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1.
JMIR Cancer ; 7(3): e28234, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Web-based social support can address social isolation and unmet support needs among young adults with cancer (aged 18-39 years). Given that 94% of young adults own and use smartphones, social media can offer personalized, accessible social support among peers with cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the specific benefits, downsides, and topics of social support via social media among young adults with cancer. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with young adults with cancer, aged between 18 and 39 years, who were receiving treatment or had completed treatment for cancer. RESULTS: Most participants (N=45) used general audience platforms (eg, Facebook groups), and some cancer-specific social media (eg, Caring Bridge), to discuss relevant lived experiences for medical information (managing side effects and treatment uncertainty) and navigating life with cancer (parenting and financial issues). Participants valued socializing with other young adults with cancer, making connections outside their personal networks, and being able to validate their emotional and mental health experiences without time and physical constraints. However, using social media for peer support can be an emotional burden, especially when others post disheartening or harassing content, and can heighten privacy concerns, especially when navigating cancer-related stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Social media allows young adults to connect with peers to share and feel validated about their treatment and life concerns. However, barriers exist for receiving support from social media; these could be reduced through content moderation and developing more customizable, potentially cancer-specific social media apps and platforms to enhance one's ability to find peers and manage groups.

2.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that community water fluoridation (CWF) protects oral health, improves health equity, is safe and cost-effective, and contributes to social well-being, little is known regarding which of these benefits should be highlighted to effectively influence support for CWF. METHODS: This within-participants study examines differences in CWF support in response to pro-CWF messages reflecting themes of oral health, health equity, CWF safety, cost-effectiveness, or social well-being among a sample of parents. Prior belief that CWF has health benefits, worry about potential health risks, and normative beliefs were also examined as independent predictors of support for each theme. RESULTS: Oral health, health equity, and safety messages significantly increased support in comparison with social well-being messages (P < .05). Oral health messages also produced greater support than cost-savings messages. Belief that CWF has health benefits positively predicted support, as did normative beliefs that one's family and physician approve of CWF. Worry about health risks and community and dentist norms were not significant predictors of support. There were no interaction effects of message themes and prior beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Messaging focused on oral health, health equity, and the safety of CWF may be the most effective at influencing support for CWF. Preexisting personal beliefs about CWF benefits significantly predict support, but so do normative beliefs-family and physician norms in particular. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Findings suggest dental health educators should emphasize the oral health benefits of CWF over cost and social well-being outcomes. They should also consider relevant norms and collaborate with family physicians to promote CWF.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444509

