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1.
Aging Ment Health ; 24(1): 110-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345800

RESUMO

Objectives: Explorations of relationships between loneliness and depression have focused on loneliness as a uni-dimensional construct. We hypothesised that reciprocal relationships may exist between depressive symptomatology and social and emotional subtypes of loneliness.Methods: Using data from 373 adults aged over 50, who participated in an observational cohort study, we employed a cross-lagged approach within a Structural Equation Modelling framework, to investigate reciprocal links between depressive symptomatology, and social and emotional loneliness, across two waves of data collection, two years apart (controlling for age, sex, education, comorbidities, social network index, and perceived stress).Results: Both depressive symptomatology and loneliness decreased slightly between waves. Auto-regressive effects were strong for all three variables of interest. Cross-lagged pathways were evident, such that depressive symptomatology at baseline predicted both emotional (ß = 0.26, p < 0.05) and social (ß = 0.17, p < 0.05) loneliness at follow-up. Neither emotional (ß = 0.07, p > 0.05) nor social (ß = 0.05, p > 0.05) loneliness at baseline predicted depressive symptomatology at follow-up.Conclusions: Results challenge existing understanding of the associations between loneliness and depression. Further investigation of emotional and social loneliness in individuals with depressive disorders is warranted. Findings are discussed in relation to mechanisms that may explain the relationships observed, and possible implications.

2.
Exp Gerontol ; 130: 110794, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790801

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have linked age-related hearing loss (ARHL) with an increased risk of neurocognitive decline. Difficulties in speech perception with subsequent changes in brain morphometry, including regions important for lexical-semantic memory, are thought to be a possible mechanism for this relationship. This study investigated differences in automatic and executive lexical-semantic processes on verbal fluency tasks in individuals with acquired hearing loss. The primary outcomes were indices of automatic (clustering/word retrieval at start of task) and executive (switching/word retrieval after start of the task) processes from semantic and phonemic fluency tasks. To extract indices of clustering and switching, we used both manual and computerised methods. There were no differences between groups on indices of executive fluency processes or on any indices from the semantic fluency task. The hearing loss group demonstrated weaker automatic processes on the phonemic fluency task. Further research into differences in lexical-semantic processes with ARHL is warranted.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999806

RESUMO

Based on biologically plausible mechanisms and previous research, it is possible to hypothesize a reciprocal association between sustained attention and loneliness. We investigated this association using a cross-lagged modeling approach. Using data from 6,239 participants aged over 50 in TILDA, a nationally representative study of aging, we used structural equation models to investigate potential cross-lagged associations between sustained attention and loneliness, measured at baseline and again after four years. Sustained attention at baseline had a small association with loneliness four years later, but loneliness at baseline was not associated with sustained attention at follow-up. Auto-regressive associations were strong for both loneliness over time and sustained attention over time. Sustained attention may account for a small proportion of the variance in loneliness over time among older adults, and may constitute a risk factor in the development of loneliness. Implications for the identification of at-risk individuals and the prevention of loneliness are discussed.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868123

RESUMO

This study investigated the association between age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and differences in response efficiency and variability on a sustained attention task. The study population comprised 32 participants in a hearing loss group (HLG) and 34 controls without hearing loss (CG). Mean reaction time (RT) and accuracy were recorded to assess response efficiency. RT variability was decomposed to examine temporal aspects of variability associated with neural arousal and top-down executive control of vigilant attention. The HLG had a significantly longer mean RT, possibly reflecting a strategic approach to maintain accuracy. The HLG also demonstrated altered variability (indicative of greater decline in neural arousal) but maintained executive control that was significantly predictive of poorer response efficiency. Adults with ARHL may rely on higher-order attention networks to compensate for decline in both peripheral sensory function and in subcortical arousal systems which mediate lower-order automatic neurocognitive processes.

