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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7104, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876579

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a rare but fatal disease diagnosed by right heart catheterisation and the exclusion of other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, producing a heterogeneous population with varied treatment response. Here we show unsupervised machine learning identification of three major patient subgroups that account for 92% of the cohort, each with unique whole blood transcriptomic and clinical feature signatures. These subgroups are associated with poor, moderate, and good prognosis. The poor prognosis subgroup is associated with upregulation of the ALAS2 and downregulation of several immunoglobulin genes, while the good prognosis subgroup is defined by upregulation of the bone morphogenetic protein signalling regulator NOG, and the C/C variant of HLA-DPA1/DPB1 (independently associated with survival). These findings independently validated provide evidence for the existence of 3 major subgroups (endophenotypes) within the IPAH classification, could improve risk stratification and provide molecular insights into the pathogenesis of IPAH.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 131(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060487

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH), increased blood pressure within the lungs, is classified into five diagnostic groups based on etiology, with treatment assigned on this basis. Currently, only Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and Group 4 chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) have pharmacological treatments available. The role of the endothelial cell in pulmonary hypertension has long been debated, and in this issue of the JCI, Culley et al. present evidence for the reduction in frataxin expression across multiple groups of PH. Reduced frataxin expression led to endothelial cell senescence and associated with the development of PH. Removal of the senescent cells using the senolytic drug Navitoclax in multiple models of PH effectively treated PH, suggesting a new class of treatments that may work beyond Group 1 and Group 4 PH in patients with evidence of pulmonary vascular endothelial senescence.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Senescência Celular , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro
4.
EBioMedicine ; 69: 103444, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but life shortening disease, the diagnosis of which is often delayed, and requires an invasive right heart catheterisation. Identifying diagnostic biomarkers may improve screening to identify patients at risk of PAH earlier and provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding molecules of RNA, previously shown to be dysregulated in PAH, and contribute to the disease process in animal models. METHODS: Plasma from 64 treatment naïve patients with PAH and 43 disease and healthy controls were profiled for microRNA expression by Agilent Microarray. Following quality control and normalisation, the cohort was split into training and validation sets. Four separate machine learning feature selection methods were applied to the training set, along with a univariate analysis. FINDINGS: 20 microRNAs were identified as putative biomarkers by consensus feature selection from all four methods. Two microRNAs (miR-636 and miR-187-5p) were selected by all methods and used to predict PAH diagnosis with high accuracy. Integrating microRNA expression profiles with their associated target mRNA revealed 61 differentially expressed genes verified in two independent, publicly available PAH lung tissue data sets. Two of seven potentially novel gene targets were validated as differentially expressed in vitro in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. INTERPRETATION: This consensus of multiple machine learning approaches identified two miRNAs that were able to distinguish PAH from both disease and healthy controls. These circulating miRNA, and their target genes may provide insight into PAH pathogenesis and reveal novel regulators of disease and putative drug targets. FUNDING: This work was supported by a National Institute for Health Research Rare Disease Translational Research Collaboration (R29065/CN500) and British Heart Foundation Project Grant (PG/11/116/29288).


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Células Cultivadas , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , MicroRNA Circulante/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/citologia
5.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 80, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal vasculopathy characterized by pathogenic remodeling of pulmonary arterioles leading to increased pulmonary pressures, right ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure. PAH can be associated with other diseases (APAH: connective tissue diseases, congenital heart disease, and others) but often the etiology is idiopathic (IPAH). Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) are the cause of most heritable cases but the vast majority of other cases are genetically undefined. METHODS: To identify new risk genes, we utilized an international consortium of 4241 PAH cases with exome or genome sequencing data from the National Biological Sample and Data Repository for PAH, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, and the UK NIHR BioResource - Rare Diseases Study. The strength of this combined cohort is a doubling of the number of IPAH cases compared to either national cohort alone. We identified protein-coding variants and performed rare variant association analyses in unrelated participants of European ancestry, including 1647 IPAH cases and 18,819 controls. We also analyzed de novo variants in 124 pediatric trios enriched for IPAH and APAH-CHD. RESULTS: Seven genes with rare deleterious variants were associated with IPAH with false discovery rate smaller than 0.1: three known genes (BMPR2, GDF2, and TBX4), two recently identified candidate genes (SOX17, KDR), and two new candidate genes (fibulin 2, FBLN2; platelet-derived growth factor D, PDGFD). The new genes were identified based solely on rare deleterious missense variants, a variant type that could not be adequately assessed in either cohort alone. The candidate genes exhibit expression patterns in lung and heart similar to that of known PAH risk genes, and most variants occur in conserved protein domains. For pediatric PAH, predicted deleterious de novo variants exhibited a significant burden compared to the background mutation rate (2.45×, p = 2.5e-5). At least eight novel pediatric candidate genes carrying de novo variants have plausible roles in lung/heart development. CONCLUSIONS: Rare variant analysis of a large international consortium identified two new candidate genes-FBLN2 and PDGFD. The new genes have known functions in vasculogenesis and remodeling. Trio analysis predicted that ~ 15% of pediatric IPAH may be explained by de novo variants.