RESUMO

Point-of-sale policies such as warnings and taxes are promising tools for improving the nutritional quality of food purchases. Research studies conducted in naturalistic store laboratories could improve the quality of evidence about point-of-sale interventions by allowing for realistic exposure in a controlled setting. This study aimed to assess whether purchasing behavior in a naturalistic store laboratory setting was similar to real-life purchasing behavior and to evaluate participants' perceptions of store realism and the acceptability of research study protocols in this setting. In a longitudinal observational study in 2019, Latinx parents in North Carolina (n = 61) attended five weekly visits at the UNC Mini Mart, a naturalistic store laboratory that resembled a small convenience store. At each visit, participants purchased a week's supply of beverages. Purchases of beverages in the Mini Mart were compared to participants' purchases from receipts submitted the week prior to the study. Analyses compared the percentage of participants buying sugary drinks and non-sugary drinks in the Mini Mart vs. in real stores using Chi-Square tests with Fisher's p. The percentage of parents who purchased sugary drinks in the Mini Mart (93%) was not significantly different from the percentage who purchased sugary drinks during the week before the study (74%, p = 0.28). The percentage purchasing non-sugary drinks was similar in the two settings (85% in the Mini Mart vs. 85% from receipts, p = 0.33). Nearly all participants reported that their Mini Mart purchases were similar to real-life purchases (96%); the Mini Mart felt like a real store (94%); they could find all the beverages they were looking for (92%); and they could imagine doing their real-life beverage shopping in the Mini Mart (92%). Moreover, retention was high, with 97% of participants attending the final study visit. These results indicate that naturalistic store laboratories are a promising method for increasing the ecological validity of trials to evaluate point-of-sale interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Laboratórios , Bebidas , Comércio , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Política Nutricional
4.
Tob Control ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration requires six text-only warnings for cigar products, including cigarillos. Research has demonstrated the superiority of pictorial over text-only cigarette warnings, yet the relative effectiveness of pictorial warnings for cigarillos has not been examined. We examined the impact of pictorial cigarillo warnings compared with text-only warnings. METHODS: Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of US young adult (18-29) cigarillo users and susceptible non-users. Participants were randomised to one of three experimental conditions: text-only or one of two pictorial conditions (combined for analyses). For each warning, we assessed negative emotional reactions, cognitive elaboration (ie, thinking about cigarillo risks) and perceived message effectiveness (PME). RESULTS: Participants (N=661) were 46.5% female, 64.7% white and 21.9% Hispanic; 34.1% reported past 30-day cigarillo use; 41.4% were lifetime users (excluding past 30-day use); and 24.4% were susceptible non-users. Pictorial warnings elicited more negative emotional reactions and higher PME than text-only warnings (p values<0.01), with interactions showing the largest effects for past 30-day users (emotional reactions: d=0.99, PME: d=0.63). For cognitive elaboration, there was no main effect of warning type, but an interaction revealed effects for past 30-day users (p<0.05, d=0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Pictorial cigarillo warnings elicited greater negative emotional reactions and PME compared with text-only warnings. These effects and the effects on cognitive elaboration were strongest for past 30-day users. Our findings extend research on cigarette warnings to cigarillos, demonstrating that pictorial warnings are superior to text-only warnings for cigarillos in eliciting beneficial responses.

5.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(11): 1855-1860, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe tobacco (WT) smoking by young adults remains high and misperceptions are common. Product warnings can increase knowledge of harms and reduce use. The goal of this study was to test warning statements, including the FDA-required nicotine warning (prior to implementation), on young adults' thinking about harms of and discouragement from WT smoking. METHODS: We conducted a between-subjects experiment in a nationally representative telephone survey of 1152 young adults aged 18-29. Participants were randomly assigned to hear one of five warning statements and reported how much, on a 4-point scale, the warning made them think about the harms and discouraged them from WT smoking. RESULTS: The sample was 36.8% female, 57.8% white, 20.2% Black, 24.1% Hispanic, with a mean age of 23.2 (SE = 0.25). Under half (43.5%) had ever smoked WT. There were significant differences among the statements on both thinking about harms (p < .0001) and discouragement (p < .0001). The FDA-required "nicotine" warning led to the lowest thinking about harms (M = 2.85, SE = 0.08) and was the least discouraging (M = 2.86, SE = 0.08), while the "100 cigarettes" warning resulted in the greatest thinking about harms (M = 3.62, SE = 0.05) and was the most discouraging (M = 3.56, SE = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The nicotine warning resulted in the lowest levels of thinking about harms and discouragement from WT smoking, suggesting limited impact. However, a warning focused on comparing smoke inhalation from WT smoking to cigarettes seems promising. Warnings should cover a broad range of WT health effects, and possibly comparisons to cigarettes. Findings also have implications for the content of international waterpipe warnings. IMPLICATIONS: This study indicates that the nicotine warning is the least effective at making young adults think about the harms of and discouraging WT smoking. The FDA and other countries should consider requiring warnings to cover a broader range of health harms, misperceptions, and possibly comparisons to cigarettes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142863