5.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; : 891988719882091, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665962

RESUMO

Osteoporotic fractures are associated with major morbidity and mortality, particularly among older age groups. In recent decades, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) antidepressants have been linked to reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of fragility fracture. However, up to one-third of antidepressant prescriptions are for classes other than SSRIs. Older patients, who are particularly vulnerable to osteoporosis and its clinical and psychosocial consequences, may be prescribed non-SSRI antidepressants preferentially because of increasing awareness of the risks SSRIs pose to bone health. However, to date, the skeletal effects of non-SSRI antidepressants have not been comprehensively reviewed. In this article, we collate and review the available data and discuss the findings. Based on the current literature, we tentatively suggest that tricyclic antidepressants may increase the risk of fracture via mechanisms other than a direct effect on bone mineral density. The risk is apparently confined to current users only and is greatest in the earliest stage of treatment, diminishing thereafter. There is, as yet, insufficient data to conclusively determine the effects of other antidepressant classes on bone. Judicious prescribing of antidepressants among higher risk groups necessitates a thorough review of the individual's risk factors for osteoporosis as well as attention to their falls risk. Further longitudinal, rigorously controlled studies are needed to answer some of the remaining questions on the effects of non-SSRI antidepressants on bone and the mechanisms by which they are exerted.

6.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1172-1180, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542965

RESUMO

Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been shown to have predictive value over blood pressure (BP) levels alone in stroke patients. We assessed whether BPV predicts cognitive and functional decline in Alzheimer disease, using data from a randomized trial (NILVAD [A European Multicentre Double-blind Placebo-controlled Phase III Trial of Nilvadipine in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease]). Patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease were included if they had ≥3 office BP measurements available to determine visit-to-visit BPV. Day-to-day BPV was assessed using home BP measurements in a subsample. The variation independent of mean was used to calculate BPV. Outcomes were change in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale-12 and Disability Assessment for Dementia after 1 and 1.5 years. A total of 460 patients aged 72.1 (SD=8.1) years, with mean BP of 134.0/75.1 (10.9/6.3) mm Hg were included. After 1 year, patients in the highest quartile of BPV had deteriorated more on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale compared with patients in the lowest quartile (systolic: ß, 2.24 [95% CI, 0.11-4.38], P=0.040; diastolic: ß, 2.54 [95% CI, 0.33-4.75] P=0.024). This association was still present after 1.5 years (systolic: ß, 2.86 [95% CI, 0.35-5.36], P=0.026; diastolic: ß, 3.30 [95% CI, 0.67-5.93], P=0.014). There was no effect of visit-to-visit BPV on Disability Assessment for Dementia. Day-to-day BPV was available for 46 patients. Significant associations were observed between day-to-day BPV and deterioration on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (systolic: P=0.036) and Disability Assessment for Dementia (systolic: P=0.020; diastolic: P=0.007) after 1 year, but not after 1.5 years. All associations were adjusted for potential confounders, including intervention group. In conclusion, this post hoc analysis indicates that higher visit-to-visit and day-to-day BPV might be associated with progression of Alzheimer disease. Targeting BPV may be a future target to slow decline in patients with Alzheimer disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02017340.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Nifedipino/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nifedipino/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(12): 1739-1746, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Differentiating normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia is important, as these conditions differ in terms of their prognosis and treatment. Existing short cognitive screening tests vary widely in their accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity at detecting MCI and dementia. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen (QMCI) was developed in 2012 as a fast and accurate "MCI specific" screening test. The aim of the current study was to conduct a literature review to compare the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the QMCI at differentiating normal cognition, MCI, and dementia to existing short cognitive screening tests at their optimal cut-off scores. METHODS: A search of the electronic journal databases EBSCO, Psych info, and Science Direct was undertaken using the keywords "Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen," "QMCI," "accuracy," "sensitivity," and "specificity." Results of individual studies were examined, and 2 × 2 tables were drawn up to obtain the overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of each test across the studies included. RESULTS: Results from individual studies show that the QMCI has higher accuracy at detecting MCI and dementia than these cognitive screens. Pooled analysis shows that it also has greater sensitivity and specificity at optimal cut-off points for each test. CONCLUSIONS: Based in the current review, the QMCI represents a more accurate, sensitive, and specific screening test for MCI and dementia than the SMMSE or the MoCA. This has important implications in screening for cognitive impairment.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12600, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467387

RESUMO

Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) has been posited as a possible modifiable risk factor for neurocognitive impairment and dementia. Measures sensitive to early neurocognitive changes associated with ARHL would help to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning this relationship. We hypothesized that ARHL might be associated with decline in visual short-term memory binding (VSTMB), a potential biomarker for preclinical dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined differences in accuracy between older adults with hearing loss and a control group on the VSTMB task from a single feature (shapes) condition to a feature binding (shapes-colors) condition. Hearing loss was associated with a weaker capacity to process bound features which appeared to be accounted for by a weaker sensitivity for change detection (A'). Our findings give insight into the neural mechanisms underpinning neurocognitive decline with ARHL and its temporal sequence.

