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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) causes weakness which adversely impacts function and quality of life (QOL). CIDP often requires long-term management with intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin. The Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra® (PATH) study showed subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) was efficacious in CIDP maintenance. Here, we assess patient-reported outcomes in patients on SCIG. METHODS: Subjects stabilised on IVIG were randomly allocated to receive weekly 0.2 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg bodyweight of 20% SCIG (IgPro20) or placebo. Overall QOL/health status was assessed using the EuroQoL 5-Dimension Questionnaire (EQ-5D) health profile and visual analog scale (VAS), treatment satisfaction with the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medicine (TSQM), and work-related impact with the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for General Health (WPAI-GH). EQ-5D health profile was assessed in terms of the percentage of subjects maintained or improved at Week 25 of SCIG therapy on each of the EQ-5D domains versus baseline after IVIG stabilisation. TSQM and WPAI-GH were assessed by median score changes from baseline to Week 25. RESULTS: 172 subjects were randomised to placebo (n=57), 0.2 g/kg IgPro20 (n=57) and 0.4 g/kg IgPro20 (n=58). Significantly higher proportions of IgPro20-treated subjects improved/maintained their health status on the EQ-5D usual activities dimension, and in additional dimensions (mobility and pain/discomfort) in sensitivity analyses. TSQM and WPAI-GH scores were more stable with IgPro20 treatment compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: IgPro20 maintained, or improved, QOL in most subjects with CIDP, consistent with the PATH study findings that both IgPro20 doses were efficacious in maintaining CIDP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of weekly subcutaneous IgPro20 (Hizentra, CSL Behring) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: In a 48-week open-label prospective extension study to the PATH study, patients were initially started on 0.2 g/kg or on 0.4 g/kg weekly and-if clinically stable-switched to 0.2 g/kg weekly after 24 weeks. Upon CIDP relapse on the 0.2 g/kg dose, 0.4 g/kg was (re)initiated. CIDP relapse was defined as a deterioration by at least 1 point in the total adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment score. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were enrolled. Sixty-two patients initially received 0.4 g/kg, 20 patients 0.2 g/kg weekly. Seventy-two received both doses during the study. Sixty-six patients (81%) completed the 48-week study duration. Overall relapse rates were 10% in 0.4 g/kg-treated patients and 48% in 0.2 g/kg-treated patients. After dose reduction from 0.4 to 0.2 g/kg, 51% (27/53) of patients relapsed, of whom 92% (24 of 26) improved after reinitiation of the 0.4 g/kg dose. Two-thirds of patients (19/28) who completed the PATH study without relapse remained relapse-free on the 0.2 g/kg dose after dose reduction in the extension study. Sixty-two patients had adverse events (AEs) (76%), of which most were mild or moderate with no related serious AEs. CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous treatment with IgPro20 provided long-term benefit at both 0.4 and 0.2 g/kg weekly doses with lower relapse rates on the higher dose. Long-term dosing should be individualized to find the most appropriate dose in a given patient. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with CIDP, long-term treatment with SCIG beyond 24 weeks is safe and efficacious.

3.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(5): e590, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355323

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of weekly subcutaneous IgPro20 (Hizentra, CSL Behring) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Methods: In a 48-week open-label prospective extension study to the PATH study, patients were initially started on 0.2 g/kg or on 0.4 g/kg weekly and-if clinically stable-switched to 0.2 g/kg weekly after 24 weeks. Upon CIDP relapse on the 0.2 g/kg dose, 0.4 g/kg was (re)initiated. CIDP relapse was defined as a deterioration by at least 1 point in the total adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment score. Results: Eighty-two patients were enrolled. Sixty-two patients initially received 0.4 g/kg, 20 patients 0.2 g/kg weekly. Seventy-two received both doses during the study. Sixty-six patients (81%) completed the 48-week study duration. Overall relapse rates were 10% in 0.4 g/kg-treated patients and 48% in 0.2 g/kg-treated patients. After dose reduction from 0.4 to 0.2 g/kg, 51% (27/53) of patients relapsed, of whom 92% (24 of 26) improved after reinitiation of the 0.4 g/kg dose. Two-thirds of patients (19/28) who completed the PATH study without relapse remained relapse-free on the 0.2 g/kg dose after dose reduction in the extension study. Sixty-two patients had adverse events (AEs) (76%), of which most were mild or moderate with no related serious AEs. Conclusions: Subcutaneous treatment with IgPro20 provided long-term benefit at both 0.4 and 0.2 g/kg weekly doses with lower relapse rates on the higher dose. Long-term dosing should be individualized to find the most appropriate dose in a given patient. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with CIDP, long-term treatment with SCIG beyond 24 weeks is safe and efficacious.

