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1.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399998

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by progressive pulmonary artery remodeling leading to increased right ventricular pressure overload, which results in right heart failure and premature death. Inflammation plays a central role in the development of PAH and the recruitment and function of immune cells are tightly regulated by chemotactic cytokines called chemokines. A number of studies have shown that the development and progression of PAH are associated with the dysregulated expression of several chemokines and chemokine receptors in the pulmonary vasculature. Moreover, some chemokines are differentially regulated in the pressure-overloaded right ventricle. Recent studies have tested the efficacy of pharmacological agents targeting several chemokines and chemokine receptors for their effects on the development of PAH, suggesting that these receptors could serve as useful therapeutic targets. In this review we provide recent insights into the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in PAH and RV remodeling, and the opportunities and roadblocks in targeting them.

3.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923185

RESUMO

While traffic and air pollution exposure is associated with increased mortality in numerous diseases, its association with disease severity and outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unknown.Exposure to particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and indirect measures of traffic-related air pollution (distance to main road and length of roads within buffer zones surrounding residential addresses) were estimated for 301 patients with idiopathic/heritable PAH recruited in the UK National Cohort Study of Idiopathic and Heritable PAH. Associations with transplant-free survival and pulmonary haemodynamic severity at baseline were assessed, adjusting for confounding variables defined a prioriHigher estimated exposure to PM2.5 was associated with higher risk of death or lung transplant (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.68 (95% CI 1.11-6.47) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.028). This association remained similar when adjusted for potential confounding variables (HR 4.38 (95% CI 1.44-13.36) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.009). No associations were found between NO2 exposure or other traffic pollution indicators and transplant-free survival. Conversely, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within the 500-1000 m buffer zones correlated with the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society risk categories as well as pulmonary haemodynamics at baseline. This association was strongest for pulmonary vascular resistance.In idiopathic/heritable PAH, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution were associated with disease severity at baseline, whereas higher PM2.5 exposure may independently predict shorter transplant-free survival.

4.
Circ Res ; 124(6): 904-919, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661465

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence implicates inflammation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and therapies targeting immunity are under investigation, although it remains unknown if distinct immune phenotypes exist. OBJECTIVE: Identify PAH immune phenotypes based on unsupervised analysis of blood proteomic profiles. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective observational study of group 1 PAH patients evaluated at Stanford University (discovery cohort; n=281) and University of Sheffield (validation cohort; n=104) between 2008 and 2014, we measured a circulating proteomic panel of 48 cytokines, chemokines, and factors using multiplex immunoassay. Unsupervised machine learning (consensus clustering) was applied in both cohorts independently to classify patients into proteomic immune clusters, without guidance from clinical features. To identify central proteins in each cluster, we performed partial correlation network analysis. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were subsequently compared across clusters. Four PAH clusters with distinct proteomic immune profiles were identified in the discovery cohort. Cluster 2 (n=109) had low cytokine levels similar to controls. Other clusters had unique sets of upregulated proteins central to immune networks-cluster 1 (n=58; TRAIL [tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand], CCL5 [C-C motif chemokine ligand 5], CCL7, CCL4, MIF [macrophage migration inhibitory factor]), cluster 3 (n=77; IL [interleukin]-12, IL-17, IL-10, IL-7, VEGF [vascular endothelial growth factor]), and cluster 4 (n=37; IL-8, IL-4, PDGF-ß [platelet-derived growth factor beta], IL-6, CCL11). Demographics, PAH clinical subtypes, comorbidities, and medications were similar across clusters. Noninvasive and hemodynamic surrogates of clinical risk identified cluster 1 as high-risk and cluster 3 as low-risk groups. Five-year transplant-free survival rates were unfavorable for cluster 1 (47.6%; 95% CI, 35.4%-64.1%) and favorable for cluster 3 (82.4%; 95% CI, 72.0%-94.3%; across-cluster P<0.001). Findings were replicated in the validation cohort, where machine learning classified 4 immune clusters with comparable proteomic, clinical, and prognostic features. CONCLUSIONS: Blood cytokine profiles distinguish PAH immune phenotypes with differing clinical risk that are independent of World Health Organization group 1 subtypes. These phenotypes could inform mechanistic studies of disease pathobiology and provide a framework to examine patient responses to emerging therapies targeting immunity.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(10): e002087, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pathological changes in pulmonary arterioles progressively raise pulmonary artery pressure and increase pulmonary vascular resistance, leading to right heart failure and high mortality rates. Recently, the first potassium channelopathy in PAH, because of mutations in KCNK3, was identified as a genetic cause and pharmacological target. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed to identify novel genes in a cohort of 99 pediatric and 134 adult-onset group I PAH patients. Novel rare variants in the gene identified were independently identified in a cohort of 680 adult-onset patients. Variants were expressed in COS cells and function assessed by patch-clamp and rubidium flux analysis. RESULTS: We identified a de novo novel heterozygous predicted deleterious missense variant c.G2873A (p.R958H) in ABCC8 in a child with idiopathic PAH. We then evaluated all individuals in the original and a second cohort for rare or novel variants in ABCC8 and identified 11 additional heterozygous predicted damaging ABCC8 variants. ABCC8 encodes SUR1 (sulfonylurea receptor 1)-a regulatory subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. We observed loss of ATP-sensitive potassium channel function for all ABCC8 variants evaluated and pharmacological rescue of all channel currents in vitro by the SUR1 activator, diazoxide. CONCLUSIONS: Novel and rare missense variants in ABCC8 are associated with PAH. Identified ABCC8 mutations decreased ATP-sensitive potassium channel function, which was pharmacologically recovered.