6.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788282

RESUMO

Mammalian models including non-human primates, pigs and rodents have been used extensively to study the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease. However, there is an increasing desire for alternative model systems that provide excellent scientific value while replacing or reducing the use of mammals. Here, we review the use of zebrafish, Danio rerio, to study cardiovascular development and disease. The anatomy and physiology of zebrafish and mammalian cardiovascular systems are compared, and we describe the use of zebrafish models in studying the mechanisms of cardiac (e.g. congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, conduction disorders and regeneration) and vascular (endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular ageing, neurovascular physiology and stroke) pathologies. We also review the use of zebrafish for studying pharmacological responses to cardiovascular drugs and describe several features of zebrafish that make them a compelling model for in vivo screening of compounds for the treatment cardiovascular disease.

7.
Thorax ; 76(10): 1032-1035, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632769

RESUMO

End points that are repeatable and sensitive to change are important in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) for clinical practice and trials of new therapies. In 42 patients with PAH, test-retest repeatability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and treatment effect size using Cohen's d statistic. Intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated excellent repeatability for MRI, 6 min walk test and log to base 10 N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (log10NT-proBNP). The treatment effect size for MRI-derived right ventricular ejection fraction was large (Cohen's d 0.81), whereas the effect size for the 6 min walk test (Cohen's d 0.22) and log10NT-proBNP (Cohen's d 0.20) were fair. This study supports further evaluation of MRI as a non-invasive end point for clinical assessment and PAH therapy trials.Trial registration number NCT03841344.

8.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 22(2): 236-245, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998956

RESUMO

AIMS: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive condition with high mortality. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging metrics in PAH target individual cardiac structures and have diagnostic and prognostic utility but are challenging to acquire. The primary aim of this study was to develop and test a tensor-based machine learning approach to holistically identify diagnostic features in PAH using CMR, and secondarily, visualize and interpret key discriminative features associated with PAH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive treatment naive patients with PAH or no evidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH), undergoing CMR and right heart catheterization within 48 h, were identified from the ASPIRE registry. A tensor-based machine learning approach, multilinear subspace learning, was developed and the diagnostic accuracy of this approach was compared with standard CMR measurements. Two hundred and twenty patients were identified: 150 with PAH and 70 with no PH. The diagnostic accuracy of the approach was high as assessed by area under the curve at receiver operating characteristic analysis (P < 0.001): 0.92 for PAH, slightly higher than standard CMR metrics. Moreover, establishing the diagnosis using the approach was less time-consuming, being achieved within 10 s. Learnt features were visualized in feature maps with correspondence to cardiac phases, confirming known and also identifying potentially new diagnostic features in PAH. CONCLUSION: A tensor-based machine learning approach has been developed and applied to CMR. High diagnostic accuracy has been shown for PAH diagnosis and new learnt features were visualized with diagnostic potential.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
9.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(1): 72-89, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399998

