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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bone turnover, which regulates bone mass, may exert metabolic consequences, particularly on markers of glucose metabolism and adiposity. To better understand these relationships, we examined cross-sectional associations between bone turnover markers (BTMs) and metabolic traits in a population with high bone mass (HBM, BMD Z-score ≥+3.2). DESIGN: ß-C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (ß-CTX), procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and osteocalcin were assessed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Metabolic traits, including lipids and glycolysis-related metabolites, were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Associations of BTMs with metabolic traits were assessed using generalized estimating equation linear regression, accounting for within-family correlation, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, height, weight, menopause, bisphosphonate and oral glucocorticoid use). RESULTS: A total of 198 adults with HBM had complete data, mean [SD] age 61.6 [13.7] years; 77% were female. Of 23 summary metabolic traits, citrate was positively related to all BTMs: adjusted ßß-CTX  = 0.050 (95% CI 0.024, 0.076), P = 1.71 × 10-4 , ßosteocalcin  = 6.54 × 10-4 (1.87 × 10-4 , 0.001), P = .006 and ßP1NP  = 2.40 × 10-4 (6.49 × 10-5 , 4.14 × 10-4 ), P = .007 (ß = increase in citrate (mmol/L) per 1 µg/L BTM increase). Inverse relationships of ß-CTX (ß = -0.276 [-0.434, -0.118], P = 6.03 × 10-4 ) and osteocalcin (-0.004 [-0.007, -0.001], P = .020) with triglycerides were also identified. We explored the generalizability of these associations in 3664 perimenopausal women (age 47.9 [4.4] years) from a UK family cohort. We confirmed a positive, albeit lower magnitude, association between ß-CTX and citrate (adjusted ßwomen  = 0.020 [0.013, 0.026], P = 1.95 × 10-9 ) and an inverse association of similar magnitude between ß-CTX and triglycerides (ß = -0.354 [-0.471, -0.237], P = 3.03 × 10-9 ). CONCLUSIONS: Bone resorption is positively related to circulating citrate and inversely related to triglycerides. Further studies are justified to determine whether plasma citrate or triglyceride concentrations are altered by factors known to modulate bone resorption, such as bisphosphonates.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study characterized the determinants of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in a large (n > 4,000) longitudinal cohort of healthy young people age 9 to 21 years. BACKGROUND: Greater cIMT is commonly used in the young as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, but its evolution at this age is still poorly understood. METHODS: Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT were investigated in both longitudinal (ages 9 to 17 years) and cross-sectional (ages 17 and 21 years) analyses, with the latter also related to other measures of carotid structure and stress. Additional use of ultra-high frequency ultrasound in the radial artery at age 21 years allowed investigation of the distinct layers (i.e., intima or media) that may underlie observed differences. RESULTS: Fat-free mass (FFM) and systolic blood pressure were the only modifiable risk factors positively associated with cIMT (e.g., mean difference in cIMT per 1-SD increase in FFM at age 17: 0.007 mm: 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.004 to 0.010; p < 0.001), whereas fat mass was negatively associated with cIMT (difference: -0.0032; 95% CI: 0.004 to -0.001; p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained when investigating cumulative exposure to these factors throughout adolescence. An increase in cIMT maintained circumferential wall stress in the face of increased mean arterial pressure when increases in body mass were attributable to increased FFM, but not fat mass. Risk factor-associated differences in the radial artery occurred in the media alone, and there was little evidence of a relationship between intimal thickness and any risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: Subtle changes in cIMT in the young may predominantly involve the media and represent physiological adaptations as opposed to subclinical atherosclerosis. Other vascular measures might be more appropriate for the identification of arterial disease before adulthood.