4.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 24(1): 72-79, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672067

RESUMO

In patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is recommended to be periodically reduced to assess the need for ongoing therapy. However, little is known about the effectiveness of restabilization with IVIG in patients who worsen after IVIG withdrawal. In the Polyneuropathy And Treatment with Hizentra (PATH) study, the pre-randomization period included sudden stopping of IVIG followed by 12 weeks of observation. Those deteriorating were then restabilized with IVIG. Of 245 subjects who stopped IVIG, 28 did not show signs of clinical deterioration within 12 weeks. Two hundred and seven received IVIG restabilization with an induction dose of 2 g/kg bodyweight (bw) IgPro10 (Privigen, CSL Behring, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania) and maintenance doses of 1 g/kg bw every 3 weeks for up to 13 weeks. Signs of clinical improvement were seen in almost all (n = 188; 91%) subjects. During IVIG restabilization, 35 subjects either did not show CIDP stability (n = 21, analyzed as n = 22 as an additional subject was randomized in error) or withdrew for other reasons (n = 14). Of the 22 subjects who did not achieve clinical stability, follow-up information in 16 subjects after an additional 4 weeks was obtained. Nine subjects were reported to have improved, leaving a maximum of 27 subjects (13%) who either showed no signs of clinical improvement during the restabilization phase and 4 weeks post-study or withdrew for other reasons. In conclusion, sudden IVIG withdrawal was effective in detecting ongoing immunoglobulin G dependency with a small risk for subjects not returning to their baseline 17 weeks after withdrawal.

5.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 24(1): 48-55, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672091

RESUMO

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a potential therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). To investigate the efficacy and safety of the IVIG IgPro10 (Privigen) for treatment of CIDP, results from Privigen Impact on Mobility and Autonomy (PRIMA), a prospective, open-label, single-arm study of IVIG in immunoglobulin (Ig)-naïve or IVIG pre-treated subjects (NCT01184846, n = 28) and Polyneuropathy And Treatment with Hizentra (PATH), a double-blind, randomized study including an open-label, single-arm IVIG phase in IVIG pre-treated subjects (NCT01545076, IVIG restabilization phase n = 207) were analyzed separately and together (n = 235). Efficacy assessments included change in adjusted inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) score, grip strength and Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and ADRs/infusion were recorded. Adjusted INCAT response rate was 60.7% in all PRIMA subjects at Week 25 (76.9% in IVIG pre-treated subjects) and 72.9% in PATH. In the pooled cohort (n = 235), INCAT response rate was 71.5%; median time to INCAT improvement was 4.3 weeks. No clear demographic differences were noticed between early (responding before Week 7, n = 148) and late responders (n = 21). In the pooled cohort, median change from baseline to last observation was -1.0 (interquartile range -2.0; 0.0) point for INCAT score; +8.0 (0.0; 20.0) kPa for maximum grip strength; +3.0 (1.0; 7.0) points for MRC sum score. In the pooled cohort, 271 ADRs were reported in 105 subjects (44.7%), a rate of 0.144 ADRs per infusion. This analysis confirms the efficacy and safety of IgPro10, a recently FDA-approved IVIG for CIDP, in a population of mainly pre-treated subjects with CIDP [Correction added on 14 March 2019 after first online publication: the INCAT response rate has been corrected.].