9.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 413-420, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203725

RESUMO

Cerebrovascular changes, including reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), occur early in the development of Alzheimer disease and may accelerate disease progression. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated how 6 months of treatment with the calcium antagonist nilvadipine would affect CBF in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease. CBF was measured with magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling in whole-brain gray matter and in a priori defined regions of interest including the hippocampus. Fifty-eight patients were randomly assigned (29 in each group), of whom 22 in both groups had no magnetic resonance exclusion criteria and were medication compliant over 6 months. Mean age was 72.8±6.2 years, mean mini-mental state examination was 20.4±3.4. Nilvadipine treatment lowered systolic blood pressure (Δ=-11.5 [95% CI, -19.7 to -3.2] mm Hg; P<0.01), while whole-brain gray-matter CBF remained stable (Δ=5.4 [95% CI, -6.4 to 17.2] mL/100 g per minute; P=0.36). CBF in the hippocampus increased (left: Δ=24.4 [95% CI, 4.3-44.5] mL/100 g per minute; P=0.02; right: Δ=20.1 [95% CI, -0.6 to 40.8] mL/100 g per minute; P=0.06). There was no significant change in CBF in the posterior cingulate cortex (Δ=5.2 [95% CI, -16.5 to 27.0] mL/100 g per minute; P=0.63) or other regions of interest. In conclusion, nilvadipine reduced blood pressure and increased CBF in the hippocampus, whereas other regions showed stable or small nonsignificant increases in CBF. These findings not only indicate preserved cerebral autoregulation in Alzheimer disease but also point toward beneficial cerebrovascular effects of antihypertensive treatment. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02017340.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Nifedipino/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Nifedipino/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(10): e011938, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088188

RESUMO

Background Hypertension is common among patients with Alzheimer disease. Because this group has been excluded from hypertension trials, evidence regarding safety of treatment is lacking. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial assessed whether antihypertensive treatment increases the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in patients with Alzheimer disease. Methods and Results Four hundred seventy-seven patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease were randomized to the calcium-channel blocker nilvadipine 8 mg/day or placebo for 78 weeks. Presence of OH (blood pressure drop ≥20/≥10 mm Hg after 1 minute of standing) and OH-related adverse events (dizziness, syncope, falls, and fractures) was determined at 7 follow-up visits. Mean age of the study population was 72.2±8.2 years and mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 20.4±3.8. Baseline blood pressure was 137.8±14.0/77.0±8.6 mm Hg. Grade I hypertension was present in 53.4% (n=255). After 13 weeks, blood pressure had fallen by -7.8/-3.9 mm Hg for nilvadipine and by -0.4/-0.8 mm Hg for placebo ( P<0.001). Across the 78-week intervention period, there was no difference between groups in the proportion of patients with OH at a study visit (odds ratio [95% CI]=1.1 [0.8-1.5], P=0.62), nor in the proportion of visits where a patient met criteria for OH, corrected for number of visits (7.7±13.8% versus 7.3±11.6%). OH-related adverse events were not more often reported in the intervention group compared with placebo. Results were similar for those with baseline hypertension. Conclusions This study suggests that initiation of a low dose of antihypertensive treatment does not significantly increase the risk of OH in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02017340.

11.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between loneliness and cognitive functioning, and whether depressive and anxiety symptoms have intermediate roles therein. METHODS: Information about 7,433 participants of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (a prospective, representative cohort study), aged over 50, was collected at three time-points two years apart, and analysed using Structural Equation Modelling to assess whether depressive and anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between loneliness and cognitive functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured as a latent factor, with four indicators: measures of immediate and delayed word recall, verbal fluency, and a global measure (the MMSE). Loneliness was measured using the UCLA Loneliness scale, depressive symptoms using the CES-D-ML scale, and anxiety symptoms using the HADS-A scale. RESULTS: Loneliness at time-point 1 predicted cognitive functioning at time-point 3, ß = -0.103, p < 0.001, and depressive (ß = 0.426, p < 0.001) and anxiety (ß = 0.410, p < 0.001) symptoms at time-point 2. Depressive (ß = -0.020, p = 0.001) but not anxiety (ß = -0.000, p = 0.658) symptoms mediated the relationship between loneliness and cognitive functioning, total effect: ß = -0.123, p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The relationship between loneliness and cognitive functioning is in part explained by its relationship with depressive symptoms. Statistically, the mediation model helps us understand possible mechanisms through which loneliness impacts cognitive functioning. Results have implications for cognitive functioning interventions for older adults, and imply that loneliness is also a worthwhile target for intervention.