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by progressive pulmonary artery remodelling leading to increased right ventricular pressure overload, which results in right heart failure and premature death. Inflammation plays a central role in the development of PAH, and the recruitment and function of immune cells are tightly regulated by chemotactic cytokines called chemokines. A number of studies have shown that the development and progression of PAH are associated with the dysregulated expression of several chemokines and chemokine receptors in the pulmonary vasculature. Moreover, some chemokines are differentially regulated in the pressure-overloaded right ventricle. Recent studies have tested the efficacy of pharmacological agents targeting several chemokines and chemokine receptors for their effects on the development of PAH, suggesting that these receptors could serve as useful therapeutic targets. In this review, we provide recent insights into the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in PAH and RV remodelling and the opportunities and roadblocks in targeting them. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on Risk factors, comorbidities, and comedications in cardioprotection. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v178.1/issuetoc.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Quimiocinas , Humanos , Inflamação , Receptores de Quimiocinas , Remodelação Vascular
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(1): 430-445, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether global reduction of CD68 (cluster of differentiation) macrophages impacts the development of experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and whether this reduction affects the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages within the lung. Additionally, to determine whether there is evidence of an altered macrophage polarization in patients with PAH. Approach and Results: Macrophage reduction was induced in mice via doxycycline-induced CD68-driven cytotoxic diphtheria toxin A chain expression (macrophage low [MacLow] mice). Chimeric mice were generated using bone marrow transplant. Mice were phenotyped for PAH by echocardiography and closed chest cardiac catheterization. Murine macrophage phenotyping was performed on lungs, bone marrow-derived macrophages, and alveolar macrophages using immunohistochemical and flow cytometry. Monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from PAH patients and healthy volunteers and polarization capacity assessed morphologically and by flow cytometry. After 6 weeks of macrophage depletion, male but not female MacLow mice developed PAH. Chimeric mice demonstrated a requirement for both MacLow bone marrow and MacLow recipient mice to cause PAH. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung sections demonstrated imbalance in M1/M2 ratio in male MacLow mice only, suggesting that this imbalance may drive the PAH phenotype. M1/M2 imbalance was also seen in male MacLow bone marrow-derived macrophages and PAH patient monocyte-derived macrophages following stimulation with doxycycline and IL (interleukin)-4, respectively. Furthermore, MacLow-derived alveolar macrophages showed characteristic differences in terms of their polarization and expression of diphtheria toxin A chain following stimulation with doxycycline. CONCLUSIONS: These data further highlight a sex imbalance in PAH and further implicate immune cells into this paradigm. Targeting imbalance of macrophage population may offer a future therapeutic option.


Assuntos
Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/patologia , Remodelação Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Toxina Diftérica/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Comunicação Parácrina , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fenótipo , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(1): 34-43, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926635

RESUMO

Rationale: Exercise capacity predicts mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but limited data exist on the routine use of maximal exercise testing.Objectives: This study evaluates a simple-to-perform maximal test (the incremental shuttle walking test) and its use in risk stratification in PAH.Methods: Consecutive patients with pulmonary hypertension were identified from the ASPIRE (Assessing the Spectrum of Pulmonary hypertension Identified at a REferral centre) registry (2001-2018). Thresholds for levels of risk were identified at baseline and tested at follow-up, and their incorporation into current risk stratification approaches was assessed.Results: Of 4,524 treatment-naive patients with pulmonary hypertension who underwent maximal exercise testing, 1,847 patients had PAH. A stepwise reduction in 1-year mortality was seen between levels 1 (≤30 m; 32% mortality) and 7 (340-420 m; 1% mortality) with no mortality for levels 8-12 (≥430 m) in idiopathic and connective tissue disease-related PAH. Thresholds derived at baseline of ≤180 m (>10%; high risk), 190-330 m (5-10%; intermediate risk), and ≥340 m (<5%; low risk of 1-yr mortality) were applied at follow-up and also accurately identified levels of risk. Thresholds were incorporated into the REVEAL (Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management) 2.0 risk score calculator and French low-risk approach to risk stratification, and distinct categories of risk remained.Conclusions: We have demonstrated that maximal exercise testing in PAH stratifies mortality risk at baseline and follow-up. This study highlights the potential value of the incremental shuttle walking test as an alternative to the 6-minute walking test, combining some of the advantages of maximal exercise testing and maintaining the simplicity of a simple-to-perform field test.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Teste de Caminhada , Humanos
13.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334933

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Screening for PAH in SSc has increased detection, allowed early treatment for PAH and improved patient outcomes. Blood-based biomarkers that reliably identify SSc patients at risk of PAH, or with early disease, would significantly improve screening, potentially leading to improved survival, and provide novel mechanistic insights into early disease. The main objective of this study was to identify a proteomic biomarker signature that could discriminate SSc patients with and without PAH using a machine learning approach and to validate the findings in an external cohort.Serum samples from patients with SSc and PAH (n=77) and SSc without pulmonary hypertension (non-PH) (n=80) were randomly selected from the clinical DETECT study and underwent proteomic screening using the Myriad RBM Discovery platform consisting of 313 proteins. Samples from an independent validation SSc cohort (PAH n=22 and non-PH n=22) were obtained from the University of Sheffield (Sheffield, UK).Random forest analysis identified a novel panel of eight proteins, comprising collagen IV, endostatin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2, IGFBP-7, matrix metallopeptidase-2, neuropilin-1, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), that discriminated PAH from non-PH in SSc patients in the DETECT Discovery Cohort (average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.741, 65.1% sensitivity/69.0% specificity), which was reproduced in the Sheffield Confirmatory Cohort (81.1% accuracy, 77.3% sensitivity/86.5% specificity).This novel eight-protein biomarker panel has the potential to improve early detection of PAH in SSc patients and may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of PAH in the context of SSc.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Proteômica
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105808