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415311

RESUMO

Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) require immunoglobulin G (IgG) replacement therapy, delivered as intravenous IgG (IVIG) or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG). We aim to identify trends in efficacy and safety that would not be evident in individual studies of small patient numbers. Seven open-label, Phase 3, prospective, multicenter studies of the efficacy and safety of Hizentra® (a SCIG), conducted in Japan, Europe, and the US were summarized. Overall, 125 unique patients received 15,013 weekly infusions during a total observation period of 250.9 patient-years. Mean weekly doses of Hizentra® were 83.22-221.3 mg/kg body weight; infusion rates per patient (total body rate) were 25.2-49.3 mL/h across studies. The rates of infections and serious bacterial infections were 3.10 and 0.03 events per patient/year, respectively. Annualized rates of days hospitalized due to infection, out of work/school, and prophylactic antibiotic use were 0.95, 5.14, and 36.78 per patient, respectively. For the equivalent monthly dose, weekly Hizentra® SCIG administration resulted in expectedly-increased serum IgG trough levels in patients switching from IVIG, and maintained levels in patients switching from previous SCIG. Adverse events (AEs) totaled 5039 (events/infusion 0.094-0.773), almost all of which were mild/moderate. Three thousand one hundred ninety-seven were considered treatment-related, the most common of which were injection site reactions (2919 events; 0.001-0.592 AEs per infusion). Systemic AEs were very uncommon. The results from these seven studies indicate that Hizentra® therapy was both efficacious and well tolerated during long-term treatment. This is particularly important in patients with PID, who may require lifelong IgG replacement therapy.

7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 66: 119-126, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary (PID) and secondary immune deficiencies (SID) represent diverse groups of diagnoses, yet both can be effectively treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement therapy. Guidelines for the use of IVIG in SID vary due to the paucity of data. The objective was to analyze available IVIG Privigen® (IgPro10, CSL Behring, Bern, Switzerland) data on Efficiency Index (EI) and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in patients with PID and SID. METHODS: Three Privigen® studies (NCT00168025, NCT00322556, and the observational study IgPro10_5001) were used to identify patients with PID and SID meeting the qualifying criteria for the PK analysis. PK properties of IVIG were estimated using a population PK model based on a standard two-compartment PK model. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) EI was calculated as the gain in serum IgG level per unit external IgG dose. RESULTS: A similar IVIG dose-serum IgG concentration relationship was observed in patients with PID (N = 90) and SID (N = 91). IgG EI was inversely proportional to the endogenous IgG concentration and comparable in PID (slope = -1.079) and SID (slope = -2.12). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the disposition of Privigen® is similar during IgG replacement therapy in PID and SID. The results contribute to the understanding of IVIG treatment of SID and may support an evidence-based approach for the use of IVIG in SID in the future.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(5): 1733-1741.e3, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess HRQoL outcomes in patients self-administering subcutaneous C1-INH (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA) for routine prevention of HAE attacks. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from the placebo-controlled, crossover phase III COMPACT study (Clinical Studies for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy). Ninety patients with C1-INH-HAE were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences: C1-INH(SC) 40 or 60 IU/kg twice weekly for 16 weeks, preceded or followed by 16 weeks of twice weekly placebo injections. All HAE attacks were treated with open-label on-demand treatment as necessary. HRQoL assessments at week 14 (last visit) included the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), and the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM). RESULTS: Compared with placebo (on-demand treatment alone), treatment with twice weekly C1-INH(SC) (both doses combined) was associated with better EQ-5D visual analog scale general health, less HADS anxiety, less WPAI presenteeism, work productivity loss, and activity impairment, and greater TSQM effectiveness and overall treatment satisfaction. More patients self-reported a "good/excellent" response during routine prevention with C1-INH(SC) compared with on-demand only (placebo prophylaxis) management. For each HRQoL measure, a greater proportion of patients had a clinically meaningful improvement during C1-INH(SC) treatment compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with frequent HAE attacks, a treatment strategy of routine prevention with self-administered twice weekly C1-INH(SC) had a greater impact on improving multiple HAE-related HRQoL impairments, most notably anxiety and work productivity, compared with on-demand treatment alone (placebo prophylaxis).