RESUMO

Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) products are increasingly available to consumers in the United States and are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). CBD products cannot be marketed as unapproved new drugs with claims of therapeutic benefit. In addition, because CBD is the active ingredient in a FDA-approved CBD product, Epidiolex, CBD cannot be marketed as, or in, food products or dietary supplements. The FDA has issued Warning Letters to promote voluntary regulatory compliance. These letters provide insights as to the types of violations for CBD products detected in the U.S. market. Objective: The goal of this retrospective study was to content analyze Warning Letters issued by the FDA to identify illicit marketing of CBD products. Design: Warning Letters issued by the FDA between 2015 and 2019 were content analyzed using a deductive approach. We extracted year of issuance, issuing office, and claim types that are currently prohibited by the FDA, including (i) unapproved new drug, (ii) misbranded drug, (iii) false and/or misleading, (iv) FDA-approved/endorsed, (v) dietary supplement, and (vi) adulterated food product. In addition, we documented the disease or conditions the product claimed to affect, pharmacological effects, and location of violation. Results: Of the 39 Warning Letters issued, 97% were for violations made on company websites and 56% were for social media accounts. Almost all letters (97%) cited violations of marketing CBD as an unapproved new drug. These illicit therapeutic claims were made for >125 unique health problems, including cancer (87.2%), diabetes (71.8%), inflammation (66.7%), pain (66.7%), and arthritis (66.7%). The majority of letters (79.5%) also cited illicit marketing of CBD as a dietary supplement or food product. CBD was promoted as having 16 unique pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory (53.8%), anticancer (43.6%), and antipsychotic (30.8%). Conclusions: CBD products have been unlawfully advertised online as unauthorized drugs with health claims that promote therapeutic benefits and as dietary supplements. Efforts are needed to regulate and monitor illicit advertising so consumers are not misled about the risks and benefits of CBD use.

7.
Psychooncology ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165848

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Social isolation is a prominent challenge for many young adults with cancer. Despite desires for peer-to-peer connections through technology, little is known about how young adults initiate or use social media for support over time. METHODS: We interviewed young adults with cancer (n = 45; age 18-39, in or post cancer treatment) to explore their initiation of social media for support, changes in use over time, and types of connections sought. RESULTS: Young adults with cancer learn about online support through individual personal recommendations, advocacy organizations, or searching on Google or social media. Most were reluctant to use social media support initially because of feeling overwhelmed-from diagnoses, abundance of online information, or demands of participation-and joined when informational and emotional needs arose. Many wished they had joined earlier. Some participants use social media to make close connections while others simply want to "see" others' shared experiences or crowdsource information. CONCLUSION: Young adults with cancer often haphazardly find online support from personal recommendations or Internet searches. Desires for social media connections are not one-size-fits-all; there are important audience segmentations for the degree and type of peer support. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Better promotion of online social support options and benefits-early in one's cancer timeline and systematically through healthcare providers, cancer organizations, or family and friends-could improve access to helpful peer-to-peer support.

8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(11): 1962-1966, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990843

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although e-cigarette marketing on social media increases positive attitudes and experimentation, little is known about non-influencer e-cigarette portrayals of young people. AIMS AND METHODS: High school adolescents (n = 928, 15-18) were recruited by Lightspeed Health for an online experiment and randomized to view an Instagram post with or without e-cigarette use. Outcomes were positive and negative perceptions (prototypes), social distance, and willingness to use. RESULTS: Half (50%) of participants were susceptible to e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes shown (vs. not) led to less positive prototypes, p = .017, more negative prototypes, p = .004, and more social distance, p < .001. Negative prototypes and social distance were moderated by susceptibility (both p < .05); effects among non-susceptible adolescents only. Showing e-cigarettes did not impact willingness to use if offered. CONCLUSIONS: Negative perceptions of e-cigarettes use challenge assumptions that vaping online is universally admirable. Highlighting unfavorable opinions of vaping or negative impacts for adolescents' social image are potential strategies for tobacco counter-marketing. IMPLICATIONS: Despite daily use of visual-based social media by most adolescents, little is known about the influence of e-cigarette use among young people online. Adolescent negative perceptions and desired distance from non-influencers using e-cigarettes on Instagram indicate digital e-cigarette portrayals are not universally accepted. Negative impacts for adolescents' social image present a counter-marketing strategy.

