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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(3): e15548, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac and major vascular surgeries are common surgical procedures associated with high rates of postsurgical complications and related hospital readmission. In-hospital remote automated monitoring (RAM) and virtual hospital-to-home patient care systems have major potential to improve patient outcomes following cardiac and major vascular surgery. However, the science of deploying and evaluating these systems is complex and subject to risk of implementation failure. OBJECTIVE: As a precursor to a randomized controlled trial (RCT), this user testing study aimed to examine user performance and acceptance of a RAM and virtual hospital-to-home care intervention, using Philip's Guardian and Electronic Transition to Ambulatory Care (eTrAC) technologies, respectively. METHODS: Nurses and patients participated in systems training and individual case-based user testing at two participating sites in Canada and the United Kingdom. Participants were video recorded and asked to think aloud while completing required user tasks and while being rated on user performance. Feedback was also solicited about the user experience, including user satisfaction and acceptance, through use of the Net Promoter Scale (NPS) survey and debrief interviews. RESULTS: A total of 37 participants (26 nurses and 11 patients) completed user testing. The majority of nurse and patient participants were able to complete most required tasks independently, demonstrating comprehension and retention of required Guardian and eTrAC system workflows. Tasks which required additional prompting by the facilitator, for some, were related to the use of system features that enable continuous transmission of patient vital signs (eg, pairing wireless sensors to the patient) and assigning remote patient monitoring protocols. NPS scores by user group (nurses using Guardian: mean 8.8, SD 0.89; nurses using eTrAC: mean 7.7, SD 1.4; patients using eTrAC: mean 9.2, SD 0.75), overall NPS scores, and participant debrief interviews indicated nurse and patient satisfaction and acceptance of the Guardian and eTrAC systems. Both user groups stressed the need for additional opportunities to practice in order to become comfortable and proficient in the use of these systems. CONCLUSIONS: User testing indicated a high degree of user acceptance of Philips' Guardian and eTrAC systems among nurses and patients. Key insights were provided that informed refinement of clinical workflow training and systems implementation. These results were used to optimize workflows before the launch of an international RCT of in-hospital RAM and virtual hospital-to-home care for patients undergoing cardiac and major vascular surgery.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/normas , Hospitais/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório
2.
J Palliat Med ; 23(4): 586-590, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408396

RESUMO

The impostor phenomenon (IP) describes the experience of questioning one's abilities and fearing exposure as an intellectual fraud, despite objective evidence of success. The IP has been identified in high-achieving professionals across a variety of disciplines, including clinical medicine, and can be associated with significant anxiety and psychological distress. In this series, we present three authentic cases that demonstrate how the IP may manifest in palliative care practice. Acknowledging the current emphasis on clinician wellness and burnout, we suggest that the IP may be one important source of distress for many early-career clinicians in palliative care. With the physician as the focus of each case, we explore the difficult emotions faced and highlight how palliative care clinicians may be uniquely vulnerable to the IP. We then identify concrete strategies to help clinicians manage feelings of IP and enhance their professional well-being.

3.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1391-1398, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656098