3.
Mov Disord ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization is a method for exploring observational associations to find evidence of causality. OBJECTIVE: To apply Mendelian randomization between risk factors/phenotypic traits (exposures) and PD in a large, unbiased manner, and to create a public resource for research. METHODS: We used two-sample Mendelian randomization in which the summary statistics relating to single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 5,839 genome-wide association studies of exposures were used to assess causal relationships with PD. We selected the highest-quality exposure genome-wide association studies for this report (n = 401). For the disease outcome, summary statistics from the largest published PD genome-wide association studies were used. For each exposure, the causal effect on PD was assessed using the inverse variance weighted method, followed by a range of sensitivity analyses. We used a false discovery rate of 5% from the inverse variance weighted analysis to prioritize exposures of interest. RESULTS: We observed evidence for causal associations between 12 exposures and risk of PD. Of these, nine were effects related to increasing adiposity and decreasing risk of PD. The remaining top three exposures that affected PD risk were tea drinking, time spent watching television, and forced vital capacity, but these may have been biased and were less convincing. Other exposures at nominal statistical significance included inverse effects of smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: We present a new platform which offers Mendelian randomization analyses for a total of 5,839 genome-wide association studies versus the largest PD genome-wide association studies available (https://pdgenetics.shinyapps.io/MRportal/). Alongside, we report further evidence to support a causal role for adiposity on lowering the risk of PD. © 2019 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3927, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477735

RESUMO

The duration of pregnancy is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors. Here we report a fetal genome-wide association meta-analysis of gestational duration, and early preterm, preterm, and postterm birth in 84,689 infants. One locus on chromosome 2q13 is associated with gestational duration; the association is replicated in 9,291 additional infants (combined P = 3.96 × 10-14). Analysis of 15,588 mother-child pairs shows that the association is driven by fetal rather than maternal genotype. Functional experiments show that the lead SNP, rs7594852, alters the binding of the HIC1 transcriptional repressor. Genes at the locus include several interleukin 1 family members with roles in pro-inflammatory pathways that are central to the process of parturition. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be of great public health importance, since giving birth either before or after the window of term gestation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13199, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520065

RESUMO

The incidence of gestational hypertension (GH) and pre-eclampsia (PE) is increasing. Use of blood pressure (BP) change patterns may improve early detection of BP abnormalities. We used Linear spline random-effects models to estimate BP patterns across pregnancy for white British and Pakistani women. Pakistani women compared to white British women had lower BP during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, irrespective of the development of GH or PE or presence of a risk factor. Pakistani compared to white British women with GH and PE showed steeper BP increases towards the end of pregnancy. Pakistani women were half as likely to develop GH, but as likely to develop PE than white British women. To conclude; BP trajectories differ by ethnicity. Because GH developed evenly from 20 weeks gestation, and PE occurred more commonly after 36 weeks in both ethnic groups, the lower BP up to the third trimester in Pakistani women resulted in a lower GH rate, whereas PE rates, influenced by the steep third trimester BP increase were similar. Criteria for diagnosing GH and PE may benefit from considering ethnic differences in BP change across pregnancy.

7.
Diabetologia ; 62(10): 1802-1810, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451867

RESUMO

The aetiologies of obesity and type 2 diabetes are incredibly complex, but the potential role of paternal influences remains relatively understudied. A better understanding of paternal influences on offspring risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes could have profound implications for public health, clinical practice and society. In this review, we outline potential biological and social mechanisms through which fathers might exert an impact on the health of their offspring. We also present a systematically compiled overview of the current evidence linking paternal factors to offspring development of obesity and type 2 diabetes throughout the life course. Although evidence is accumulating to support paternal associations with offspring outcomes, more high-quality research is needed to overcome specific methodological challenges and provide stronger causal evidence.