6.
Pulm Circ ; 8(4): 2045894018798613, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187824

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) is a rare progressive, life-shortening disease, usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. We hypothesize that patients with iPAH exhibit patterns of health-seeking behavior before diagnosis that will allow the development of earlier identification tools. The Sheffield Pulmonary Hypertension IndeX (SPHInX) project aims to develop a predictive algorithm based on routinely collected healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) data. This report focuses on the initial feasibility of the project, examining whether Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data from the National Health Service in England have sufficient richness to support the development of an early diagnosis algorithm. This is a two-stage study. First, hospital interactions during 2009-2014 captured in HES data identified 127,815 adult patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) ICD-10 codes, containing a probable iPAH cohort with incidence and demographics similar to the reported literature. HCRU was high in the three years before diagnosis. Second, to examine HCRU in patients with a confirmed iPAH diagnosis, we built the SPHInX dataset incorporating all patients investigated for suspected PH in the Sheffield Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit during 2008-2016 (n = 6674). For the SPHInX dataset, data could be linked to HES in 98.6% of cases and patients with confirmed iPAH had similar levels of pre-diagnosis HCRU. In conclusion, patients with probable iPAH identified using HES and patients with confirmed iPAH have high levels of HCRU for several years before diagnosis. Artificial intelligence models will now be used to develop the SPHInX algorithm to screen for undiagnosed iPAH in the general population.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211629

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vascular cell proliferation and endothelial cell apoptosis. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a receptor for double-stranded RNA and has been recently implicated in vascular protection. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to study the expression and role of TLR3 in PAH and to determine whether a TLR3 agonist reduces Pulmonary Hypertension in preclinical models. METHODS: Lung tissue and endothelial cells from PAH patients were investigated by polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence and apoptosis assays. TLR3-/- and TLR3+/+ mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia and SU5416. Chronic hypoxia or chronic hypoxia/SU5416 rats were treated with the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)]. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: TLR3 expression was reduced in PAH patient lung tissue and endothelial cells, and TLR3-/- mice exhibited more severe Pulmonary Hypertension following exposure to chronic hypoxia/SU5416. TLR3 knockdown promoted double-stranded RNA signaling via other intracellular RNA receptors in endothelial cells and this was associated with greater susceptibility to apoptosis, a known driver of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Poly(I:C) increased TLR3 expression via interleukin-10 in rat endothelial cells. In vivo, high dose Poly(I:C) reduced Pulmonary Hypertension in both rat models in proof-of-principle experiments. In addition, Poly(I:C) also reduced right ventricular failure in established Pulmonary Hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Our work identifies a novel role for TLR3 in PAH based on the findings that reduced expression of TLR3 contributes to endothelial apoptosis and pulmonary vascular remodeling.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 212, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101145