9.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 413-420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011204

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: From the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, public health officials have sought to develop evidence-based messages to reduce COVID-19 transmission by communicating key information to media outlets and the public. We describe the development of an interdisciplinary rapid message testing model to quickly create, test, and share messages with public health officials for use in health campaigns and policy briefings. METHODS: An interdisciplinary research team from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill assembled in March 2020 to assist the state health department in developing evidence-based messages to influence social distancing behaviors in the state. We developed and iteratively executed a rapid message testing model; the components of the 4-step model were message creation, survey development, survey administration, and analysis and presentation to health department officials. The model was executed 4 times, each during a 7-day period in April and May, and each subsequent survey included new phrasing and/or messaging informed by the previous week's survey. A total of 917 adults from North Carolina participated in the 4 surveys. RESULTS: Survey participants rated messages focused on protecting oneself and others higher than messages focused on norms and fear-based approaches. Pairing behaviors with motivations increased participants' desire to social distance across all themes and subgroups. For example, adding "Protect your grandmother, your neighbor with cancer, and your best friend with asthma," to messaging received a 0.9-point higher score than the base message, "Stay 6 feet apart from others when out in public." PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Our model to promote social distancing in North Carolina during the COVID-19 pandemic can be used for rapid, iterative message testing during public health emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Distanciamento Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/transmissão , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251169, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961657

RESUMO

State and local health departments have been tasked with promoting the use of face coverings to decrease the spread of COVID-19 in their respective communities. However, little is known about motivations and barriers to wearing face coverings in the context of COVID-19 prevention, particularly among communities of color who are at an increased risk of serious illness from the disease. The purpose of this study was to identify common motivations and barriers to face covering use, as well as explore perceptions of messages encouraging the use of face coverings among a racially and ethnically diverse sample. A survey was distributed electronically to North Carolina (NC) residents through NC Department of Health and Human Services listservs in July 2020. Participants self-categorized as Latino/a (33.5%), Black (39.1%), or white or another race (27.5%). The most commonly endorsed motivations for wearing face coverings were to avoid spreading COVID-19 (77%), as well as to protect people who are vulnerable (76%) and one's community (72%). Being uncomfortable (40%) was the most commonly endorsed barrier. Messages that included a clear request (ex. please wear a face covering) and a direct benefit (ex. keep community safe) were more commonly endorsed than those that did not. Commonly endorsed motivations, behaviors, and messages differed by race and ethnicity. Increased attention to message content, message structure, and access to information and resources may aid local officials in increasing consistent use of face coverings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Comunicação , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Prev Med ; 148: 106562, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878350

RESUMO

Sugary drink warnings are a promising policy for reducing sugary drink consumption, but it remains unknown how to design warnings to maximize their impact overall and among diverse population groups, including parents of Latino ethnicity and parents with low English use. In 2019, we randomized US parents of children ages 2-12 (n = 1078, 48% Latino ethnicity, 13% low English use) to one topic (one of four warnings, or a neutral control), which they viewed on three designs (text-only, icon, and graphic) to assess reactions to the various warnings on sugary drinks. All warning topics were perceived as more effective than the control (average differential effect [ADE] ranged from 1.77 to 1.84 [5-point Likert scale], all p < .001). All warning topics also led to greater thinking about harms of sugary drinks (all p < .001) and lower purchase intentions (all p < .01). Compared to text-only warnings, icon (ADE = 0.18) and graphic warnings (ADE = 0.30) elicited higher perceived message effectiveness, as well as greater thinking about the harms of sugary drinks, lower perceived healthfulness, and lower purchase intentions (all p < .001). The impact of icon warnings (vs. text warnings) was stronger for parents with low English use, compared to those with high English use (p = .024). Similarly, the impact of icon (vs. text warnings) was stronger for Latino parents than non-Latino parents (p = .034). This experimental study indicates that many warning topics hold promise for behavior change and that including images with warnings could increase warning efficacy, particularly among Latino parents and parents with low English use. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT04382599.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Pais
12.
Appetite ; 164: 105234, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823230