RESUMO

Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) can provide a link between disease susceptibility variants discovered by genetic association studies and biology. To date, eQTL mapping studies have been primarily conducted in healthy individuals from population-based cohorts. Genetic effects have been known to be context-specific and vary with changing environmental stimuli. We conducted a transcriptome- and genome-wide eQTL mapping study in a cohort of patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) using RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data from whole blood. We sought confirmation from three published population-based eQTL studies, including the GTEx Project, and followed up potentially novel eQTL not observed in the general population. In total, we identified 2314 eQTL of which 90% were cis-acting and 75% were confirmed by at least one of the published studies. While we observed a higher GWAS trait colocalization rate among confirmed eQTL, colocalisation rate of novel eQTL reported for lung-related phenotypes was twice as high as that of confirmed eQTL. Functional enrichment analysis of genes with novel eQTL in PAH highlighted immune-related processes, a suspected contributor to PAH. These potentially novel eQTL specific to or active in PAH could be useful in understanding genetic risk factors for other diseases that share common mechanisms with PAH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
Circulation ; 142(15): 1464-1484, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) function is the major determinant for both functional capacity and survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Despite the recognized clinical importance of preserving RV function, the subcellular mechanisms that govern the transition from a compensated to a decompensated state remain poorly understood and as a consequence there are no clinically established treatments for RV failure and a paucity of clinically useful biomarkers. Accumulating evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs are powerful regulators of cardiac development and disease. Nonetheless, their implication in adverse RV remodeling in PAH is unknown. METHODS: Expression of the long noncoding RNA H19 was assessed by quantitative PCR in plasma and RV from patients categorized as control RV, compensated RV or decompensated RV based on clinical history and cardiac index. The impact of H19 suppression using GapmeR was explored in 2 rat models mimicking RV failure, namely the monocrotaline and pulmonary artery banding. Echocardiographic, hemodynamic, histological, and biochemical analyses were conducted. In vitro gain- and loss-of-function experiments were performed in rat cardiomyocytes. RESULTS: We demonstrated that H19 is upregulated in decompensated RV from PAH patients and correlates with RV hypertrophy and fibrosis. Similar findings were observed in monocrotaline and pulmonary artery banding rats. We found that silencing H19 limits pathological RV hypertrophy, fibrosis and capillary rarefaction, thus preserving RV function in monocrotaline and pulmonary artery banding rats without affecting pulmonary vascular remodeling. This cardioprotective effect was accompanied by E2F transcription factor 1-mediated upregulation of enhancer of zeste homolog 2. In vitro, knockdown of H19 suppressed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by phenylephrine, while its overexpression has the opposite effect. Finally, we demonstrated that circulating H19 levels in plasma discriminate PAH patients from controls, correlate with RV function and predict long-term survival in 2 independent idiopathic PAH cohorts. Moreover, H19 levels delineate subgroups of patients with differentiated prognosis when combined with the NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels or the risk score proposed by both REVEAL (Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management) and the 2015 European Pulmonary Hypertension Guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify H19 as a new therapeutic target to impede the development of maladaptive RV remodeling and a promising biomarker of PAH severity and prognosis.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/mortalidade , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/patologia
16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(4): 586-594, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352834

RESUMO

Rationale: Idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are rare but comprise a genetically heterogeneous patient group. RNA sequencing linked to the underlying genetic architecture can be used to better understand the underlying pathology by identifying key signaling pathways and stratify patients more robustly according to clinical risk.Objectives: To use a three-stage design of RNA discovery, RNA validation and model construction, and model validation to define a set of PAH-associated RNAs and a single summarizing RNA model score. To define genes most likely to be involved in disease development, we performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.Methods: RNA sequencing was performed on whole-blood samples from 359 patients with idiopathic, heritable, and drug-induced PAH and 72 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The score was evaluated against disease severity markers including survival analysis using all-cause mortality from diagnosis. MR used known expression quantitative trait loci and summary statistics from a PAH genome-wide association study.Measurements and Main Results: We identified 507 genes with differential RNA expression in patients with PAH compared with control subjects. A model of 25 RNAs distinguished PAH with 87% accuracy (area under the curve 95% confidence interval: 0.791-0.945) in model validation. The RNA model score was associated with disease severity and long-term survival (P = 4.66 × 10-6) in PAH. MR detected an association between SMAD5 levels and PAH disease susceptibility (odds ratio, 0.317; 95% confidence interval, 0.129-0.776; P = 0.012).Conclusions: A whole-blood RNA signature of PAH, which includes RNAs relevant to disease pathogenesis, associates with disease severity and identifies patients with poor clinical outcomes. Genetic variants associated with lower SMAD5 expression may increase susceptibility to PAH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/sangue , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/genética , RNA/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(4): 458-468, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647310