RESUMO

The tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a widely expressed cytokine that can bind five different receptors. TRAIL has been of particular interest for its proposed ability to selectively induce apoptosis in tumour cells. However, it has also been found to regulate a wide variety of non-canonical cellular effects including survival, migration and proliferation via kinase signalling pathways. Lung diseases represent a wide range of conditions affecting multiple tissues. TRAIL has been implicated in several biological processes underlying lung diseases, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune regulation. For example, TRAIL is detrimental in pulmonary arterial hypertension-it is upregulated in patient serum and lungs, and drives the underlying proliferative pulmonary vascular remodelling in rodent models. However, TRAIL protects against pulmonary fibrosis in mice models-by inducing apoptosis of neutrophils-and reduced serum TRAIL is found in patients. Conversely, in the airways TRAIL positively regulates inflammation and immune response. In COPD patients and asthmatic patients challenged with antigen, TRAIL and its death receptors are upregulated in serum and airways. Furthermore, TRAIL-deleted mouse models have reduced airway inflammation and remodelling. In the context of respiratory infections, TRAIL assists in immune response, e.g., via T-cell toxicity in influenza infection, and neutrophil killing in S. pneumoniae infection. In this mini-review, we examine the functions of TRAIL and highlight the diverse roles TRAIL has in diseases affecting the lung. Disentangling the facets of TRAIL signalling in lung diseases could help in understanding their pathogenic processes and targeting novel treatments.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12972, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154413

RESUMO

Studies were undertaken to examine any role for the hepcidin/ferroportin axis in proliferative responses of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMCs). Entirely novel findings have demonstrated the presence of ferroportin in hPASMCs. Hepcidin treatment caused increased proliferation of these cells most likely by binding ferroportin resulting in internalisation and cellular iron retention. Cellular iron content increased with hepcidin treatment. Stabilisation of ferroportin expression and activity via intervention with the therapeutic monoclonal antibody LY2928057 reversed proliferation and cellular iron accumulation. Additionally, IL-6 treatment was found to enhance proliferation and iron accumulation in hPASMCs; intervention with LY2928057 prevented this response. IL-6 was also found to increase hepcidin transcription and release from hPASMCs suggesting a potential autocrine response. Hepcidin or IL-6 mediated iron accumulation contributes to proliferation in hPASMCs; ferroportin mediated cellular iron excretion limits proliferation. Haemoglobin also caused proliferation of hPASMCs; in other novel findings, CD163, the haemoglobin/haptoglobin receptor, was found on these cells and offers a means for cellular uptake of iron via haemoglobin. Il-6 was also found to modulate CD163 on these cells. These data contribute to a better understanding of how disrupted iron homeostasis may induce vascular remodelling, such as in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002102

RESUMO

Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the gold standard treatment for operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). However, a proportion of patients with operable disease decline surgery. There are currently no published data on this patient group. The aim of this study was to identify outcomes and prognostic factors in a large cohort of consecutive patients with CTEPH.Data were collected for consecutive, treatment-naive CTEPH patients at the Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit of the Royal Hallamshire Hospital (Sheffield, UK) between 2001 and 2014.Of 550 CTEPH patients (mean±sd age 63±15 years, follow-up 4±3 years), 49% underwent surgery, 32% had technically operable disease and did not undergo surgery (including patient choice n=72 and unfit for surgery n=63), and 19% had inoperable disease due to disease distribution. The 5-year survival was superior in patients undergoing PEA (83%) versus technically operable disease who did not undergo surgery (53%) and inoperable due to disease distribution (59%) (p<0.001). Survival was superior in patients following PEA compared with those offered but declining surgery (55%) (p<0.001). In patients offered PEA, independent prognostic factors included mixed venous oxygen saturation, gas transfer and patient decision to proceed to surgery.Outcomes in CTEPH following PEA are excellent and superior to patients declining surgery, and strongly favour consideration of a surgical intervention in eligible patients.

11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 172, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977892

RESUMO

Background: There is increasing interest in screening for and diagnosing pulmonary hypertension earlier in the course of disease. However, there is limited data on cardiopulmonary abnormalities in patients with pulmonary hypertension newly diagnosed in World Health Organization Function Class (WHO FC) I. Methods: Data were retrieved from the ASPIRE registry (Assessing the Spectrum of Pulmonary hypertension Identified at a REferral center) for consecutive treatment naïve patients diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension by cardiac catheterization between 2001 and 2010 who underwent incremental shuttle walk exercise testing. Results: Eight hundred and ninety-five patients were diagnosed with Group 1-5 pulmonary hypertension. Despite the absence of symptoms, patients in WHO FC I (n = 9) had a significant reduction in exercise capacity (Incremental shuttle walk distance percent predicted (ISWD%pred) 65 ± 13%, Z score -1.77 ± 1.05), and modest pulmonary hypertension with a median (interquartile range) pulmonary artery pressure 31(20) mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance 2.1(8.2) Wood Units, despite a normal diffusion of carbon monoxide adjusted for age and sex (DLco)%pred 99 ± 40%. Compared to patients in WHO FC I, patients in WHO FC II (n = 162) had a lower ISWD%pred 43 ± 22 and lower DLco%pred 65 ± 21%. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary hypertension with no or minimal symptomatic limitation have a significant reduction of exercise capacity.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 175, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928643

