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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3661, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574490

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic condition affecting approximately 1:3500 persons worldwide. The NF1 gene codes for neurofibromin protein, a GTPase activating protein (GAP) and a negative regulator of RAS. The NF1 gene undergoes alternative splicing of exon 23a (E23a) that codes for 21 amino acids placed at the center of the GAP related domain (GRD). E23a-containing type II neurofibromin exhibits a weaker Ras-GAP activity compared to E23a-less type I isoform. Exon E23a has been related with the cognitive impairment present in NF1 individuals. We designed antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers (PMOs) to modulate E23a alternative splicing at physiological conditions of gene expression and tested their impact during PC12 cell line neuronal differentiation. Results show that any dynamic modification of the natural ratio between type I and type II isoforms disturbed neuronal differentiation, altering the proper formation of neurites and deregulating both the MAPK/ERK and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways. Our results suggest an opposite regulation of these pathways by neurofibromin and the possible existence of a feedback loop sensing neurofibromin-related signaling. The present work illustrates the utility of PMOs to study alternative splicing that could be applied to other alternatively spliced genes in vitro and in vivo.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498765

RESUMO

Only a small fraction of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) cases are caused by germline variants in the high-penetrance breast cancer 1 and 2 genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2). BRCA1-associated ring domain 1 (BARD1), nuclear partner of BRCA1, has been suggested as a potential HBOC risk gene, although its prevalence and penetrance are variable according to populations and type of tumor. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of BARD1 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with clinical suspicion of HBOC. A comprehensive BARD1 screening by multigene panel analysis was performed in 4015 unrelated patients according to our regional guidelines for genetic testing in hereditary cancer. In addition, 51,202 Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as a control population. In our patient cohort, we identified 19 patients with heterozygous BARD1 truncating variants (0.47%), whereas the frequency observed in the gnomAD controls was 0.12%. We found a statistically significant association of truncating BARD1 variants with overall risk (odds ratio (OR) = 3.78; CI = 2.10-6.48; p = 1.16 × 10-5). This association remained significant in the hereditary breast cancer (HBC) group (OR = 4.18; CI = 2.10-7.70; p = 5.45 × 10-5). Furthermore, deleterious BARD1 variants were enriched among triple-negative BC patients (OR = 5.40; CI = 1.77-18.15; p = 0.001) compared to other BC subtypes. Our results support the role of BARD1 as a moderate penetrance BC predisposing gene and highlight a stronger association with triple-negative tumors.

3.
Clin Chem ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene panel testing by massive parallel sequencing has increased the diagnostic yield but also the number of variants of uncertain significance. Clinical interpretation of genomic data requires expertise for each gene and disease. Heterozygous ATM pathogenic variants increase the risk of cancer, particularly breast cancer. For this reason, ATM is included in most hereditary cancer panels. It is a large gene, showing a high number of variants, most of them of uncertain significance. Hence, we initiated a collaborative effort to improve and standardize variant classification for the ATM gene. METHODS: Six independent laboratories collected information from 766 ATM variant carriers harboring 283 different variants. Data were submitted in a consensus template form, variant nomenclature and clinical information were curated, and monthly team conferences were established to review and adapt American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) criteria to ATM, which were used to classify 50 representative variants. RESULTS: Amid 283 different variants, 99 appeared more than once, 35 had differences in classification among laboratories. Refinement of ACMG/AMP criteria to ATM involved specification for twenty-one criteria and adjustment of strength for fourteen others. Afterwards, 50 variants carried by 254 index cases were classified with the established framework resulting in a consensus classification for all of them and a reduction in the number of variants of uncertain significance from 58% to 42%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the relevance of data sharing and data curation by multidisciplinary experts to achieve improved variant classification that will eventually improve clinical management.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185660