8.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(10): 1923-1931, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different directions of the association of birthweight with cardio-metabolic health have been found, especially in children, which may be explained by the mediating effect of attained adiposity. We aimed to untangle direct and BMI-mediated associations of birthweight with childhood cardio-metabolic indicators. METHODS: Children from Generation XXI birth cohort were included (n = 4881). Birthweight was abstracted from clinical files. At age 4 and 7, children were re-evaluated. Glucose, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) z-scores were the cardio-metabolic traits analyzed. Regression coefficients and respective 95% confidence intervals [ß (95%CI)] were computed using path analysis. RESULTS: Birthweight had inverse total effect on SBP at age 4 [-0.005 (-0.010; -0.001)] and 7 [-0.011 (-0.017; -0.006)] and DBP at 7 [-0.008 (-0.012; -0.004)]. Direct effects were found for SBP at 4 [-0.013 (-0.018; -0.009)] and 7 [-0.014 (-0.019; -0.009)], and DBP at 7 [-0.010 (-0.015; -0.006)], explaining the inverse total effects. Positive BMI-mediated indirect effects were found for all cardio-metabolic traits: higher birthweight was associated with higher childhood BMI, which in turn was associated with higher levels of cardio-metabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS: Positive BMI-mediated effect of birthweight on all cardio-metabolic traits was found. However, direct effects were in the opposite direction, significant for blood pressure, which may explain the diversity of results observed in the literature. Combining the direct and BMI-mediated effects, higher birthweight was associated with lower blood pressure at age 7 and have no effect on other cardio-metabolic traits.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(14): e011852, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286813

RESUMO

Background High-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance profiling of circulating metabolites is suggested as an adjunct for cardiovascular risk evaluation. The relationship between metabolites and subclinical atherosclerosis remains unclear, particularly among children. Therefore, we examined the associations of metabolites with carotid intima-media thickness ( cIMT ) and arterial pulse wave velocity ( PWV ). Methods and Results Data from two independent population-based studies was examined; (1) cross-sectional associations with cIMT and PWV in 1178 children (age 11-12 years, 51% female) and 1316 parents (mean age 45 years, 87% female) from the CheckPoint study (Australia); and (2) longitudinal associations in 4249 children (metabolites at 7-8 years, PWV at 10-11 years, 52% female), and cross-sectional associations in 4171 of their mothers (mean age 48 years, cIMT data) from ALSPAC (The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; UK ). Metabolites were measured by the same nuclear magnetic resonance platform in both studies, comprising of 69 biomarkers. Biophysical assessments included body mass index, blood pressure, cIMT and PWV . In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and blood pressure, there was no evidence of metabolite associations in either children or adults for cIMT at a 10% false discovery threshold. In CheckPoint adults, glucose was positively, and some high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol derived measures and amino acids (glutamine, histidine, tyrosine) inversely associated with PWV. Conclusions These data suggest that in children circulating metabolites have no consistent association with cIMT and PWV once adjusted for body mass index and blood pressure. In their middle-aged parents, some evidence of metabolite associations with PWV were identified that warrant further investigation.

10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The identification of new causal risk factors has the potential to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction and the development of new treatments to reduce CVD deaths. In the general population, we sought to determine whether cortisol is a causal risk factor for CVD and coronary heart disease (CHD). DESIGN AND METHODS: Three approaches were adopted to investigate the association between cortisol and CVD/CHD. First, we used multivariable regression in two prospective nested case-control studies (total 798 participants, 313 incident CVD/CHD with complete data). Second, a random-effects meta-analysis of these data and previously published prospective associations was performed (total 6680 controls, 696 incident CVD/CHD). Finally, one- and two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were performed (122,737 CHD cases, 547,261 controls for two-sample analyses). RESULTS: In the two prospective nested case-control studies, logistic regression adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, smoking and time of sampling, demonstrated a positive association between morning plasma cortisol and incident CVD (OR 1.28 per 1 SD higher cortisol, 95% CI 1.06-1.54). In the meta-analysis of prospective studies the equivalent result was OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.31. Results from the two-sample Mendelian randomization were consistent with these positive associations: OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.98-1.15. CONCLUSIONS: All three approaches demonstrated a positive association between morning plasma cortisol and incident CVD. Together these findings suggest that elevated morning cortisol is a causal risk factor for CVD. The current data suggest strategies targeted at lowering cortisol action should be evaluated for their effects on CVD.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8986, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222129