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) develops in 7-12% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is associated with a 3 year survival of 52%. Early detection by screening is therefore recommended for all patients with SSc. Historically, screening has been performed using echocardiography and measurement of gas transfer. More recently the DETECT protocol, using a combination of biomarkers (including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide) and clinical parameters, has been developed. The optimal method of screening for PAH with high sensitivity and specificity is, however, not clear. Protein expression differences between different SSc disease phenotypes have been reported, and include alterations in concentration of NT-proBNP, endoglin, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, placenta growth factor, growth differentiation factor-15, vascular endothelial growth factor alpha, resistin-like molecule beta, and soluble thrombomodulin. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these protein changes in patients with SSc and PAH.

13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 41, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone critically involved in arterial blood pressure regulation. Although pharmacological aldosterone antagonism reduces mortality and morbidity among patients with severe left-sided heart failure, the contribution of aldosterone to the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and right ventricular (RV) heart failure is not fully understood. METHODS: The effects of Eplerenone (0.1% Inspra® mixed in chow) on pulmonary vascular and RV remodeling were evaluated in mice with pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by Sugen5416 injection with concomitant chronic hypoxia (SuHx) and in a second animal model with established RV dysfunction independent from lung remodeling through surgical pulmonary artery banding. RESULTS: Preventive Eplerenone administration attenuated the development of PH and pathological remodeling of pulmonary arterioles. Therapeutic aldosterone antagonism - starting when RV dysfunction was established - normalized mineralocorticoid receptor gene expression in the right ventricle without direct effects on either RV structure (Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, Fibrosis) or function (assessed by non-invasive echocardiography along with intra-cardiac pressure volume measurements), but significantly lowered systemic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that aldosterone antagonism with Eplerenone attenuates pulmonary vascular rather than RV remodeling in PAH.

14.
Circulation ; 138(3): 287-304, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitotic fission is increased in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a hyperproliferative, apoptosis-resistant disease. The fission mediator dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) must complex with adaptor proteins to cause fission. Drp1-induced fission has been therapeutically targeted in experimental PAH. Here, we examine the role of 2 recently discovered, poorly understood Drp1 adapter proteins, mitochondrial dynamics protein of 49 and 51 kDa (MiD49 and MiD51), in normal vascular cells and explore their dysregulation in PAH. METHODS: Immunoblots of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (control, n=6; PAH, n=8) and immunohistochemistry of lung sections (control, n=6; PAH, n=6) were used to assess the expression of MiD49 and MiD51. The effects of manipulating MiDs on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were assessed in human and rodent PAH pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with flow cytometry. Mitochondrial fission was studied by confocal imaging. A microRNA (miR) involved in the regulation of MiD expression was identified using microarray techniques and in silico analyses. The expression of circulatory miR was assessed with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in healthy volunteers (HVs) versus patients with PAH from Sheffield, UK (plasma: HV, n=29, PAH, n=27; whole blood: HV, n=11, PAH, n=14) and then confirmed in a cohort from Beijing, China (plasma: HV, n=19, PAH, n=36; whole blood: HV, n=20, PAH, n=39). This work was replicated in monocrotaline and Sugen 5416-hypoxia, preclinical PAH models. Small interfering RNAs targeting MiDs or an miR mimic were nebulized to rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH (n=4-10). RESULTS: MiD expression is increased in PAH pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, which accelerates Drp1-mediated mitotic fission, increases cell proliferation, and decreases apoptosis. Silencing MiDs (but not other Drp1 binding partners, fission 1 or mitochondrial fission factor) promotes mitochondrial fusion and causes G1-phase cell cycle arrest through extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2- and cyclin-dependent kinase 4-dependent mechanisms. Augmenting MiDs in normal cells causes fission and recapitulates the PAH phenotype. MiD upregulation results from decreased miR-34a-3p expression. Circulatory miR-34a-3p expression is decreased in both patients with PAH and preclinical models of PAH. Silencing MiDs or augmenting miR-34a-3p regresses experimental PAH. CONCLUSIONS: In health, MiDs regulate Drp1-mediated fission, whereas in disease, epigenetic upregulation of MiDs increases mitotic fission, which drives pathological proliferation and apoptosis resistance. The miR-34a-3p-MiD pathway offers new therapeutic targets for PAH.