9.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(1): 35-46, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately two-thirds of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) need long-term intravenous immunoglobulin. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) is an alternative option for immunoglobulin delivery, but has not previously been investigated in a large trial of CIDP. The PATH study compared relapse rates in patients given SCIg versus placebo. METHODS: Between March 12, 2012, and Sept 20, 2016, we studied patients from 69 neuromuscular centres in North America, Europe, Israel, Australia, and Japan. Adults with definite or probable CIDP who responded to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment were eligible. We randomly allocated participants to 0·2 g/kg or 0·4 g/kg of a 20% SCIg solution (IgPro20) weekly versus placebo (2% human albumin solution) for maintenance treatment for 24 weeks. We did randomisation in a 1:1:1 ratio with an interactive voice and web response system with a block size of six, stratified by region (Japan or non-Japan). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a CIDP relapse or who were withdrawn for any other reason during 24 weeks of treatment. Patients, caregivers, and study personnel, including those assessing outcomes, were masked to treatment assignment. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol sets. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01545076. FINDINGS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly allocated 172 patients: 57 (33%) to the placebo group, 57 (33%) to the low-dose group, and 58 (34%) to the high-dose group. In the intention-to-treat set, 36 (63% [95% CI 50-74]) patients on placebo, 22 (39% [27-52]) on low-dose SCIg, and 19 (33% [22-46]) on high-dose SCIg had a relapse or were withdrawn from the study for other reasons (p=0·0007). Absolute risk reductions were 25% (95% CI 6-41) for low-dose versus placebo (p=0·007), 30% (12-46) for high-dose versus placebo (p=0·001), and 6% (-11 to 23) for high-dose versus low-dose (p=0·32). Causally related adverse events occurred in 47 (27%) patients (ten [18%] in the placebo group, 17 [30%] in the low-dose group, and 20 [34%] in the high-dose group). Six (3%) patients had 11 serious adverse events: one (2%) patient in the placebo group, three (5%) in the low-dose group, and two (3%) in the high-dose group; only one (an acute allergic skin reaction in the low-dose group) was assessed to be causally related. INTERPRETATION: This study, which is to our knowledge, the largest trial of CIDP to date and the first to study two administrations of immunoglobulins and two doses, showed that both doses of SCIg IgPro20 were efficacious and well tolerated, suggesting that SCIg can be used as a maintenance treatment for CIDP. FUNDING: CSL Behring.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
N Engl J Med ; 376(12): 1131-1140, 2017 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is a disabling, potentially fatal condition caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein. In a phase 2 trial, the use of CSL830, a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor preparation that is suitable for subcutaneous injection, resulted in functional levels of C1 inhibitor activity that would be expected to provide effective prophylaxis of attacks. METHODS: We conducted an international, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered subcutaneous CSL830 in patients with type I or type II hereditary angioedema who had had four or more attacks in a consecutive 2-month period within 3 months before screening. We randomly assigned the patients to one of four treatment sequences in a crossover design, each involving two 16-week treatment periods: either 40 IU or 60 IU of CSL830 per kilogram of body weight twice weekly followed by placebo, or vice versa. The primary efficacy end point was the number of attacks of angioedema. Secondary efficacy end points were the proportion of patients who had a response (≥50% reduction in the number of attacks with CSL830 as compared with placebo) and the number of times that rescue medication was used. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients who underwent randomization, 79 completed the trial. Both doses of CSL830, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema (mean difference with 40 IU, -2.42 attacks per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.38 to -1.46; and mean difference with 60 IU, -3.51 attacks per month; 95% CI, -4.21 to -2.81; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Response rates were 76% (95% CI, 62 to 87) in the 40-IU group and 90% (95% CI, 77 to 96) in the 60-IU group. The need for rescue medication was reduced from 5.55 uses per month in the placebo group to 1.13 uses per month in the 40-IU group and from 3.89 uses in the placebo group to 0.32 uses per month in the 60-IU group. Adverse events (most commonly mild and transient local site reactions) occurred in similar proportions of patients who received CSL830 and those who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with hereditary angioedema, the prophylactic use of a subcutaneous C1 inhibitor twice weekly significantly reduced the frequency of acute attacks. (Funded by CSL Behring; COMPACT EudraCT number, 2013-000916-10 , and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01912456 .).