12.
Neurosci Res ; 148: 54-60, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641113

RESUMO

The search for a blood-based biomarker that identifies Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can replace current invasive and expensive diagnostic tests, continues. The most extensively-examined peripheral marker is ß-amyloid (Aß) but the results are inconsistent across studies and do not reflect the changes that take place in the brain. Several studies have assessed possible proteomic signatures but with inconsistent findings, although increases in circulating inflammatory molecules are generally observed. Here, rather than focus on identifying changes in the circulation, we evaluated the effect of plasma from patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD on the human monocyte-like cell line, THP-1 cells, and plasma from an AD mouse model on a mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line, J774.2 cells. Plasma from AD patients and the AD mouse model increased inflammatory molecules in the cells and these changes were accompanied by an increase in glycolysis. Interestingly, plasma from MCI patients exerted no significant effect on THP-1 cells. The possibility therefore exists that evaluating the effect of plasma on IL-8 and TNFα mRNA in THP-1 cells combined with analysis of glycolysis in these cells, may be the basis of an indicator that discriminates between AD and MCI and normal controls, but is unlikely to be useful in identifying early pathological changes.

13.
Ir J Med Sci ; 188(2): 625-631, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity represents a modifiable behaviour which may be associated with increased likelihood of experiencing positive mental health. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the association between self-rated physical activity and subjective indicators of both positive and negative mental health in an Irish adult population. METHODS: Based on data from a population-based, observational, cross-sectional study, participants were categorised using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) into those who reported that they did and did not meet recommended physical activity requirements. Self-reported positive and negative mental health indicators were assessed using the Energy and Vitality Index (EVI) and the Mental Health Index-5 (MHI-5) from the SF-36 Health Survey Instrument, respectively. Binary logistic regression was used to identify variables independently associated with self-reported positive and negative mental health. RESULTS: A total of 7539 respondents were included in analysis. Overall, 32% reported that they met recommended minimal physical activity requirements. Self-reported positive and negative mental health were reported by 16 and 9% of respondents, respectively. Compared with those who reported meeting-recommended physical activity requirements, those performing no physical activity were three times less likely to report positive mental health (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.55) and three times more likely to report negative mental health (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.38-4.50). CONCLUSION: Compared with those who do not, those who report meeting-recommended physical activity requirements are more and less likely to report experiencing positive and negative mental health, respectively. Future policy development around physical activity should take cognisance of the impact of this activity on both physical and mental health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Saúde Mental/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Aging ; 34(1): 152-162, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211594

RESUMO

Few longitudinal studies have explored the impact of loneliness on social engagement. We investigated whether loneliness would result in decreased social engagement over time among older adults and also whether the converse, that low levels of social engagement would predict increases in loneliness, held. Additionally, we explored potential mechanisms (specifically, memory and depressive symptomatology as mediators) in the bidirectional relationship(s) between loneliness and social engagement. Data from 4,714 adults over 50 years of age, participating in Waves 3, 4, and 5 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (between 2006 and 2011), were analyzed using bivariate dual change scores within structural equation models. Higher levels of loneliness were inversely associated with social engagement over time, and high levels of social engagement were inversely associated with loneliness over time. To address the 2nd aim, we used structural equation modeling to evaluate potential mediators of the bidirectional relationships between loneliness and changes in social engagement. Depressive symptomatology, semantic memory, and episodic memory were found to partially mediate the relationship between loneliness measured at baseline and social engagement 4 years later. In addition, these variables also partially mediated the relationship between social engagement at baseline and loneliness 4 years later. A comparison of the 2 models revealed that the model proposing a pathway from loneliness to social engagement (as mediated by depressive symptoms and memory) provided a better fit to the data. Implications for theories of loneliness are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Solidão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Aging Ment Health ; 23(5): 566-573, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381387