15.
Pulm Circ ; 8(1): 2045893217752328, 2018 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261014

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is increasingly diagnosed in elderly patients who also have an increased risk of co-morbid atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice develop atherosclerosis with severe PAH when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and have increased levels of endothelin (ET)-1. ET-1 receptor antagonists (ERAs) are used for the treatment of PAH but less is known about whether ERAs are beneficial in atherosclerosis. We therefore examined whether treatment of HFD-ApoE-/- mice with macitentan, a dual ETA/ETB receptor antagonist, would have any effect on both atherosclerosis and PAH. ApoE-/- mice were fed chow or HFD for eight weeks. After four weeks of HFD, mice were randomized to a four-week treatment of macitentan by food (30 mg/kg/day dual ETA/ETB antagonist), or placebo groups. Echocardiography and closed-chest right heart catheterization were used to determine PAH phenotype and serum samples were collected for cytokine analysis. Thoracic aortas were harvested to assess vascular reactivity using wire myography, and histological analyses were performed on the brachiocephalic artery and aortic root to assess atherosclerotic burden. Macitentan treatment of HFD-fed ApoE-/- mice was associated with a beneficial effect on the PAH phenotype and led to an increase in endothelial-dependent relaxation in thoracic aortae. Macitentan treatment was also associated with a significant reduction in interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration but there was no significant effect on atherosclerotic burden. Dual blockade of ETA/ETB receptors improves endothelial function and improves experimental PAH but had no significant effect on atherosclerosis.

16.
Circulation ; 136(21): 2022-2033, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease with an emerging genetic basis. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) are the commonest genetic cause of PAH, whereas biallelic mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 gene (EIF2AK4) are described in pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis. Here, we determine the frequency of these mutations and define the genotype-phenotype characteristics in a large cohort of patients diagnosed clinically with PAH. METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing was performed on DNA from patients with idiopathic and heritable PAH and with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis recruited to the National Institute of Health Research BioResource-Rare Diseases study. Heterozygous variants in BMPR2 and biallelic EIF2AK4 variants with a minor allele frequency of <1:10 000 in control data sets and predicted to be deleterious (by combined annotation-dependent depletion, PolyPhen-2, and sorting intolerant from tolerant predictions) were identified as potentially causal. Phenotype data from the time of diagnosis were also captured. RESULTS: Eight hundred sixty-four patients with idiopathic or heritable PAH and 16 with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis were recruited. Mutations in BMPR2 were identified in 130 patients (14.8%). Biallelic mutations in EIF2AK4 were identified in 5 patients with a clinical diagnosis of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis. Furthermore, 9 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PAH carried biallelic EIF2AK4 mutations. These patients had a reduced transfer coefficient for carbon monoxide (Kco; 33% [interquartile range, 30%-35%] predicted) and younger age at diagnosis (29 years; interquartile range, 23-38 years) and more interlobular septal thickening and mediastinal lymphadenopathy on computed tomography of the chest compared with patients with PAH without EIF2AK4 mutations. However, radiological assessment alone could not accurately identify biallelic EIF2AK4 mutation carriers. Patients with PAH with biallelic EIF2AK4 mutations had a shorter survival. CONCLUSIONS: Biallelic EIF2AK4 mutations are found in patients classified clinically as having idiopathic and heritable PAH. These patients cannot be identified reliably by computed tomography, but a low Kco and a young age at diagnosis suggests the underlying molecular diagnosis. Genetic testing can identify these misclassified patients, allowing appropriate management and early referral for lung transplantation.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/enzimologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pulm Circ ; 7(4): 768-776, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28828907