RESUMO

High systolic blood pressure (SBP) causes cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with mortality from other causes, but conventional multivariably-adjusted results may be confounded. Here we used a son's SBP (>1 million Swedish men) as an instrumental variable for parental SBP and examined associations with parents' cause-specific mortality, avoiding reverse causation. The hazard ratio for CVD mortality per SD (10.80 mmHg) of SBP was 1.49 (95% CI: 1.43, 1.56); SBP was positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. SBP was also associated positively with all-cause, diabetes and kidney cancer mortality, and negatively with external causes. Negative associations with respiratory-related mortality were probably confounded by smoking. Hazard ratios for other causes were imprecise or null. Diastolic blood pressure gave similar results to SBP. CVD hazard ratios were intermediate between those from conventional multivariable studies and Mendelian randomization and stronger than those from clinical trials, approximately consistent with an effect of exposure duration on effect sizes. Plots of parental mortality against offspring SBP were approximately linear, supporting calls for lower SBP targets. Results suggest that conventional multivariable analyses of mortality and SBP are not substantially confounded by reverse causation and confirm positive effects of SBP on all-cause, CVD and diabetes mortality.

12.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/genética , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
13.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002828, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have suggested that maternal vitamin D (25[OH]D) and calcium supplementation increase birth weight. However, limitations of many trials were highlighted in the reviews. Our aim was to combine genetic and RCT data to estimate causal effects of these two maternal traits on offspring birth weight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed two-sample mendelian randomisation (MR) using genetic instrumental variables associated with 25(OH)D and calcium that had been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS; sample 1; N = 122,123 for 25[OH]D and N = 61,275 for calcium). Associations between these maternal genetic variants and offspring birth weight were calculated in the UK Biobank (UKB) (sample 2; N = 190,406). We used data on mother-child pairs from two United Kingdom birth cohorts (combined N = 5,223) in sensitivity analyses to check whether results were influenced by fetal genotype, which is correlated with the maternal genotype (r ≈ 0.5). Further sensitivity analyses to test the reliability of the results included MR-Egger, weighted-median estimator, 'leave-one-out', and multivariable MR analyses. We triangulated MR results with those from RCTs, in which we used randomisation to supplementation with vitamin D (24 RCTs, combined N = 5,276) and calcium (6 RCTs, combined N = 543) as an instrumental variable to determine the effects of 25(OH)D and calcium on birth weight. In the main MR analysis, there was no strong evidence of an effect of maternal 25(OH)D on birth weight (difference in mean birth weight -0.03 g [95% CI -2.48 to 2.42 g, p = 0.981] per 10% higher maternal 25[OH]D). The effect estimate was consistent across our MR sensitivity analyses. Instrumental variable analyses applied to RCTs suggested a weak positive causal effect (5.94 g [95% CI 2.15-9.73, p = 0.002] per 10% higher maternal 25[OH]D), but this result may be exaggerated because of risk of bias in the included RCTs. The main MR analysis for maternal calcium also suggested no strong evidence of an effect on birth weight (-20 g [95% CI -44 to 5 g, p = 0.116] per 1 SD higher maternal calcium level). Some sensitivity analyses suggested that the genetic instrument for calcium was associated with birth weight via exposures that are independent of calcium levels (horizontal pleiotropy). Application of instrumental variable analyses to RCTs suggested that calcium has a substantial effect on birth weight (178 g [95% CI 121-236 g, p = 1.43 × 10-9] per 1 SD higher maternal calcium level) that was not consistent with any of the MR results. However, the RCT instrumental variable estimate may have been exaggerated because of risk of bias in the included RCTs. Other study limitations include the low response rate of UK Biobank, which may bias MR estimates, and the lack of suitable data to test whether the effects of genetic instruments on maternal calcium levels during pregnancy were the same as those outside of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that maternal circulating 25(OH)D does not influence birth weight in otherwise healthy newborns. However, the effect of maternal circulating calcium on birth weight is unclear and requires further exploration with more research including RCT and/or MR analyses with more valid instruments.