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Caregiving for a person with dementia is frequently used to model the impact of chronic stress on health, including cognitive functioning. However, the prevalence of typically healthier, self-selecting non-caregiving control groups could contribute to a picture of poorer caregiver performance and overstate the negative effects of stress. We investigated differences in cognitive performance between dementia caregivers and two groups of non-caregivers recruited using different sampling methods. DESIGN AND METHODS: We compared cognitive function and psychological wellbeing among 252 spousal dementia caregivers with demographically matched non-caregiving control groups drawn from (1) a population study and (2) a self-selecting sample. Comparable cognitive measures included immediate and delayed recall, processing speed reaction time and verbal fluency. RESULTS: Caregiver and non-caregiver performance was comparable on most cognitive domains. However, caregivers outperformed both control groups on processing speed (p ≤ .05) and reaction time (p ≤ .05), despite having higher levels of stress and depression (ps < .001). Furthermore, caregivers had significantly better free recall than self-selecting controls (p < .001). IMPLICATIONS: Our results, overall, do not support the idea that caregiving is associated with stress-induced cognitive deficits. Rather, the trend toward better caregiver performance is consistent with the healthy caregiver hypothesis.

16.
Hypertension ; 72(1): 139-150, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844143

RESUMO

Cerebral autoregulation and baroreflex sensitivity are key mechanisms that maintain cerebral blood flow. This study assessed whether these control mechanisms are affected in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer disease, as this would increase the risks of antihypertensive treatment. We studied 53 patients with dementia (73.1 years [95% confidence interval (CI), 71.4-74.8]), 37 patients with mild cognitive impairment (69.2 years [95% CI, 66.4-72.0]), and 47 controls (69.4 years [95% CI, 68.3-70.5]). Beat-to-beat blood pressure (photoplethysmography), heart rate, and cerebral blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler) were measured during 5-minute rest (sitting) and 5 minutes of orthostatic challenges, using repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers. Cerebral autoregulation was assessed using transfer function analysis and the autoregulatory index. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated with transfer function analysis and by calculating the heart rate response to blood pressure changes during the orthostatic challenges. Dementia patients had the lowest cerebral blood flow velocity (P=0.004). During rest, neither transfer function analysis nor the autoregulatory index indicated impairments in cerebral autoregulation. During the orthostatic challenges, higher autoregulatory index (P=0.011) and lower transfer function gain (P=0.017), indicating better cerebral autoregulation, were found in dementia (4.56 arb. unit [95% CI, 4.14-4.97]; 0.59 cm/s per mm Hg [95% CI, 0.51-0.66]) and mild cognitive impairment (4.59 arb. unit [95% CI, 4.04-5.13]; 0.51 cm/s per mm Hg [95% CI, 0.44-0.59]) compared with controls (3.71 arb. unit [95% CI, 3.35-4.07]; 0.67 cm/s per mm Hg [95% CI, 0.59-0.74]). Baroreflex sensitivity measures did not differ between groups. In conclusion, the key mechanisms to control blood pressure and cerebral blood flow are not reduced in 2 stages of Alzheimer disease compared with controls, both in rest and during orthostatic changes that reflect daily life challenges.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
17.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 15(9): 828-847, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Speech and Language Impairments, generally attributed to lexico-semantic deficits, have been documented in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigates the temporal organisation of speech (reflective of speech production planning) in reading aloud in relation to cognitive impairment, particularly working memory and attention deficits in MCI and AD. The discriminative ability of temporal features extracted from a newly designed read speech task is also evaluated for the detection of MCI and AD. METHOD: Sixteen patients with MCI, eighteen patients with mild-to-moderate AD and thirty-six healthy controls (HC) underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and read a set of sentences varying in cognitive load, probed by manipulating sentence length and syntactic complexity. RESULTS: Our results show that Mild-to-Moderate AD is associated with a general slowness of speech, attributed to a higher number of speech chunks, silent pauses and dysfluences, and slower speech and articulation rates. Speech chunking in the context of high cognitive-linguistic demand appears to be an informative marker of MCI, specifically related to early deficits in working memory and attention. In addition, Linear Discriminant Analysis shows the ROC AUCs (Areas Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves) of identifying MCI vs. HC, MCI vs. AD and AD vs. HC using these speech characteristics are 0.75, 0.90 and 0.94 respectively. CONCLUSION: The implementation of connected speech-based technologies in clinical and community settings may provide additional information for the early detection of MCI and AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Leitura , Fala , Acústica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Curva ROC
18.
Case Rep Psychiatry ; 2018: 5972954, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666739