Assuntos
Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/administração & dosagem , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/classificação , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Risco , Autoadministração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Trials ; 17(1): 345, 2016 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous administration of Ig (SCIg) has gained popularity as an alternative route of administration but has never been rigorously examined in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS/DESIGN: The primary objective of the PATH study (Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra) is to determine the efficacy of two different doses of SCIg IgPro20 (0.2 g/kg bw or 0.4 g/kg bw) in a 24-week maintenance treatment of CIDP in comparison to placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the proportion of patients who show CIDP relapse (1-point deterioration on the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score) or are withdrawn within 24 weeks after randomization for any reason. IVIg-dependent adult patients with definite or probable CIDP according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society who fulfil the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be eligible. Based on sample-size calculation and relapse assumptions in the three arms, a sample size of 58 is needed per arm (overall sample size will be 350, of which 174 will be randomized). All eligible patients will progress through three study periods: an IgG dependency period (≤12 weeks) to select those who are Ig dependent; an IVIg restabilization period (10 or 13 weeks), which will be performed using the 10 % IgPro10 product; and an SC treatment period (24 weeks, followed by a 1-week completion visit after last follow-up). Patients showing IVIg restabilization will be randomized to demonstrate the efficacy of SCIg IgPro20 maintenance treatment over placebo. After completing the study, subjects are eligible to enter a long-term, open-label, extension study of 1 year or return to their previous treatment. In case of CIDP relapse during the 24-week SC treatment period, IgPro10 rescue medication will be offered. Safety, tolerability, and patients' preference of Ig administration route will be examined. DISCUSSION: The PATH trial, which started in March 2012, is expected to finish at the end of 2016. The results will increase knowledge about the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of SCIg in maintenance management of CIDP patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01545076 . Registered on 1 March 2012.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos Clínicos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Infusões Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/diagnóstico , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/imunologia , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(3): 210-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910102

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intravenous IgG (IVIG) treatment wear-off is commonly experienced by patients, who report increased susceptibility to infection, and decreased quality of life towards the end of their 3- or 4-week dosing cycle, when serum IgG levels approach their trough. We quantified IVIG wear-off in terms of treatment efficacy and patient well-being. METHODS: Data were collected from patients enrolled in three Phase III trials of Sandoglobulin NF Liquid or Privigen, treated every 3- or 4- weeks. Pooled analyses of raw patient data compared the rate of infection and other clinical outcomes during the course of the dosing cycle. Subjective symptoms of wear-off were quantified by comparing patient-reported overall well-being scores. RESULTS: The probability of a first infection in the final week of the IVIG cycle was 1.26 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.76-2.11; p = 0.3621) and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.04-2.32; p = 0.0314) times higher than in the first week, for patients on a 3-week cycle and 4-week dosing cycles, respectively. Wear-off, as manifested by a decrease in overall well-being, was experienced in 10% of all cycles and reported at least once by 61% of the patients on a 3-week cycle, and 43% of those on a 4-week cycle. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the existence of decreased efficacy (treatment wear-off) towards the end of a 3-4 week IVIG dosing cycle, and provide a quantifiable evaluation to a phenomenon typically reported anecdotally. For patients experiencing wear-off, increasing the IgG dose or shortening the dosing interval and/or a switch to SCIG may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/fisiopatologia , Infusões Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Blood ; 125(7): 1180-8, 2015 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25515962