14.
BMJ ; 365: l2327, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether sleep traits have a causal effect on risk of breast cancer. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: UK Biobank prospective cohort study and Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) case-control genome-wide association study. PARTICIPANTS: 156 848 women in the multivariable regression and one sample mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis in UK Biobank (7784 with a breast cancer diagnosis) and 122 977 breast cancer cases and 105 974 controls from BCAC in the two sample MR analysis. EXPOSURES: Self reported chronotype (morning or evening preference), insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration in multivariable regression, and genetic variants robustly associated with these sleep traits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Breast cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: In multivariable regression analysis using UK Biobank data on breast cancer incidence, morning preference was inversely associated with breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.93 to 0.98 per category increase), whereas there was little evidence for an association between sleep duration and insomnia symptoms. Using 341 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with chronotype, 91 SNPs associated with sleep duration, and 57 SNPs associated with insomnia symptoms, one sample MR analysis in UK Biobank provided some supportive evidence for a protective effect of morning preference on breast cancer risk (0.85, 0.70, 1.03 per category increase) but imprecise estimates for sleep duration and insomnia symptoms. Two sample MR using data from BCAC supported findings for a protective effect of morning preference (inverse variance weighted odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.93 per category increase) and adverse effect of increased sleep duration (1.19, 1.02 to 1.39 per hour increase) on breast cancer risk (both oestrogen receptor positive and oestrogen receptor negative), whereas evidence for insomnia symptoms was inconsistent. Results were largely robust to sensitivity analyses accounting for horizontal pleiotropy. CONCLUSIONS: Findings showed consistent evidence for a protective effect of morning preference and suggestive evidence for an adverse effect of increased sleep duration on breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ritmo Circadiano , Comorbidade , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
16.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(7): 474-481, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between adiposity, metabolic abnormalities, and arterial disease progression in children and adolescents remains poorly defined. We aimed to assess whether persistent high adiposity levels are associated with increased arterial stiffness in adolescence and any mediation effects by common metabolic risk factors. METHODS: We included participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who had detailed adiposity measurements between the ages 9-17 years and arterial stiffness (carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV]) measured at age 17 years. Body-mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio were calculated from weight, height, and waist circumference measurements whereas fat mass was assessed using repeated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans. We used total and trunk fat mass indices (FMIs) to classify participants as normal (<75th percentile) or high (>75th percentile) FMI. We classified participants as being metabolically unhealthy if they had three or more of the following risk factors: high levels of systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, or glucose (all >75th percentile) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (<25th percentile). We used multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the relationship between PWV and exposure to adiposity, and tested for linear trend of PVW levels across ordinal groups. We used latent class growth mixture modelling analysis to assess the effect of longitudinal changes in adiposity indices through adolescence on arterial stiffness. FINDINGS: We studied 3423 participants (1866 [54·5%] female and 1557 [45·5%] male). Total fat mass was positively associated with PWV at age 17 years (0·004 m/s per kg, 95% CI 0·001-0·006; p=0·0081). Persistently high total FMI and trunk FMI between ages 9 and 17 years were related to greater PWV (0·15 m/s per kg/m2, 0·05-0·24; p=0·0044 and 0·15 m/s per kg/m2, 0·06-0·25; p=0·0021) compared with lower FMI. Metabolic abnormalities amplified the adverse effect of high total FMI on arterial stiffness (PWV 6·0 m/s [95% CI 5·9-6·0] for metabolically healthy participants and 6·2 m/s [5·9-6·4] for metabolically unhealthy participants). Participants who restored normal total FMI in adolescence (PWV 5·8 m/s [5·7-5·9] for metabolically healthy and 5·9 m/s [5·6-6·1] for metabolically unhealthy) had comparable PWV to those who had normal FMI throughout (5·7 m/s [5·7-5·8] for metabolically healthy and 5·9 m/s [5·8-5·9] for metabolically unhealthy). INTERPRETATION: Persistently high fat mass during adolescence was associated with greater arterial stiffness and was further aggravated by an unfavourable metabolic profile. Reverting to normal FMI in adolescence was associated with normal PWV, suggesting adolescence as an important period for interventions to tackle obesity in the young to maximise long-term vascular health. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation, and AFA Insurances.