RESUMO

Evidence about the health problems associated with sugary drink consumption is well-established. However, little is known about which sugary drink health harms are most effective at changing consumers' behavior. We aimed to identify which harms people were aware of and most discouraged them from wanting to buy sugary drinks. Participants were a national convenience sample of diverse parents (n = 1,058), oversampled for Latino parents (48%). Participants rated a list of sugary drink-related health harms occurring in children (7 harms) and in adults (15 harms). Outcomes were awareness of each harm and how much each harm discouraged parents from wanting to purchase sugary drinks. Most participants were aware that sugary drinks contribute to tooth decay in children (75%) and weight gain in both children (73%) and adults (69%). Few participants were aware that sugary drinks contribute to adult infertility (16%), arthritis (18%), and gout (18%). All health harms were rated highly in terms of discouraging parents from wanting to buy sugary drinks (range: 3.59-4.11 on a 1-5 scale), with obesity, pre-diabetes, and tooth decay eliciting the highest discouragement ratings. Harm-induced discouragement was higher for participants who were aware of more health harms (B = 0.05, p < 0.0001), identified as female (B = 0.15 compared to male, p = 0.02), or had an annual household income of $50,000 or more (B = 0.16 compared to less than $50,000, p = 0.03). These findings suggest health messages focused on a variety of health harms could raise awareness and discourage sugary drink purchases.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Pais , Adulto , Bebidas , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Ganho de Peso
13.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(7): 1183-1190, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406241

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe tobacco (WT) smoking is associated with misperceptions of harm, especially among users. WT packaging contains imagery, flavor descriptors, and text claims that may contribute to misperceptions. The study goal was to characterize visual and text elements of WT packaging. AIMS AND METHODS: Using data from the U.S. Population Assessment on Tobacco and Health Study Wave 2 (October 2014-October 2015), we identified the 10 most popular WT brands. For each brand, we identified available flavors, including flavor collections with unique packaging elements. We randomly selected 10 flavors per brand for purchase (March-April 2018). We conducted descriptive content analysis to code all textual and visual design elements of each package. RESULTS: Over half (54%) of WT packages had modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) claims prohibited by federal law, including substance-free MRTP claims (43%) and the descriptor "natural" (11%). No MRTP reduced exposure or reduced risk claims were found. Over a quarter (26%) of packaging including one or more of terms that may imply reduced harm including "fresh," "premium," "quality," and "pure." All packages included a text-only warning, yet none appeared on the primary display panel. Almost all packaging (99%) included imagery, with 72% including flavor imagery. The majority of packages (72%) included a smoking cue. The most popular marketing appeals were "well-made" (57%), "enjoyable" (55%), and "patriotic" (47%). CONCLUSIONS: Prohibited MRTP claims, other descriptors, and flavor imagery are common on WT packaging, despite federal law. Future research is needed to evaluate if this marketing contributes to misperceptions of reduced harm. IMPLICATIONS: Tobacco packaging is used to convey health-related messages, both explicitly and implicitly; however, information about WT packaging is virtually nonexistent. We conducted a content analysis of WT packaging from the 10 most popular US brands. Over half (54%) of packages had prohibited MRTP claims and over a quarter (26%) included one or more descriptors that may be perceived as implying reduced harm. Use of imagery, including smoking cues, was common. The widespread use of prohibited MRTP claims, other descriptors, and imagery on WT packaging may contribute to misperceptions of reduced harm.

