%) and other iodine/iodide products (n = 13; 22%). Among reported KI exposures, most were classified as probable exposures (n = 24; 96%); one was a probable non-exposure. Among reported other iodine/iodide product exposures, most were probable exposures (n = 10, 77%) and the rest were suspect exposures (n = 3; 23%). The reported radiation exposures were classified as suspect exposures (n = 16, 73%) or probable non-exposures (n = 6; 27%). No radiation exposures were classified as probable exposures. A small number of the probable exposures to KI and other iodide/iodine products reported adverse signs or symptoms (n = 9; 26%). The majority of probable exposures had no adverse outcomes (n = 28; 82%). These data identified a potential public health information gap regarding KI and other iodine/iodide products which was then addressed through public health messaging activities. CONCLUSION: During the Japan incident response, surveillance activities using NPDS identified KI and other iodine/iodide products as potential public health concerns within the US, which guided CDC's public health messaging and communication activities. Regional PCs can provide timely and additional information during a public health emergency to enhance data collected from surveillance activities, which in turn can be used to inform public health decision-making.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Iodetos/toxicidade , Iodo/toxicidade , Iodeto de Potássio/toxicidade , Doses de Radiação , Efeitos da Radiação , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Seguimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Vigilância da População , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
15.
Ann Emerg Med ; 59(1): 56-61, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21937144

RESUMO

The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration.


Assuntos
Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Biovigilância/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Envenenamento/etiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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