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common inherited colorectal and endometrial cancer syndrome, caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It is also characterized by an increased risk of other tumours with lower prevalence, such as adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC), an endocrine tumour with an incidence of < two cases/million individuals/year. Most ACC developed during childhood are associated with hereditary syndromes. In adults this association is not as well established as in children. Previous studies showed a 3.2% prevalence of LS among patients with ACC. EVIDENCE ADQUISITION: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of ACC in a Spanish LS cohort and their molecular and histological characteristics. This retrospective study includes 634 patients from 220 LS families registered between 1999 and 2018. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: During the follow-up three patients were diagnosed with ACC (0.47%), all were carriers of a MSH2 germline mutation. The three ACC patients presented loss of expression of MSH2 and MSH6 proteins. One tumour analysis showed loss of heterozygosity of the MSH2 wildtype allele. Our findings support previous data which considered ACC as a LS spectrum tumour. CONCLUSION: MMR protein immunohistochemistry screening could be an efficient strategy to detect LS in patients with ACC.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) are the most common types of cancer in Lynch syndrome (LS). Risk reducing surgeries (RRS) might impact cancer incidence and mortality. Our objectives were to evaluate cumulative incidences of CRC, gynecological cancer and all-cause mortality after RRS in LS individuals. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 976 LS carriers from a single-institution registry. Primary endpoints were cumulative incidence at 75 years of cancer (metachronous CRC in 425 individuals; EC and ovarian cancer (OC) in 531 individuals) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence, comparing extended (ES) vs. segmental surgery (SS) in the CRC cohort and risk reducing gynecological surgery (RRGS) vs. surveillance in the gynecological cohort. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence at 75 years of metachronous CRC was 12.5% vs. 44.7% (p = 0.04) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence was 38.6% vs. 55.3% (p = 0.31), for ES and SS, respectively. Cumulative, incidence at 75 years was 11.2% vs. 46.3% for EC (p = 0.001) and 0% vs. 12.7% for OC (p N/A) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence was 0% vs. 52.7% (p N/A), for RRGS vs. surveillance, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: RRS in LS reduces the incidence of metachronous CRC and gynecological neoplasms, also indicating a reduction in all-cause mortality cumulative incidence in females undergoing RRGS.

6.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Germline CNVs are important contributors to hereditary cancer. In genetic diagnostics, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is commonly used to identify them. However, MLPA is time-consuming and expensive if applied to many genes, hence many routine laboratories test only a subset of genes of interest. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based CNV detection tool (DECoN) as first-tier screening to decrease costs and turnaround time and expand CNV analysis to all genes of clinical interest in our diagnostics routine. We used DECoN in a retrospective cohort of 1860 patients where a limited number of genes were previously analysed by MLPA, and in a prospective cohort of 2041 patients, without MLPA analysis. In the retrospective cohort, 6 new CNVs were identified and confirmed by MLPA. In the prospective cohort, 19 CNVs were identified and confirmed by MLPA, 8 of these would have been lost in our previous MLPA-restricted detection strategy. Also, the number of genes tested by MLPA across all samples decreased by 93.0% in the prospective cohort. CONCLUSION: Including an in silico germline NGS CNV detection tool improved our genetic diagnostics strategy in hereditary cancer, both increasing the number of CNVs detected and reducing turnaround time and costs.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 25% of women diagnosed with tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma have germline deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, characteristic of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, while somatic mutations have been detected in 3-7%. We set out to determine the BRCA mutation rates and optimal tissue requirements for tumor BRCA testing in patients diagnosed with tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. METHODS: Sequencing was performed using a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction-based approach on 291 tissue samples, with a minimum sequencing depth of 500X and an allele frequency of >5%. RESULTS: There were 253 surgical samples (87%), 35 biopsies (12%) and 3 cytology cell blocks (1%). The initial failure rate was 9% (25/291), including 9 cases (3%) with insufficient tumor, and 16 (6%) with non-amplifiable DNA. Sequencing was successful in 78% (228/291) and deemed indeterminate due to failed exons or variants below the limit of detection in 13% (38/291). Repeat testing was successful in 67% (28/42) of retested samples, with an overall success rate of 86% (251/291). Clinically significant (pathogenic, likely pathogenic) variants were identified in 17% (48/276) of complete and indeterminate cases. Successful sequencing was dependent on sample type, tumor cellularity and size (p ≤ 0.001) but not on neoadjuvant chemotherapy or age of blocks (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a 17% tumor BRCA mutation rate, with an overall success rate of 86%. Biopsy and cytology samples and post-chemotherapy specimens can be used for tumor BRCA testing, and optimal tumors measure ≥5 mm in size with at least 20% cellularity.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 141: 1-8, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is an inherited disorder with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancers (OC). Mutations in BRCA1-BRCA2 explains less than a half of cases. In the last decade several genes with different penetrance have been associated with an increased risk of BC or OC. A recurrent heterozygous ERCC3 truncating mutation increases the risk for breast cancer in patients with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Our study aimed to investigate the role of ERCC3 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with suspicion of HBOC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ERCC3 screening by multigene-panel analysis in 1311 unrelated patients after our regional consensus for genetic testing in hereditary cancer was done. In addition, 453 Spanish cancer-free individuals and 51,343 GnomAD non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as control populations. RESULTS: We identified 13 patients with heterozygous ERCC3 truncating variants (0.99%). Five of them also carried a mutation in a high- /moderate-penetrance HBOC gene (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53) being Multilocus Inherited Neoplasia Alleles syndrome (MINAS) patients. The frequency in 453 Spanish controls was of 0.22%; similar to that observed in 51,343 non-Finnish European GnomAD population (0.24%). We found an almost statistically significant association of truncating ERCC3 variants with BC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25, confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-5.93, P = 0.11), and we observed for the first time a significant association with OC (OR = 4.74, CI = 1-14.34, P = 0.028), that holds even after removing MINAS cases. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest HBOC series comprehensively analysed for ERCC3 mutations, and the first study identifying ERCC3 as a cancer risk for OC.