RESUMO

Recently, we reported that distinct immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes and IgG subclasses of factor VIII (FVIII)-specific antibodies are found in different cohorts of patients with hemophilia A and in healthy individuals. Prompted by these findings, we further investigated the distinguishing properties among the different populations of FVIII-specific antibodies. We hypothesized that the affinity of antibodies would discriminate between the neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies found in different study cohorts. To test this idea, we established a competition-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technology to assess the apparent affinities for each isotype and IgG subclass of FVIII-specific antibodies without the need for antibody purification. We present a unique data set of apparent affinities of FVIII-specific antibodies found in healthy individuals, patients with congenital hemophilia A with and without FVIII inhibitors, and patients with acquired hemophilia A. Our data indicate that FVIII-specific antibodies found in patients with FVIII inhibitors have an up to 100-fold higher apparent affinity than that of antibodies found in patients without inhibitors and in healthy individuals. High-affinity FVIII-specific antibodies could be retrospectively detected in longitudinal samples of an individual patient with FVIII inhibitors 543 days before the first positive Bethesda assay. This finding suggests that these antibodies might serve as potential biomarkers for evolving FVIII inhibitor responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Fator VIII/imunologia , Hemofilia A/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemofilia A/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Immunol ; 34(2): 204-11, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24504846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intravenous (IVIG) and subcutaneous (SCIG) immunoglobulin infusions are widely used for the treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) worldwide. This prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm Phase III study evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of IgPro20 (Hizentra®; L-proline-stabilized 20 % human SCIG) in adult and pediatric Japanese patients with PID. METHODS: Patients received three IVIG infusions at 3-4-week intervals followed by a dose-equivalent switch to weekly SCIG infusions. A 12-week wash-in/wash-out period was followed by a 12-week SCIG efficacy period. The primary efficacy endpoint was the comparison of total serum IgG trough levels during the IVIG and SCIG efficacy periods by calculating the geometric mean ratio (GMR). RESULTS: The GMR of IgG trough levels on SCIG versus IVIG was 1.09 (2-sided 90% confidence interval: 1.06-1.13). No serious bacterial infections were reported. Eleven patients (52.4%) had infectious episodes with an overall rate of 2.98 infections/patient/year; 7 patients (33.3%) missed school/work/daycare due to infection (3.48 days/patient/year). Sixteen patients (76.2%) were treated with antibiotics for an adverse event (AE; 47.6%) or prophylaxis (23.8%), resulting in 167.42 days/patient/year of antibiotic use. During SCIG treatment, 24 patients (96.0%) had 269 AEs (0.461 AEs per/infusion) including local reactions as the most common AE (20 patients, 80.0%). Local tolerability of IgPro20 was assessed as "very good" or "good" after 85.4% of SCIG infusions. One patient (4.0%) experienced a serious AE of moderate severity (bacterial infection) that was considered unrelated to study medication. CONCLUSION: IgPro20 was effective and well tolerated in Japanese patients with PID.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina G/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Japão , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Immunol ; 150(2): 161-9, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24412910

RESUMO

Hizentra(®) (20% subcutaneous immunoglobulin [SCIG]) was administered to subjects with primary immunodeficiency disease in two extension studies in the EU and US to assess long-term efficacy and tolerability. Subjects (aged 4-69 years) were treated for 148 weeks in the EU (N = 40; 5405 infusions) and 87 weeks in the US (N = 21; 1735 infusions). Weekly doses were 116.0 mg/kg (EU) and 193.2 mg/kg (US); IgG levels were 7.97 g/L (EU) and 11.98 g/L (US). Annualized rates of serious bacterial infections were 0.05 infections/subject/year (EU) and 0.06 infections/subject/year (US). Rates of any infection were 3.33 infections/subject/year (EU) and 2.38 infections/subject/year (US). The rate of bronchopulmonary infections was higher in the EU study. No treatment-related serious AEs occurred; no subject discontinued because of treatment-related AEs. Self-administered Hizentra afforded sustained effective protection from infections and favorable tolerability during an extended treatment period of up to 3 years.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina G/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 88: 27-35, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24013033

