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1.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can easily be discriminated from actinic keratosis (AK), based on clinical and dermatoscopic features. However, at the initial stage of dermal invasion, an SCC might still be clinically flat and its discrimination from AK remains challenging, even with the addition of dermatoscopy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and dermatoscopic criteria that could suggest early invasion and serve as potent predictors to discriminate early SCC from AK. METHODS: Clinical and dermatoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed AKs and early SCCs were evaluated by three independent investigators for the presence of predefined criteria. RESULTS: A total of 50 early SCCs and 45 AKs were included. The main positive dermatoscopic predictors of early SCC were dotted/glomerular vessels (OR=3.83), hairpin vessels (OR=12.12) and white structureless areas (OR=3.58), whereas background erythema represented a negative SCC predictor (OR=0.22). LIMITATIONS: The retrospective evaluation of images. Moreover, the differential diagnosis included in the study is restricted between AK and early SCC. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potent predictors for the discrimination of AK and early SCC that may better guide management decisions in the everyday clinical practice.

4.
Int J Dermatol ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the most common diseases affecting both sexes and all races, its pathogenesis is not completely clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the four major prostaglandins (PGs) (PGE2 , PGD2 , PGF2α , and PI2 or prostacyclin) in the pathogenesis of AGA in males and females. METHODS: Human scalp biopsies were obtained from 30 adults (17 males and 13 females) suffering from AGA and from 30 healthy adults (18 males and 12 females). In each subject, two skin biopsies were performed, one from the frontal bald area and another one from the occipital area with normal hair growth. In the healthy group, biopsies were taken from both areas too. In each sample, all four PGs were measured. RESULTS: In the patient group, PGD2 and prostacyclin or PGI2 levels were increased in bald compared to haired scalp. On the contrary, measurements of PGE2 and PGF2α showed that they were diminished in bald areas compared to haired areas. PG levels in healthy samples were comparable to the haired areas. CONCLUSION: These results support that there is a fine balance between these four proteins in scalp hair follicles, and its maintenance may be crucial for hair growth. Furthermore, their receptors could be potential targets for treatment of AGA.

5.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14618, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263945

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reactions (SLRs) may develop in association with various malignancies, as well as in association to certain oncologic drugs, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We aimed to perform a narrative review with regard to the development of ICIs-associated sarcoidosis or SLRs, and to discuss the corresponding diagnostic and therapeutic challenges raised in this scenario. Apropos of a melanoma patient developing SLRs while treated with ipilimumab and nivolumab, we searched for clinically evident, ICIs-associated sarcoidosis or SLRs in the English literature. We recorded the oncologic characteristics, including type of malignancy and type of ICI, the phenotypic characteristics of sarcoidosis/SLRs, as well as the impact on immunotherapy. Including our patient, we identified 80 ICIs-associated sarcoidosis or SLRs cases. Both sexes were equally affected (40 F/40 M) and the most common malignancy was melanoma (65/80, 81.3%). Concerning the oncologic treatment, there was a predilection for pembrolizumab (23/80, 28.7%), followed by the ipilimumab/nivolumab combination (21/80, 26.3%), ipilimumab (18/80, 22.5%), nivolumab (16/80, 20.0%). Although in the majority of the cases (52/80, 65.0%) there was no need for systemic prednisolone for the management of sarcoidosis, a significant proportion of patients finally discontinued ICIs treatment (44/80, 55.0%). Phenotypically, sarcoidosis and SLRs highly imitate oncologic progression posing diagnostic difficulties. A therapeutic dilemma is also raised when there is a need for systemic prednisolone, since the latter may jeopardize the therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy. Sarcoidosis and SLRs, though rare, can present in oncologic patients treated with ICIs. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility and the related diagnostic and therapeutic challenges they have to face in this scenario.

6.
Eur J Dermatol ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omalizumab is approved for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) not responding to antihistamines. Data on omalizumab use in real-world settings and in different populations are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To record our five-year experience of omalizumab use in patients with refractory CSU in a real-world setting. MATERIALS & METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records of 80 patients with refractory CSU was performed. Demographic, and clinical characteristics, patterns of response, discontinuation strategies and rate of recurrence were analysed. RESULTS: Eighty individuals were included. UAS7 and DLQI significantly decreased from baseline. Complete response was achieved in 86.3%. Late response was observed at 27.5% of the patients. After discontinuation, 21.7% of patients reinitiated omalizumab due to relapse. The mean number of omalizumab administrations up to first discontinuation was 6.8 (based on an approach to shorten the treatment interval). Only 15.0% of patients experienced adverse events during treatment. CONCLUSION: Omalizumab, with long-term management, was highly effective and safe in achieving control of refractory CSU, with more favourable responses compared to Phase III clinical trials.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314891