14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(2): 383-389, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) selected six text-only warnings for cigarillos to be implemented on packaging and advertising. Pictorial warnings are more effective at discouraging cigarette use than text-only warnings, yet no research exists for cigarillos. We sought to understand what types of images might be most effectively paired with the cigarillo text warnings to inform broad principles for developing pictorial warnings, with a focus on young adults, who have the highest rate of cigarillo use. METHODS: We conducted five focus groups with a total of N = 30 young adult cigarillo users and susceptible nonusers (53% female, 50% White, and 33% Black). Participants were shown four to eight unique images for each of the six text statements and were asked about visual-verbal congruency, emotional and cognitive reactions, and perceived effectiveness of each image. Sessions were recorded and transcribed; two investigators independently coded transcripts for emergent themes. RESULTS: Participants reported images that were graphic or "gross" would best grab attention and discourage use of cigarillos. Participants preferred images that were a direct illustration of the information in the warning text, rather than abstract images that required more cognitive effort to understand. Participants also highlighted that including people in the images, especially youth and young adults making eye contact, helped them relate to the warnings, garner their attention, and positively influence their reactions. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several principles to inform the selection of images to pair with the FDA-required cigarillo text statements. These insights may also apply to pictorial warnings for other tobacco products. IMPLICATIONS: This focus group study identified principles for selecting images to develop pictorial warnings for the six FDA text-only cigarillo warnings. We found that young adult cigarillo users and susceptible nonusers preferred images that were graphic and gross, believable, congruent to the warning text, and included people. Images that match young adults' visual expectations of a disease and are emotion-provoking may be most effective in pictorial warnings and highlight challenges for developing pictorial warnings for health effects that do not have a visible health consequence.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rotulagem de Produtos/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(1): 130-137, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654836

RESUMO

PURPOSE: E-cigarette use is increasing among adolescents, despite potential harms. Social media messages are a promising way to educate youth about e-cigarettes, yet little is known about what message topics and formats will have beneficial impacts for message reception, reach, e-cigarette knowledge, and beliefs about harms. METHODS: A national convenience sample of adolescents (n = 928, aged 15-18 years) in high school was recruited for an online experiment. In October 2019, participants were randomized to view one of three social media formats (visual based, quiz, and text only) or a no-message control. Participants in format conditions viewed six unique topics in a random order. Outcomes were e-cigarette knowledge and beliefs. Message reactions and sharing preferences were also assessed among youth who saw social media messages. RESULTS: Social media messages led to greater knowledge (Cohen's f = .19; p < .001) and beliefs (f = .16; p < .001) about harms of e-cigarettes compared with the control, regardless of format. Almost four in five adolescents (79%) reported they would share the social media messages, most likely in person (49%) and with friends (52%). Message topics for missing out because of lung damage, having uncontrolled moods, and ingesting specific harmful chemicals elicited higher intended message reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Social media messages can educate about e-cigarette harms. Social media campaigns are a promising e-cigarette education strategy to reach youth, directly and potentially through peer-to-peer sharing.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Mídias Sociais , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos
16.
J Behav Med ; 44(1): 74-83, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519300

RESUMO

To select promising health messages, formative research has often relied on perceived message effectiveness (PME) scales assessing either of two related constructs, message perceptions (persuasive potential) and effects perceptions (potential for behavioral impact). We sought to examine their incremental criterion validity within a comparative framework. Participants were 703 U.S. adult smokers (ages [Formula: see text] 21) who received anti-smoking or comparable control (littering) messages on their cigarette packs for 3 weeks. Structural equation models examined both PME constructs as simultaneous correlates of outcomes from the UNC Tobacco Warnings Model. Message perceptions demonstrated incremental criterion validity with attention, an early behavioral antecedent ([Formula: see text] = 0.82, p < .001). Effects perceptions demonstrated incremental criterion validity with later behavioral antecedents (range [Formula: see text] = 0.74-0.87, all p < .01) and quitting behaviors ([Formula: see text] = 0.36-0.66, all p < .001). Formative research on anti-smoking messages may benefit from focusing on effects perceptions to characterize potential for behavior change.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Percepção , Comunicação Persuasiva , Uso de Tabaco
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322672

