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Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701524


Treosulfan is given off-label in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This study investigated treosulfan's pharmacokinetics (PKs), efficacy, and safety in a prospective trial. Pediatric patients (n = 87) receiving treosulfan-fludarabine conditioning were followed for at least 1 year posttransplant. PKs were described with a two-compartment model. During follow-up, 11 of 87 patients died and 12 of 87 patients had low engraftment (≤ 20% myeloid chimerism). For each increase in treosulfan area under the curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞) ) of 1,000 mg hour/L the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for mortality increase was 1.46 (1.23-1.74), and the hazard ratio for low engraftment was 0.61 (0.36-1.04). A cumulative AUC(0-∞) of 4,800 mg hour/L maximized the probability of success (> 20% engraftment and no mortality) at 82%. Probability of success with AUC(0-∞) between 80% and 125% of this target were 78% and 79%. Measuring PK at the first dose and individualizing the third dose may be required in nonmalignant disease.

Br J Haematol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566733


Viral respiratory infections (VRIs) contribute to the morbidity and transplant-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and strategies to prevent and treat VRIs are warranted. We monitored VRIs before and after transplant in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT with nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and assessed the impact on clinical outcome. Between 2007 and 2017, 585 children underwent 620 allogeneic HSCT procedures. Out of 75 patients with a positive NPA screen (12%), transplant was delayed in 25 cases (33%), while 53 children started conditioning with a VRI. Patients undergoing HSCT with a positive NPA screen had a significantly lower overall survival (54% vs. 79%) and increased TRM (26% vs. 7%) compared to patients with a negative NPA. Patients with a positive NPA who delayed transplant and cleared the virus before conditioning had improved overall survival (90%) and lower TRM (5%). Pre-HSCT positive NPA was the only significant risk factor for progression to a lower respiratory tract infection and was a major risk factor for TRM. Transplant delay, whenever feasible, in case of a positive NPA screen for VRIs can positively impact on survival of children undergoing HSCT.

Nat Med ; 25(9): 1408-1414, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477906


Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19 demonstrate unparalleled responses in relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)1-5, but toxicity, including cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity, limits broader application. Moreover, 40-60% of patients relapse owing to poor CAR T cell persistence or emergence of CD19- clones. Some factors, including the choice of single-chain spacer6 and extracellular7 and costimulatory domains8, have a profound effect on CAR T cell function and persistence. However, little is known about the impact of CAR binding affinity. There is evidence of a ceiling above which increased immunoreceptor affinity may adversely affect T cell responses9-11. We generated a novel CD19 CAR (CAT) with a lower affinity than FMC63, the high-affinity binder used in many clinical studies1-4. CAT CAR T cells showed increased proliferation and cytotoxicity in vitro and had enhanced proliferative and in vivo antitumor activity compared with FMC63 CAR T cells. In a clinical study (CARPALL, NCT02443831 ), 12/14 patients with relapsed/refractory pediatric B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with CAT CAR T cells achieved molecular remission. Persistence was demonstrated in 11 of 14 patients at last follow-up, with enhanced CAR T cell expansion compared with published data. Toxicity was low, with no severe CRS. One-year overall and event-free survival were 63% and 46%, respectively.

Antígenos CD19/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Antígenos CD19/genética , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Linfócitos T/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(7): 735-751, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070946


Introduction: Adequate immune reconstitution post-HSCT is crucial for the success of transplantation, and can be affected by both patient- and transplant-related factors. Areas covered: A systematic literature search in PubMed, Scopus, and abstracts of international congresses is performed to investigate immune recovery posttransplant. In this review, we discuss the pattern of immune recovery in the post-transplant period focusing on the impact of stem cell source (bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cells, and cord blood) on immune recovery and HSCT outcome. We examine the impact of serotherapy on immune reconstitution and the need to tailor dosing of serotherapy agents when using different stem cell sources. We discuss new techniques being used particularly with cord blood and haploidentical grafts to improve immune recovery in each scenario. Expert opinion: Cord blood T cells provide a unique CD4+ biased immune reconstitution. Initial studies using targeted serotherapy with cord grafts showed improved immune recovery with limited alloreactivity. Two competing haploidentical approaches have developed in recent years including TCRαß/CD19 depleted grafts and post-cyclophosphamide haplo-HSCT. Both approaches have comparable survival rates with limited alloreactivity. However, delayed immune reconstitution is still an ongoing problem and could be improved by modified donor lymphocyte infusions from the same haploidentical donor.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 14(1): 24, 2016 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095316


BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis is seen very often (38-87 %) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). With contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we can detect more cases of TMJ arthritis than ever before. Previous studies show that HLA II class alleles may have protective or risk importance in JIA subtypes. Our objective is to identify HLA II class alleles of risk and protection in JIA patients with TMJ arthritis. METHODS: During the period from 2010 to 2015 MRI for TMJ was performed in 85 JIA patients who were genotyped for HLA- DRB1; DQB1 and DQA1 using RT-PCR with sequence-specific primers. As a control group, data of 100 individuals were taken from the genetic bank of RSU Joint Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Immunogenetics. Associations of DRB1; DQB1; DQA1 alleles in patients were examined individually using the χ (2) test. P-value (<0.05) and odds ratio were calculated using EPI INFO 6.0 software. RESULTS: Out of 85 JIA patients with mean age of 13.7 ± 3.0 years (range 6.9-17.9 years), 59 (69 %) were girls and 26 (31 %) were boys. The mean duration of the disease was 3.07 ± 2.35 years (range 0.2-11.0 year). JIA subtypes were as follows: seronegative polyarthritis 51 (60 %), seropositive polyarthritis 6(7 %), oligoarthritis extended 7(8 %), oligoarthritis persistent 2 (2 %) arthritis with enthesitis 14 (17 %), undifferentiated 3 (4 %) and 2 (2 %) systemic arthritis. Two groups where separated after TMJ MRI exam: first with at least two signs of active inflammation and/or any structural damage (n = 62); second with no pathologic signs or with slight contrast enhancement (n = 23). We discovered that there are risk alleles that are found in all JIA patient's groups (MRI positive and negative groups) versus controls such as DRB1*07:01, DQB1*03:03; DQB1*05:01. Also some protective alleles as DRB1*18:01, DQB1*06:02-8 were found in overall JIA group. Alleles DRB1*12:01, DQB1*03:01; DQA1*05:01 were found to be protective for TMJ arthrits. CONCLUSION: In our study there were no convincing risk alleles, but there are alleles that probably are protective for TMJ arthritis like DRB1*12:01, DQB1*03:01; DQA1*05:01.

Artrite Juvenil/genética , DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Mutação , Articulação Temporomandibular , Adolescente , Alelos , Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 8: 26, 2010 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20946671


UNLABELLED: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous condition and therapeutic strategies vary in different JIA types. The routinely accepted practice to start with Sulphasalazine (SS) as the first line treatment in patients with HLA B27 positive JIA proves to be ineffective in a large proportion of children. OBJECTIVE: to investigate HLA B27 positive JIA patients clinical characteristics, determined HLA B27 allele types and their connection with antirheumatic treatment in homogenous patient groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 56 patients diagnosed with JIA and observed over the period 2006 to 2009 included in the study. HLAB27 allele types were determined using PCR method. RESULTS: In HLA B27 positive JIA patients mean disease onset was 12.34 ± 3.3 years. Most common (44%) JIA type was enthesitis related arthritis. Positive response to the treatment with SS was found in 32% of patients, Methotrexate (MTX) - in 43%, combined treatment - SS with MTX was effective in 12.5%. 12.5% of patients required combination MTX with Enbrel.Eight HLA B27 allele types were found in JIA patients in Latvia: *2702, *2703, *2704, *2705, *2710, *2715, *2717, *2728. The most common was *2705 - in 55% of cases. Among all the patients enthesitis related arthritis most commonly occurred in patients with HLAB*2705 allele (OR = 2.01, p < 0.02), oligoarthritis in patients with *2710 allele (OR = 3.0, p < 0.04) and polyarthritis with *2717 allele (OR = 3.0, p < 0.05). In patients with *2705 allele effective treatment was MTX (OR = 1.13, p < 0.03) and MTX with SS (OR = 2.02, p < 0.05), but in patients having *2703 allele - MTX with Enbrel (OR = 2.94, p < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: There are 8 different HLA B27 alleles in JIA patients in Latvia and the most common is *2705, but in order to assert them to be disease associated alleles, more extensive studies are needed, including control group of HLA B27 positive healthy individuals. Standard treatment approach with SS proves to be unsatisfactory in the majority of JIA patients. To improve children's quality of life achieving rapid disease control, the first line treatment in HLA B27 positive patients should be MTX. In order to start with the most appropriate drug it is necessary to determine HLAB 27 type at the onset of disease.