RESUMO

The indisputable contribution of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis of melanoma is widely recognized. In the last quinquennium, new data concerning specific melanoma subtypes have come to light. The dermatoscopic morphology of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) has been extensively investigated in the literature. Atypical network, irregular dots, irregular globules, irregular streaks and irregular blotch correspond to histopathologic alterations at the level of the junction, blue-white veil and atypical vessels suggest intradermal growth, whereas regression structures, negative network and white shiny streaks might reflect junctional or dermal alterations. The list of melanoma specific criteria has been recently updated to include features that typify early melanoma, such as irregular hyperpigmented areas and prominent skin markings and features seen in melanoma on sun damaged skin such as angulated lines. Nodular melanoma lacks most of the aforementioned criteria and is typified by the coexistence of blue and black color, atypical vessels and pink color. Lentigo maligna dermatoscopic criteria mainly develop at the outline of the follicular openings. However, at an early stage these features might be very subtle and the diagnosis should be based on the exclusion of benign tumors (inverse approach). Acral lentiginous melanoma is typified by a parallel ridge pattern, but also SSM criteria should be taken into consideration. The diagnosis of subungual melanoma is based on the assessment of the color and characteristics of the pigmented nail band. For the diagnosis of mucosal melanoma, the assessment of colors is more informative than the assessment of structures and the detection of blue, white or gray should raise the suspicion of melanoma. White shiny streaks and regression structures are the most common features of desmoplastic melanoma. The diagnosis of nevoid melanoma might be highly challenging and require information on the lesion's history. Melanoma on small- and medium-sized congenital nevi is typified by an eccentric location of the suspicious area, negative network and gray angulated lines. Recent advances in knowledge on the dermatoscopic characteristics of peculiar subtypes of the tumor significantly enrich the diagnostic armamentarium of clinicians. The challenge of the forthcoming years is to better characterize biologically aggressive melanomas and to optimize the screening strategies so as to identify them.

10.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14514, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166029

RESUMO

The skin is the most common organ of involvement during the course of lupus erythematosus (LE). The literature data concerning the dermatoscopic patterns of the different clinical variants of cutaneous LE (CLE), namely chronic (CCLE), subacute (SCLE), and acute (ACLE), are scarce. To determine the dermatoscopic spectrum of CLE and to correlate the dermatoscopic features with the histological findings. This was a retrospective, observational, multicenter, cohort study. We evaluated the dermatoscopic features in a cohort of patients diagnosed with CLE. Furthermore, we investigated their frequency per clinical subtype and correlated them with the anatomic alterations. We included 79 patients. The most prevalent dermatoscopic features of CCLE included follicular plugs (86.4%, P < .01), patchy distribution (75%, P = .1) of mostly linear curved vessels (56.8%, P = .8), white scales (68.2%, P < .01), and structureless white color (68.2%, P < .01). The most common criteria of SCLE were patchy distribution (90%, P = .1) of mostly linear curved vessels (53.3%, P = .8) and fine white scales (60%, P < .01), while ACLE was characterized by erythema (100%, P < .05) and patchy distribution (100%, P = .1) of mostly dotted vessels (60%, P = .4). Follicular plugs/rosettes in dermatoscopy strongly correlated with follicular plugs in histology (rho = 0.919). Hyperkeratosis significantly correlated with white (rho = 0.644) and yellow/brown scales (rho = 0.225), telangiectasia with linear curved vessels (rho = 0.321) and white color with dermal fibrosis (rho = 0.623). Depending on CLE subtype, distinct dermatoscopic patterns are recognized. In CLE there is a high correlation between certain dermatoscopic criteria and the underneath anatomic alteration.

11.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 100(18): adv00326, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170303

RESUMO

This study investigated the expression of interleukin (IL)-17A, -17F and -22 in mycosis fungoides. Blood samples were collected from 50 patients with mycosis fungoides and 50 healthy controls. Skin samples were obtained from 26 patients with mycosis fungoides and 5 healthy controls. Protein levels of IL-17A, -17F and -22 were measured in serum by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mRNA expression levels were measured in blood and skin samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Both IL-17A and IL-17F mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in blood of patients with mycosis fungoides in comparison with healthy controls. IL-22 serum levels and expression levels of IL-22 mRNA in skin tissue, were significantly increased in patients with mycosis fungoides in comparison with healthy controls. These results suggest that low levels of IL-17A and IL-17F in mycosis fungoides may be connected to impaired immune surveillance contributing to tumourigenesis. Upregulation of IL-22 may play a role in the establishment of the tumour microenvironment in mycosis fungoides.

12.
Skin Appendage Disord ; 6(5): 312-314, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088818

RESUMO

We report a case of a subungual superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAFM) in a 37-year-old male patient who presented with a persistent chronic proximal paronychia of the big toenail of the right leg. Our clinical diagnosis was retronychia, an often misinterpreted condition, which must be suspected in cases of persistent paronychia, especially in the setting of trauma. The nail plate avulsion revealed a subungual tumor, which was surgically excised. Histopathology in combination with immunohistochemistry revealed features suggestive of SAFM. The follow-up examination of the patient showed no recurrence 9 months after the surgery.

15.
Dermatol Ther ; : e13958, 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621642

RESUMO

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) patients are predominantly above 70 years of age, with limited tolerance to the side effects of the immunosuppressive drugs. Advancements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of BP have led to the development of molecules which target specific pathways involved in induction and perpetuation of disease. Patients with BP Disease Area Index above 60 and less than 100 were split into two groups-one with high and the other with normal levels of IgE. The tested parameters included eosinophils' count, total IgE serum level, and interleukins (IL) 16, 17A, and 23 counts in the peripheral blood and skin bulla serum, before any therapeutic intervention. Thirty individuals fulfilled the criteria for enrollment. Patients with high IgE blood serum levels had significantly higher levels of IL17A and normal IL23 levels in blood and bulla serum. Patients with normal serum IgE levels had slightly higher IL23 levels in blood and bulla serum. The eosinophil count was positively related to IL17 blood serum level and negatively related to IL23. IL16 did not differ in the two groups. BP patients may represent a group of patients benefiting most substantially from the introduction of nonimmunosuppressive therapeutics into the treatment regimens for their disease. Clinical criteria and immune biomarkers are needed for making the best therapeutic choice.

16.
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