17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-term pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A multi-centre randomized-controlled trial has shown that first-trimester screening followed by treatment of high-risk women with aspirin reduces the risk of pre-term pre-eclampsia. However, the biomarkers currently employed in risk prediction are only weakly associated with the outcome. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study within the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction study to analyse untargeted maternal serum metabolomics in samples from 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestational age (wkGA) in women with pre-eclampsia delivering at term (n = 165) and pre-term (n = 29), plus a random sample of the cohort (n = 325). We used longitudinal linear mixed models to identify candidate metabolites at 20/28 wkGA that differed by term pre-eclampsia status. Candidates were validated using measurements at 36 wkGA in the same women. We then tested the association between the 12-, 20- and 28-wkGA measurements and pre-term pre-eclampsia. We externally validated the association using 24- to 28-wkGA samples from the Born in Bradford study (25 cases and 953 controls). RESULTS: We identified 100 metabolites that differed most at 20/28 wkGA in term pre-eclampsia. Thirty-three of these were validated (P < 0.0005) at 36 wkGA. 4-Hydroxyglutamate and C-glycosyltryptophan were independently predictive at 36 wkGA of term pre-eclampsia. 4-Hydroxyglutamate was also predictive (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 95% confidence interval) of pre-term pre-eclampsia at 12 (0.673, 0.558-0.787), 20 (0.731, 0.657-0.806) and 28 wkGA (0.733, 0.627-0.839). The predictive ability of 4-hydroxyglutamate at 12 wkGA was stronger than two existing protein biomarkers, namely PAPP-A (0.567, 0.439-0.695) and placenta growth factor (0.589, 0.463-0.714). Finally, 4-hydroxyglutamate at 24-28 wkGA was positively associated with pre-eclampsia (term or pre-term) among women from the Born in Bradford study. CONCLUSIONS: 4-hydroxyglutamate is a novel biochemical predictor of pre-eclampsia that provides better first-trimester prediction of pre-term disease than currently employed protein biomarkers.

18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and BMI in childhood and adulthood. Each of these associations could be due to causal intrauterine effects, or confounding (genetic or environmental), or some combination of these. Here we estimate the extent to which the association between maternal BMI and offspring body size is explained by offspring genotype, as a first step towards establishing the importance of genetic confounding. METHODS: We examined the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring BW and BMI at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, in three European birth cohorts (n ≤11 498). Bivariate Genomic-relatedness-based Restricted Maximum Likelihood implemented in the GCTA software (GCTA-GREML) was used to estimate the extent to which phenotypic covariance was explained by offspring genotype as captured by common imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We merged individual participant data from all cohorts, enabling calculation of pooled estimates. RESULTS: Phenotypic covariance (equivalent here to Pearson's correlation coefficient) between maternal BMI and offspring phenotype was 0.15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.17] for offspring BW, increasing to 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.31) for offspring 15 year BMI. Covariance explained by offspring genotype was negligible for BW [-0.04 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.01)], but increased to 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.21) at 15 years, which is equivalent to 43% (95% CI: 15%, 72%) of the phenotypic covariance. Sensitivity analyses using weight, BMI and ponderal index as the offspring phenotype at all ages showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring genotype explains a substantial fraction of the covariance between maternal BMI and offspring adolescent BMI. This is consistent with a potentially important role for genetic confounding as a driver of the maternal BMI-offspring BMI association.

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