9.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 108, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG founder mutation has been reported in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families from multiple Hispanic groups. We aimed to evaluate BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG haplotype diversity in cases of European, African, and Latin American ancestry. METHODS: BC mutation carrier cases from Colombia (n = 32), Spain (n = 13), Portugal (n = 2), Chile (n = 10), Africa (n = 1), and Brazil (n = 2) were genotyped with the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to evaluate haplotype diversity around BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG. Additional Portuguese (n = 13) and Brazilian (n = 18) BC mutation carriers were genotyped for 15 informative SNPs surrounding BRCA1. Data were phased using SHAPEIT2, and identical by descent regions were determined using BEAGLE and GERMLINE. DMLE+ was used to date the mutation in Colombia and Iberia. RESULTS: The haplotype reconstruction revealed a shared 264.4-kb region among carriers from all six countries. The estimated mutation age was ~ 100 generations in Iberia and that it was introduced to South America early during the European colonization period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that this mutation originated in Iberia and later introduced to Colombia and South America at the time of Spanish colonization during the early 1500s. We also found that the Colombian mutation carriers had higher European ancestry, at the BRCA1 gene harboring chromosome 17, than controls, which further supported the European origin of the mutation. Understanding founder mutations in diverse populations has implications in implementing cost-effective, ancestry-informed screening.

10.
Gut ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Germline TP53 pathogenic (P) variants cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), an aggressive multitumor-predisposing condition. Due to the implementation of multigene panel testing, TP53 variants have been detected in individuals without LFS suspicion, for example, patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to decipher whether these findings are the result of detecting the background population prevalence or the aetiological basis of CRC. DESIGN: We analysed TP53 in 473 familial/early-onset CRC cases and evaluated the results together with five additional studies performed in patients with CRC (total n=6200). Control population and LFS data were obtained from Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD V.2.1.1) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 database, respectively. All variants were reclassified according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP), following the ClinGen TP53 Expert Panel specifications. RESULTS: P or likely pathogenic (LP) variants were identified in 0.05% of controls (n=27/59 095) and 0.26% of patients with CRC (n=16/6200) (p<0.0001) (OR=5.7, 95% CI 2.8 to 10.9), none of whom fulfilled the clinical criteria established for TP53 testing. This association was still detected when patients with CRC diagnosed at more advanced ages (>50 and>60 years) were excluded from the analysis to minimise the inclusion of variants caused by clonal haematopoiesis. Loss-of-function and missense variants were strongly associated with CRC as compared with controls (OR=25.44, 95% CI 6.10 to 149.03, for loss of function and splice-site alleles, and OR=3.58, 95% CI 1.46 to 7.98, for missense P or LP variants). CONCLUSION: TP53 P variants should not be unequivocally associated with LFS. Prospective follow-up of carriers of germline TP53 P variants in the absence of LFS phenotypes will define how surveillance and clinical management of these individuals should be performed.

11.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(12): 1453-1468, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011440

RESUMO

RNA analyses are a potent tool to identify spliceogenic effects of DNA variants, although they are time-consuming and cannot always be performed. We present splicing assays of 20 variants that represent a variety of mutation types in 10 hereditary cancer genes and attempt to incorporate these results into American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) classification guidelines. Sixteen single-nucleotide variants, 3 exon duplications, and 1 single-exon deletion were selected and prioritized by in silico algorithms. RNA was extracted from short-term lymphocyte cultures to perform RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing, and allele-specific expression was assessed whenever possible. Aberrant transcripts were detected in 14 variants (70%). Variant interpretation was difficult, especially comparing old classification standards to generic ACMG guidelines and a proposal was devised to weigh functional analyses at RNA level. According to the ACMG guidelines, only 12 variants were reclassified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic because the other two variants did not gather enough evidence. This study highlights the importance of RNA studies to improve variant classification. However, it also indicates the challenge of incorporating these results into generic ACMG guidelines and the need to refine these criteria gene specifically. Nevertheless, 60% of variants were reclassified, thus improving genetic counseling and surveillance for carriers of these variants.