RESUMO

Background: Conversion disorder is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood. We present a previously undescribed form of conversion disorder to highlight the complexity of the condition and consider the interplay of factors that produce conversion symptoms. Case: A 50-year-old male presented with acquired prosopagnosia and language impairment. Neuropsychological testing indicated right temporal lobe dysfunction. Extensive work-up outruled an organic aetiology. Reactivation of childhood trauma coincided with the onset of his symptoms. Childhood trauma is known to have adverse effects on the developing brain which may affect an individual's emotional behaviour and coping style. Functional neuroimaging techniques suggest that conversion symptoms may be linked to the disruption of higher order neural circuitry involved in the integration of emotional processing and cortical functioning. Conclusions: We propose that our patient's adverse childhood experiences led to the development of a particular personality and coping style that "primed" him for a later abnormal emotional and behavioural response when confronted with reminders of his traumatic background. Further interdisciplinary studies are required to further elucidate the neurobiological basis for this condition.

19.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 66(4): 755-759, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of verbal fluency discrepancy scores in predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a cohort of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: Case control. SETTING: Cases identified from new referrals to a memory clinic and controls identified from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. PARTICIPANTS: Of 308 individuals with MCI at baseline identified from consecutive referrals to a memory clinic and compared at with age-, sex-, and education-matched controls (n=302), 161 completed 2 years of follow-up or progressed to AD during the study period. MEASUREMENTS: Verbal fluency discrepancy (semantic-phonemic fluency) scores at baseline were calculated for each participant. Each case was followed with repeated neuropsychological measurements, and multidisciplinary consensus diagnosis was recorded. RESULTS: Mean discrepancy score for those who progressed to AD (2.7) was significantly lower than for those who retained a MCI diagnosis (4.8) and normal controls (7.7) (p<.001). Logistic regression revealed that, for each unit decrease in discrepancy score at baseline, the odds of progressing to AD were 9% greater. (Exp(B) = 1.09, p=.02) CONCLUSION: Individuals with MCI have less of a semantic advantage than those without MCI. Those with MCI presenting with a phonemic advantage at initial assessment warrant close follow-up and a high index of suspicion for progression to AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Semântica , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Verbal
20.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 144(2): 115-126, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222544

RESUMO

Importance: Epidemiologic research on the possible link between age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and cognitive decline and dementia has produced inconsistent results. Clarifying this association is of interest because ARHL may be a risk factor for outcomes of clinical dementia. Objectives: To examine and estimate the association between ARHL and cognitive function, cognitive impairment, and dementia through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources and Study Selection: A search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and SCOPUS from inception to April 15, 2016, with cross-referencing of retrieved studies and personal files for potentially eligible studies was performed. Keywords included hearing, cognition, dementia, and Alzheimer disease. Cohort and cross-sectional studies published in peer-reviewed literature and using objective outcome measures were included. Case-control studies were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: One reviewer extracted and another verified data. Both reviewers independently assessed study quality. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses of study-level characteristics were performed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hearing loss measured by pure-tone audiometry only and objective assessment measures of cognitive function, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Cognitive function outcomes were converted to correlation coefficients (r value); cognitive impairment and dementia outcomes, to odds ratios (ORs). Results: Forty studies from 12 countries met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 36 unique studies with an estimated 20 264 unique participants were included in the meta-analyses. Based on the pooled maximally adjusted effect sizes using random-effects models, a small but significant association was found for ARHL within all domains of cognitive function. Among cross-sectional studies, a significant association was found for cognitive impairment (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.39-2.89) and dementia (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.24-4.72). Among prospective cohort studies, a significant association was found for cognitive impairment (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.36) and dementia (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.59) but not for Alzheimer disease (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 0.72-4.00). In further analyses, study, demographic, audiometric, and analyses factors were associated with cognitive function. Vascular dysfunction and impaired verbal communication may contribute to the association between hearing loss and cognitive decline. Conclusions and Relevance: Age-related hearing loss is a possible biomarker and modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Additional research and randomized clinical trials are warranted to examine implications of treatment for cognition and to explore possible causal mechanisms underlying this relationship.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Demência/complicações , Presbiacusia/complicações , Presbiacusia/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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