RESUMO

Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-shortening condition. The European Society of Cardiology and European Respiratory Society and the REVEAL (North American Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management) risk score calculator (REVEAL 2.0) identify thresholds to predict 1-year mortality.Objectives: This study evaluates whether cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thresholds can be identified and used to aid risk stratification and facilitate decision-making.Methods: Consecutive patients with PAH (n = 438) undergoing cardiac MRI were identified from the ASPIRE (Assessing the Spectrum of Pulmonary Hypertension Identified at a Referral Center) MRI database. Thresholds were identified from a discovery cohort and evaluated in a test cohort.Measurements and Main Results: A percentage-predicted right ventricular end-systolic volume index threshold of 227% or a left ventricular end-diastolic volume index of 58 ml/m2 identified patients at low (<5%) and high (>10%) risk of 1-year mortality. These metrics respectively identified 63% and 34% of patients as low risk. Right ventricular ejection fraction >54%, 37-54%, and <37% identified 21%, 43%, and 36% of patients at low, intermediate, and high risk, respectively, of 1-year mortality. At follow-up cardiac MRI, patients who improved to or were maintained in a low-risk group had a 1-year mortality <5%. Percentage-predicted right ventricular end-systolic volume index independently predicted outcome and, when used in conjunction with the REVEAL 2.0 risk score calculator or a modified French Pulmonary Hypertension Registry approach, improved risk stratification for 1-year mortality.Conclusions: Cardiac MRI can be used to risk stratify patients with PAH using a threshold approach. Percentage-predicted right ventricular end-systolic volume index can identify a high percentage of patients at low-risk of 1-year mortality and, when used in conjunction with current risk stratification approaches, can improve risk stratification. This study supports further evaluation of cardiac MRI in risk stratification in PAH.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
20.
Circ Res ; 126(2): 243-257, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805812

RESUMO

RATIONALE: ENG (endoglin) is a coreceptor for BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) 9/10 and is strongly expressed in endothelial cells. Mutations in ENG lead to the inherited vascular disorder hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia characterized by local telangiectases and larger arteriovenous malformations (AVMs); but how ENG functions to regulate the adult vasculature is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the work was to determine how ENG maintains vessel caliber in adult life to prevent AVM formation and thereby protect heart function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetic depletion of endothelial Eng in adult mice led to a significant reduction in mean aortic blood pressure. There was no evidence of hemorrhage, anemia, or AVMs in major organs to explain the reduced aortic pressure. However, large AVMs developed in the peripheral vasculature intimately associated with the pelvic cartilaginous symphysis-a noncapsulated cartilage with a naturally high endogenous expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). The increased blood flow through these peripheral AVMs explained the drop in aortic blood pressure and led to increased cardiac preload, and high stroke volumes, ultimately resulting in high-output heart failure. Development of pelvic AVMs in this region of high VEGF expression occurred because loss of ENG in endothelial cells leads to increased sensitivity to VEGF and a hyperproliferative response. Development of AVMs and associated progression to high-output heart failure in the absence of endothelial ENG was attenuated by targeting VEGF signaling with an anti-VEGFR2 (VEGF receptor 2) antibody. CONCLUSIONS: ENG promotes the normal balance of VEGF signaling in quiescent endothelial cells to maintain vessel caliber-an essential function in conditions of increased VEGF expression such as local hypoxia or inflammation. In the absence of endothelial ENG, increased sensitivity to VEGF drives abnormal endothelial proliferation in local regions of high VEGF expression, leading to AVM formation and a rapid injurious impact on heart function.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/metabolismo , Endoglina/genética , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Malformações Arteriovenosas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Malformações Arteriovenosas/patologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Proliferação de Células , Endoglina/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
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