RESUMO

Hypertension is associated with raised cerebral vascular resistance and cerebrovascular remodeling. It is currently unclear whether the cerebral circulation can maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) during reductions in cardiac output (CO) in hypertensive patients thereby avoiding hypoperfusion of the brain. We hypothesized that hypertension would impair the ability to effectively regulate CBF during simulated hypovolemia. In the present study, 39 participants (13 normotensive, 13 controlled, and 13 uncontrolled hypertensives; mean age±SD, 55±10 years) underwent lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at -20, -40, and -50 mmHg to decrease central blood volume. Phase-contrast MR angiography was used to measure flow in the basilar and internal carotid arteries, as well as the ascending aorta. CBF and CO decreased during LBNP (P<0.0001). Heart rate increased during LBNP, reaching significance at -50 mmHg (P<0.0001). There was no change in mean arterial pressure during LBNP (P=0.3). All participants showed similar reductions in CBF (P=0.3, between groups) and CO (P=0.7, between groups) during LBNP. There was no difference in resting CBF between the groups (P=0.36). In summary, during reductions in CO induced by hypovolemic stress, mean arterial pressure is maintained but CBF declines indicating that CBF is dependent on CO in middle-aged normotensive and hypertensive volunteers. Hypertension is not associated with impairments in the CBF response to reduced CO.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Hipertensão Essencial/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Essencial/fisiopatologia , Hipovolemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hipovolemia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pressão Negativa da Região Corporal Inferior/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Treinamento por Simulação
4.
Eur Radiol ; 27(3): 1125-1135, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27368925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: European guidelines state left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) ≥15mm suggests hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but distinguishing from hypertensive heart disease (HHD) is challenging. We identify cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) predictors of HHD over HCM when EDWT ≥15mm. METHODS: 2481 consecutive clinical CMRs between 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. 464 segments from 29 HCM subjects with EDWT ≥15mm but without other cardiac abnormality, hypertension or renal impairment were analyzed. 432 segments from 27 HHD subjects with EDWT ≥15mm but without concomitant cardiac pathology were analyzed. Magnitude and location of maximal EDWT, presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), LV asymmetry (>1.5-fold opposing segment) and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) were measured. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Significance was defined as p<0.05. RESULTS: HHD and HCM cohorts were age-/gender-matched. HHD had significantly increased indexed LV mass (110±27g/m2 vs. 91±31g/m2, p=0.016) but no difference in site or magnitude of maximal EDWT. Mid-wall LGE was significantly more prevalent in HCM. Elevated indexed LVM, mid-wall LGE and absence of SAM were significant multivariate predictors of HHD, but LV asymmetry was not. CONCLUSIONS: Increased indexed LV mass, absence of mid-wall LGE and absence of SAM are better CMR discriminators of HHD from HCM than EDWT ≥15mm. KEY POINTS: • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often diagnosed with end-diastolic wall thickness ≥15mm. • Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) can be difficult to distinguish from HCM. • Retrospective case-control study showed that location and magnitude of EDWT are poor discriminators. • Increased left ventricular mass and midwall fibrosis are independent predictors of HHD. • Cardiovascular magnetic resonance parameters facilitate a better discrimination between HHD and HCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Fibrose , Gadolínio , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Miocárdio/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 17(12): 1405-1413, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26705488

RESUMO

AIMS: We sought to determine the prevalence of asymmetric hypertensive heart disease (HHD) overlapping morphologically with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and to determine predictors of this pattern of hypertensive remodelling. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and fifty hypertensive patients underwent 1.5 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one patients were excluded due to concomitant cardiac pathology that may confound the hypertrophic response, e.g. myocardial infarction, moderate-severe valvular disease, or other cardiomyopathy. Asymmetric HHD was defined as a segmental wall thickness of ≥15 mm and >1.5-fold the opposing wall in ≥1 myocardial segments, measured from short-axis cine stack at end-diastole. Ambulatory blood pressure, myocardial replacement fibrosis, aortic distensibility and aortoseptal angle were investigated as predictors of asymmetric HHD by multivariate logistic regression. Out of 129 hypertensive subjects (age: 51 ± 15 years, 50% male, systolic blood pressure: 170 ± 30 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure: 97 ± 16 mmHg), asymmetric HHD occurred in 21%. Where present, maximal end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) was 17.8 ± 1.9 mm and located exclusively in the basal or mid septum. In asymmetric HHD, aortoseptal angle (114 ± 10° vs. 125 ± 9° vs. 123 ± 12°, P < 0.05, respectively) was significantly reduced compared to concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and compared to no LVH, respectively. Aortic distensibility in asymmetric HHD (1.01 ± 0.60 vs. 1.83 ± 1.65 mm2/mmHg × 103, P < 0.05, respectively) was significantly reduced compared to subjects with no LVH. Age (odds ratio [95th confidence interval]: 1.10 [1.02-1.18], P < 0.05) and indexed LV mass (1.09 [0.98-1.28], P < 0.0001) were significant, independent predictors of asymmetric HDD. CONCLUSIONS: Asymmetric HHD morphologically overlapping with HCM, according to the current ESC guidelines, is common. Postulating a diagnosis of HCM on the basis of EDWT of ≥15 mm should be made with caution in the presence of arterial hypertension particular in male subjects with elevated LV mass.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo
6.
Neural Regen Res ; 10(9): 1359-62, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604879

RESUMO

There is currently no consensus among clinicians and scientists over the appropriate or optimal timing for umbilical cord clamping. However, many clinical studies have suggested that delayed cord clamping is associated with various neonatal benefits including increased blood volume, reduced need for blood transfusion, increased cerebral oxygenation in pre-term infants, and decreased frequency of iron deficiency anemia in term infants. Human umbilical cord blood contains significant amounts of stem and progenitor cells and is currently used in the treatment of several life-threatening diseases. We propose that delayed cord clamping be encouraged as it enhances blood flow from the placenta to the neonate, which is accompanied by an increase supply of valuable stem and progenitor cells, as well as may improve blood oxygenation and increase blood volume, altogether reducing the infant's susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases.