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) mutations are present in patients with heritable and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Circulating levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) are raised in patients and animal models. Whether interplay between BMP and IL-1 signaling can explain the local manifestation of PAH in the lung remains unclear. Cell culture, siRNA, and mRNA microarray analysis of RNA isolated from human pulmonary artery (PASMC) and aortic (AoSMC) smooth muscle cells were used. R899X+/- BMPR2 transgenic mice fed a Western diet for six weeks were given daily injections of IL-1ß prior to assessment for PAH and tissue collection. PASMC have reduced inflammatory activation in response to IL-1ß compared with AoSMCs; however, PASMC with reduced BMPR2 demonstrated an exaggerated response. Mice treated with IL-1ß had higher white blood cell counts and significantly raised serum protein levels of IL-6 and osteoprotegerin (OPG) plasma levels recapitulating in vitro data. Phenotypically, IL-1ß treated mice demonstrated increased pulmonary vascular remodeling. IL-1ß induces an exaggerated pulmonary artery specific transcriptomic inflammatory response when BMPR2 signaling is reduced.

18.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 36(8): 871-879, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To ensure effective monitoring of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a simple, reliable assessment of exercise capacity applicable over a range of disease severity is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) to correlate with disease severity, measure sensitivity to change, and predict survival in PAH. METHODS: We enrolled 418 treatment-naïve patients with PAH with baseline ISWT within 3 months of cardiac catheterization. Clinical validity and prognostic value of ISWT distance were assessed at baseline and 1 year. RESULTS: ISWT distance was found to correlate at baseline with World Health Organization functional class, Borg score, and hemodynamics without a ceiling effect (all p < 0.001). Walking distance at baseline and after treatment predicted survival; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ability of ISWT distance to predict mortality was 0.655 (95% confidence interval 0.553-0.757; p = 0.004) at baseline and 0.737 (95% confidence interval 0.643-0.827; p < 0.001) at 1 year after initiation of treatment. Change in ISWT distance also predicted survival (p = 0.04). Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) parameters reflecting autonomic response to exercise (highest HR, change in HR, HR recovery at 1 minute >18 beats/min, highest SBP, change in SBP, and 3-minute SBP ratio) were significant predictors of survival (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with PAH, the ISWT is simple to perform, allows assessment of maximal exercise capacity, is sensitive to treatment effect, predicts outcome, and has no ceiling effect. Also, measures of autonomic function made post-exercise predict survival in PAH.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 5(9): 717-726, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension form a rare but molecularly heterogeneous disease group. We aimed to measure and validate differences in plasma concentrations of proteins that are associated with survival in patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension to improve risk stratification. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we enrolled patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension from London (UK; cohorts 1 and 2), Giessen (Germany; cohort 3), and Paris (France; cohort 4). Blood samples were collected at routine clinical appointment visits, clinical data were collected within 30 days of blood sampling, and biochemical data were collected within 7 days of blood sampling. We used an aptamer-based assay of 1129 plasma proteins, and patient clinical details were concealed to the technicians. We identified a panel of prognostic proteins, confirmed with alternative targeted assays, which we evaluated against the established prognostic risk equation for pulmonary arterial hypertension derived from the REVEAL registry. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint. FINDINGS: 20 proteins differentiated survivors and non-survivors in 143 consecutive patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension with 2 years' follow-up (cohort 1) and in a further 75 patients with 2·5 years' follow-up (cohort 2). Nine proteins were both prognostic independent of plasma NT-proBNP concentrations and confirmed by targeted assays. The functions of these proteins relate to myocardial stress, inflammation, pulmonary vascular cellular dysfunction and structural dysregulation, iron status, and coagulation. A cutoff-based score using the panel of nine proteins provided prognostic information independent of the REVEAL equation, improving the C statistic from area under the curve 0·83 (for REVEAL risk score, 95% CI 0·77-0·89; p<0·0001) to 0·91 (for panel and REVEAL 0·87-0·96; p<0·0001) and improving reclassification indices without detriment to calibration. Poor survival was preceded by an adverse change in panel score in paired samples from 43 incident patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in cohort 3 (p=0·0133). The protein panel was validated in 93 patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension in cohort 4, with 4·4 years' follow-up and improved risk estimates, providing complementary information to the clinical risk equation. INTERPRETATION: A combination of nine circulating proteins identifies patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension with a high risk of mortality, independent of existing clinical assessments, and might have a use in clinical management and the evaluation of new therapies. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Inserm, Université Paris-Sud, and Agence Nationale de la Recherche.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Proteoma/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Arterial , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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