RESUMO

Biotechnology-derived therapeutics may induce an unwanted immune response leading to the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) which can result in altered efficacy and safety of the therapeutic protein. Anti-drug antibodies may, for example, affect pharmacokinetics of the therapeutic protein or induce autoimmunity. It is therefore crucial to have assays available for the detection and characterization of ADAs. Commonly, a screening assay is initially used to classify samples as either ADA positive or negative. A confirmatory assay, typically based on antigen competition, is subsequently employed to separate false positive samples from truly positive samples. In this manuscript we investigate the performance of different statistical methods classifying samples in competition assays through simulation and analysis of real data. In our evaluations we do not find a uniformly best method although a simple t-test does provide good results throughout. More crucially we find that very large differences between uninhibited and inhibited measurements relative to the assay variability are required in order to obtain useful classification results questioning the usefulness of competition assays with high variability.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/análise , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 55(5): 1148-56, 2011 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21561734

RESUMO

Biotechnology derived therapeutics may induce an unwanted immune response leading to the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA). As a result the efficacy and safety of the therapeutic protein could be impaired. Neutralizing antibodies may, for example, affect pharmacokinetics of the therapeutic protein or induce autoimmunity. Therefore a drug induced immune response is a major concern and needs to be assessed during drug development. It is therefore crucial to have assays available for the detection and characterization of ADAs. These assays are used to classify samples in positive and negative samples based on a cut point. In this manuscript we investigate the performance of established and newly developed methods to determine a cut point in immunoassays such as ELISA through simulation and analysis of real data. The different methods are found to have different advantages and disadvantages. A robust parametric approach generally resulted in very good results and can be recommended for many situations. The newly introduced method based on mixture models yields similar results to the robust parametric approach but offers some additional flexibility at the expense of higher complexity.


Assuntos
Imunoensaio/métodos , Algoritmos , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Bioensaio/métodos , Produtos Biológicos/imunologia , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Modelos Estatísticos
19.
J Biopharm Stat ; 20(4): 803-20, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20496207

RESUMO

Nonclinical in vivo animal studies have to be completed before starting clinical studies of the pharmacokinetic behavior of a drug in humans. The drug exposure in animal studies is often measured by the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC). The classical complete data design where each animal is sampled for analysis at every time point is applicable for large animals only. In the case of small animals, where blood sampling is restricted, the batch design or the serial sampling design need to be considered. In batch designs, samples are taken more than once from each animal, but not at all time points. In serial sampling designs, only one sample is taken from each animal. In this article we derive the asymptotic distribution for the ratio of two AUCs and construct different confidence intervals, which are frequently used to assess bioequivalence. The performance of these intervals is then evaluated between the different designs in a simulation study. Additionally, the sample sizes required for the different designs are compared.


Assuntos
Área Sob a Curva , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Farmacocinética , Algoritmos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Intervalos de Confiança , Tamanho da Amostra , Equivalência Terapêutica
20.
J Asthma ; 44(7): 555-63, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17885859

RESUMO

This 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of once daily ciclesonide and twice daily fluticasone propionate in patients aged 12-75 years with persistent asthma. Patients were randomized to once-daily ciclesonide 80 micro g (n = 278) or 160 micro g (n = 271), or twice daily fluticasone propionate 88 micro g (n = 259) (all ex-actuator). Significant improvements from baseline were seen in all three treatment groups for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, asthma symptom scores and rescue medication use (all p < 0.0001). Asthma exacerbation rates were low (each ciclesonide group, n = 2; fluticasone group, n = 1). Adverse event reporting indicated good tolerability. Once daily ciclesonide 80 micro g or 160 micro g showed comparable efficacy and tolerability to twice daily fluticasone propionate 88 micro g in persistent asthma.


Assuntos
Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Pregnenodionas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Androstadienos/administração & dosagem , Androstadienos/efeitos adversos , Antialérgicos/administração & dosagem , Antialérgicos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluticasona , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pregnenodionas/administração & dosagem , Pregnenodionas/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Respiratória
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