8.
Radiology ; 275(1): 61-70, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25333474

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine variability and agreement for detecting myocardial edema with T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), acquisition for cardiac unified T2 edema (ACUT2E), T2 mapping, and early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) after successfully reperfused ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and diagnostic accuracy of each sequence to predict infarct-related artery (IRA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Local ethics committee approved the study, with patient informed written consent. On day 2 after successful primary angioplasty for STEMI, 53 patients were prospectively enrolled; 40 patients (mean age, 60 years) completed study. Two sets of cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained on same day 6 hours apart. Basal, midcavity, and apical sections were obtained with each sequence. Interobserver, intraobserver, and interimage variability (1 minus intraclass correlation coefficient) and agreement (Bland-Altman method) were assessed. RESULTS: Size of myocardial edema significantly differed. Mean size of myocardium at risk was similar between T2-weighted STIR (18.2 g) and T2 mapping (17.3 g) (P = .54). Mean size differed between T2-weighted STIR (18.2 g) and ACUT2E (14.0 g) (P = .01) and between T2-weighted STIR (18.2 g) and EGE (14.2 g) (P = .003). T2 mapping and EGE had best agreement (interobserver bias: T2-weighted STIR, -0.9 [mean difference] ± 9.6 [standard deviation]; ACUT2E, -2.5 ± 6.9; T2 mapping, -3.8 ± 4.7; EGE, -5.3 ± 5.9; interimage bias: T2-weighted STIR, 1.5 ± 5.8; ACUT2E, -0.8 ± 4.9; T2 mapping, 3.1 ± 4.0; EGE, 1.1 ± 4.9; intraobserver bias: T2-weighted STIR, 1.4 ± 5.8; ACUT2E, 0.6 ± 4.7; T2 mapping, 2.2 ± 3.1; EGE, 1.7 ± 2.9). Variability was lowest for T2 mapping (intraobserver, 0.05; interobserver, 0.09; interimage, 0.1) followed by EGE (intraobserver, 0.03; interobserver, 0.14; interimage, 0.14), with improved detection of territory of IRA versus ACUT2E (intraobserver, 0.11; interobserver, 0.22; interimage, 0.12) and T2-weighted STIR (intraobserver, 0.1; interobserver, 0.32; interimage, 0.1). CONCLUSION: Cardiac MR methods to detect and quantify infarct myocardial edema are not interchangeable; T2 mapping is the most reproducible method, followed by EGE, ACUT2E, and T2-weighted STIR. Clinical trial registration no. NCT01468662


Assuntos
Edema Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miocárdio/patologia , Compostos Organometálicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
9.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 114(5): 1013-23, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24504653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increased oxygen uptake and utilisation during exercise depend on adequate adaptations of systemic and pulmonary vasculature. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques allow for direct quantification of aortic and pulmonary blood flow using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PCMRA). This pilot study tested quantification of aortic and pulmonary haemodynamic adaptations to moderate aerobic supine leg exercise using PCMRA. METHODS: Nine adult healthy volunteers underwent pulse gated free breathing PCMRA while performing heart rate targeted aerobic lower limb exercise. Flow was assessed in mid ascending and mid descending thoracic aorta (AO) and main pulmonary artery (MPA) during exercise at 180 % of individual resting heart rate. Flow sequence analysis was performed by experienced operators using commercial offline software (Argus, Siemens Medical Systems). RESULTS: Exercise related increase in HR (rest: 69 ± 10 b min(-1), exercise: 120 ± 13 b min(-1)) resulted in cardiac output increase (from 6.5 ± 1.4 to 12.5 ± 1.8 L min(-1)). At exercise, ascending aorta systolic peak velocity increased from 89 ± 14 to 122 ± 34 cm s(-1) (p = 0.016), descending thoracic aorta systolic peak velocity increased from 104 ± 14 to 144 ± 33 cm s(-1) (p = 0.004), MPA systolic peak velocity from 86 ± 18 to 140 ± 48 cm s(-1) (p = 0.007), ascending aorta systolic peak flow rate from 415 ± 83 to 550 ± 135 mL s(-1) (p = 0.002), descending thoracic aorta systolic peak flow rate from 264 ± 70 to 351 ± 82 mL s(-1) (p = 0.004) and MPA systolic peak flow rate from 410 ± 80 to 577 ± 180 mL s(-1) (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Quantitative blood flow and velocity analysis during exercise using PCMRA is feasible and detected a steep exercise flow and velocity increase in the aorta and MPA. Exercise PCMRA can serve as a research and clinical tool to help quantify exercise blood flow adaptations in health and disease and investigate patho-physiological mechanisms in cardio-pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Aorta Torácica/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Hemodinâmica , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto , Aortografia/instrumentação , Aortografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Decúbito Dorsal
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