12.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975687

RESUMO

In the original article published, the proportions for the categories "Non-AJ, non-FC, non-Hispanic White" and "Other ethnicity" have incorrectly been reversed. The correct values for "Non-AJ, non-FC, non-Hispanic White" should be 62.3% (2024) and "Other ethnicity" should be 4.2% (136).

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield of multigene panel testing among patients referred with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). METHODS: Patients who met provincial eligibility criteria were tested at the Advanced Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto. Gene sequencing and exon-level copy number variant (CNV) analysis was performed. The referring physician had the opportunity to choose between several different gene panels based on patient phenotype. Cases were included in the analysis based on personal and family history of cancer and the type of panel ordered. RESULTS: 3251 cases that received panel testing were included in this analysis. Overall, 9.1% (295) had a positive (pathogenic or likely pathogenic) result and 27.1% (882) had an inconclusive result (variant of uncertain significance). The genes with the highest prevalence of positive results were in BRCA2 (2.2%, 71/3235), BRCA1 (1.9%, 62/3235), and CHEK2 (1.4%, 40/2916). Of the positive cases, 9.8% (29) had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in a gene associated with Lynch syndrome (MSH6, MSH2, MLH1, or PMS2). CONCLUSIONS: Our overall positive yield is similar to that reported in the literature. The yield of inconclusive results was three times that of positive results. By testing more individuals in families with HBOC and through data-sharing efforts, the clinical significance of most variants may eventually be determined and panel testing for monogenic cancer predisposition syndromes will have greater utility.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2128-2142, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906215

RESUMO

CHEK2 variants are associated with intermediate breast cancer risk, among other cancers. We aimed to comprehensively describe CHEK2 variants in a Spanish hereditary cancer (HC) cohort and adjust the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines for their classification. First, three CHEK2 frequent variants were screened in a retrospective Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer cohort of 516 patients. After, the whole CHEK2 coding region was analyzed by next-generation sequencing in 1848 prospective patients with HC suspicion. We refined ACMG-AMP criteria and applied different combined rules to classify CHEK2 variants and define risk alleles. We identified 10 CHEK2 null variants, 6 missense variants with discordant interpretation in ClinVar database, and 35 additional variants of unknown significance. Twelve variants were classified as (likely)-pathogenic; two can also be considered "established risk-alleles" and one as "likely risk-allele." The prevalence of (likely)-pathogenic variants in the HC cohort was 0.8% (1.3% in breast cancer patients and 1.0% in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients). Here, we provide ACMG adjustment guidelines to classify CHEK2 variants. We hope that this study would be useful for variant classification of other genes with low effect variants.

16.
Genet Med ; 22(12): 2089-2100, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline pathogenic variants in the exonuclease domain (ED) of polymerases POLE and POLD1 predispose to adenomatous polyps, colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial tumors, and other malignancies, and exhibit increased mutation rate and highly specific associated mutational signatures. The tumor spectrum and prevalence of POLE and POLD1 variants in hereditary cancer are evaluated in this study. METHODS: POLE and POLD1 were sequenced in 2813 unrelated probands referred for genetic counseling (2309 hereditary cancer patients subjected to a multigene panel, and 504 patients selected based on phenotypic characteristics). Cosegregation and case-control studies, yeast-based functional assays, and tumor mutational analyses were performed for variant interpretation. RESULTS: Twelve ED missense variants, 6 loss-of-function, and 23 outside-ED predicted-deleterious missense variants, all with population allele frequencies <1%, were identified. One ED variant (POLE p.Met294Arg) was classified as likely pathogenic, four as likely benign, and seven as variants of unknown significance. The most commonly associated tumor types were colorectal, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Loss-of-function and outside-ED variants are likely not pathogenic for this syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Polymerase proofreading-associated syndrome constitutes 0.1-0.4% of familial cancer cases, reaching 0.3-0.7% when only CRC and polyposis are considered. ED variant interpretation is challenging and should include multiple pieces of evidence.