RESUMO

Widespread use of face coverings is a key public health strategy to prevent the spread of COVID-19. However, few studies have examined why Americans use or do not use face coverings, and little is known about the most effective messaging strategies. This study explored perceptions of face coverings, including motivations and barriers for use, and examined reactions to messaging promoting the use of face coverings. Six virtual focus groups were conducted with 34 North Carolina residents in July 2020. Participants reported high compliance with face covering recommendations but often did not wear them around family, friends, and colleagues. The most prevalent motivation for the use of face coverings was to protect or respect other people, including high-risk populations and individuals. Other motivators were self-protection, responsibility, desire for control, requirements, and expert advice. Barriers included physical and social discomfort, confusion or misinformation, low perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, and perceptions of identity and autonomy. Even among individuals who frequently wear face coverings, there are opportunities to improve compliance. Messaging should highlight how face coverings protect the wearer and others around them, normalize the use of face coverings in social settings, and emphasize requirements. Positive messages that focus on unity, personal experiences and the rationale for face coverings are recommended.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Pandemias , Comunicação , Grupos Focais , Humanos , North Carolina
18.
Health Commun ; 35(14): 1723-1728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089711

RESUMO

During public health crises like the ongoing novel coronavirus pandemic, there is a need to amplify and improve critical health communication messages. This need is due to pandemics producing infodemic conditions, meaning the public information environment is oversaturated with information of questionable accuracy and utility. The strategic use of visuals can be leveraged to improve the quality of health communication during public health crises and lessen the unintended effects of infodemic conditions. In this essay, we review previous visual communication theorizing and research that provide insights for effective and efficient use of graphical (e.g., data visualizations) and illustrative (e.g., photos, illustrations, and content features) visuals. We also discuss and advocate for more systematic research on visual misinformation and visual narratives, as there are significant gaps in the literature about how people interpret, act on, and engage with these visual content types. More systematic research about these areas of visual health communication research will improve public communication during future public health crises.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(9): 580-586, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extensive marketing and advertising research has informed a deep understanding of the link between visual design and consumer behaviors, providing a useful framework for assessing associations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related health posters and viewer responses. METHODS: Crowdsourced posters included finalist submissions from a series of nationwide crowdsourcing contests. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) images were sampled from an online poster database maintained by the National Center for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Once coded according to a set of 27 visual features, posters were shown to an online sample of Chinese men who have sex with men-a group currently experiencing the highest HIV incidence in China-to assess their viewer response. RESULTS: The CDC posters were more likely to use positive facial expressions (65%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 40.9-83.7] vs 12.5%; 95% CI, 2.2-4%) and an educational messaging style (85%; 95% CI, 61.1-96% vs 31.3%; 95% CI, 12.1-58.5). Crowdsourced posters exhibited better craftsmanship than CDC posters (more design simplicity, image diversity, color choice, design quality, and moderate use of text) used more visual metaphors (56.3%; 95% CI, 30.6-79.2 vs 5%; [95% CI, 0.2-26.9%]). Several differences in visual complexity were identified but these lacked statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Crowdsourced posters were of higher craftsmanship, possibly due to their ability to recruit skills of professional designers. The CDC posters' use of positive visual reinforcement (smiling faces) and educational messaging may be a legacy of their role in the early days of the epidemic in disseminating basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and dispelling misinformation. Crowdsourcing posters' used more metaphors, suggesting better ability to leverage in-group codes and language.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722469

RESUMO

Combustible tobacco users appear to be at greater risk for serious complications from COVID-19. This study examined cigar smokers' perceived risk of COVID-19, quit intentions, and behaviors during the current pandemic. We conducted an online study between 23 April 2020 to 7 May 2020, as part of an ongoing study examining perceptions of different health effects of cigars. All participants used cigars in the past 30 days (n = 777). Three-quarters of the sample (76.0%) perceived they had a higher risk of complications from COVID-19 compared to non-smokers. The majority of participants (70.8%) intended to quit in the next six months due to COVID-19, and almost half of the sample (46.5%) reported making a quit attempt since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Far more participants reported increasing their tobacco use since COVID-19 started (40.9%) vs. decreasing their tobacco use (17.8%). Black or African American participants, participants who reported using a quitline, and participants with higher COVID-19 risk perceptions had higher intentions to quit using tobacco due to COVID-19, and higher odds of making a quit attempt since COVID-19 started. More research is needed to understand how tobacco users are perceiving COVID-19 risks and changing their tobacco use behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Fumar Charutos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Estados Unidos
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