17.
Neurooncol Adv ; 2(Suppl 1): i62-i74, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642733

RESUMO

Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) constitutes the leading cause of neurofibromatosis type 1-related mortality. MPNSTs contain highly rearranged hyperploid genomes and exhibit a high division rate and aggressiveness. We have studied in vitro whether the mitotic kinesins KIF11, KIF15, and KIF23 have a functional role in maintaining MPNST cell survival and can represent potential therapeutic vulnerabilities. Methods: We studied the expression of kinesin mRNAs and proteins in tumors and cell lines and used several in vitro functional assays to analyze the impact of kinesin genetic suppression (KIF15, KIF23) and drug inhibition (KIF11) in MPNST cells. We also performed in vitro combined treatments targeting KIF11 together with other described MPNST targets. Results: The studied kinesins were overexpressed in MPNST samples. KIF15 and KIF23 were required for the survival of MPNST cell lines, which were also more sensitive than benign control fibroblasts to the KIF11 inhibitors ispinesib and ARRY-520. Co-targeting KIF11 and BRD4 with ARRY-520 and JQ1 reduced MPNST cell viability, synergistically killing a much higher proportion of MPNST cells than control fibroblasts. In addition, genetic suppression of KIF15 conferred an increased sensitivity to KIF11 inhibitors alone or in combination with JQ1. Conclusions: The mitotic spindle kinesins KIF11 and KIF15 and the cytokinetic kinesin KIF23 play a clear role in maintaining MPNST cell survival and may represent potential therapeutic vulnerabilities. Although further in vivo evidences are still mandatory, we propose a simultaneous suppression of KIF11, KIF15, and BRD4 as a potential therapy for MPNSTs.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635641

RESUMO

The causal mechanism for cancer predisposition in Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) remains unknown. Our aim was to elucidate the constitutional basis of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in LLS patients throughout a comprehensive (epi)genetic analysis. One hundred and fifteen LLS patients harboring MMR-deficient tumors and no germline MMR mutations were included. Mutational analysis of 26 colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes was performed. Pathogenicity of MMR variants was assessed by splicing and multifactorial likelihood analyses. Genome-wide methylome analysis was performed by the Infinium Human Methylation 450K Bead Chip. The multigene panel analysis revealed the presence of two MMR gene truncating mutations not previously found. Of a total of 15 additional MMR variants identified, five -present in 6 unrelated individuals- were reclassified as pathogenic. In addition, 13 predicted deleterious variants in other CRC-predisposing genes were found in 12 probands. Methylome analysis detected one constitutional MLH1 epimutation, but no additional differentially methylated regions were identified in LLS compared to LS patients or cancer-free individuals. In conclusion, the use of an ad-hoc designed gene panel combined with pathogenicity assessment of variants allowed the identification of deleterious MMR mutations as well as new LLS candidate causal genes. Constitutional epimutations in non-LS-associated genes are not responsible for LLS.

19.
iScience ; 23(7): 101296, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622267

RESUMO

Proper immune system function hinders cancer development, but little is known about whether genetic variants linked to cancer risk alter immune cells. Here, we report 57 cancer risk loci associated with differences in immune and/or stromal cell contents in the corresponding tissue. Predicted target genes show expression and regulatory associations with immune features. Polygenic risk scores also reveal associations with immune and/or stromal cell contents, and breast cancer scores show consistent results in normal and tumor tissue. SH2B3 links peripheral alterations of several immune cell types to the risk of this malignancy. Pleiotropic SH2B3 variants are associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. A retrospective case-cohort study indicates a positive association between blood counts of basophils, leukocytes, and monocytes and age at breast cancer diagnosis. These findings broaden our knowledge of the role of the immune system in cancer and highlight promising prevention strategies for individuals at high risk.

20.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920929579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670419

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and utility of developing patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) to aid therapeutic interventions in real time. Patient & Methods: A sporadic relapsed MPNST developed in a 14-year-old boy was engrafted in mice, generating a PDOX model for use in co-clinical trials after informed consent. SNP-array and exome sequencing was performed on the relapsed tumor. Genomics, drug availability, and published literature guided PDOX treatments. Results: A MPNST PDOX model was generated and expanded. Analysis of the patient's relapsed tumor revealed mutations in the MAPK1, EED, and CDK2NA/B genes. First, the PDOX model was treated with the same therapeutic regimen as received by the patient (everolimus and trametinib); after observing partial response, tumors were left to regrow. Regrown tumors were treated based on mutations (palbociclib and JQ1), drug availability, and published literature (nab-paclitaxel; bevacizumab; sorafenib plus doxorubicin; and gemcitabine plus docetaxel). The patient had a lung metastatic relapse and was treated according to PDOX results, first with nab-paclitaxel, second with sorafenib plus doxorubicin after progression, although a complete response was not achieved and multiple metastasectomies were performed. The patient is currently disease free 46 months after first relapse. Conclusion: Our results indicate the feasibility of generating MPNST-PDOX and genomic characterization to guide treatment in real time. Although the treatment responses observed in our model did not fully recapitulate the patient's response, this pilot study identify key aspects to improve our co-clinical testing approach in real time.

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