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4.
J Autoimmun ; : 102338, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rarely associated with antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). This study focused on the outcomes of ILD patients with associated AAV (AAV-ILD). METHODS: AAV-ILD (cases: microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) or granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) with ILD) were compared to AAV patients without ILD (controls). ILD was defined as a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. Two controls were matched to each case for age (>or ≤65 years), ANCA status (PR3-or MPO-positive) and creatininemia (≥or <150 µmol/L). RESULTS: Sixty-two cases (89% MPO-ANCA+) were included. Median age at AAV diagnosis was 66 years. ILD (63% UIP), was diagnosed before (52%) or simultaneously (39%) with AAV. Cases versus 124 controls less frequently had systemic vasculitis symptoms. One-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates, respectively, were: 96.7%, 80% and 66% for cases versus 93.5%, 89.6% and 83.8% for controls (p = 0.008). Multivariate analyses retained age >65 years (hazard ratio (HR) 4.54; p < 0.001), alveolar haemorrhage (HR 2.25; p = 0.019) and UIP (HR 2.73; p = 0.002), but not immunosuppressant use, as factors independently associated with shorter survival. CONCLUSION: For AAV-ILD patients, only UIP was associated with poorer prognosis. Immunosuppressants did not improve the AAV-ILD prognosis. But in analogy to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, anti-fibrosing agents might be useful and should be assessed in AAV-ILD patients with a UIP pattern.

7.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(9): 102359, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of remission, according to DORIS definitions, of inception patients from two European SLE cohorts, with a special focus on the differences between the therapeutic schemes of both Units. METHODS: Inception patients enrolled after 2000 from the longitudinal Cruces Lupus Cohort (CC) and Bordeaux Lupus Cohort (BC) were included. The main endpoint was the achievement of clinical remission on treatment (ClinROnT). ClinROnT was assessed yearly from the 1st until the 5th year following the diagnosis of SLE. RESULTS: 173 patients, 92 CC and 81 BC, were studied. The clinical presentation of both cohorts was similar, with no significant differences in the mean SLEDAI score at diagnosis (6.6 vs. 8.1, p = 0.06). Patients from CC were treated more frequently with hydroxychloroquine (mean 57 vs. 43 months), methotrexate (24% vs. 11%) and pulse methyl-prednisolone (42% vs. 26%), and received lower doses of oral prednisone (average dose during the follow up 2.3 vs. 7.2 mg/d, p < 0.001). Patients in CC were more likely to achieve ClinROnT at year one, 84% vs. 43% (p < 0.001). Prolonged ClinROnT during the 5 years of follow up was more frequent in CC: 70% vs. 28%, p < 0.001. Patients in CC were also more likely to achieve ClinROnT after controlling for baseline SLEDAI (adjusted HR 1.69, 95%CI 1.21-2.35) and for the presenting clinical manifestations (adjusted HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.2-2.4). CONCLUSION: Prolonged ClinROnT was achievable by using a therapeutic regime consisting of lower doses of oral prednisone and maximizing the use of hydroxychloroquine, pulse methyl-prednisolone and methotrexate.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254159

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic and potentially fatal autoimmune disease. SLE pathophysiology is complex and involves the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune systems, with a particularly significant role for type I interferons. Recently, the participation of other actors such as platelets and IgE has been described in SLE. On the one hand, platelets activated by different stimuli (antiphospholipid antibodies, immune complexes…) participate in immune dysregulation through direct interactions with immune cells. On the other hand, autoreactive IgE can activate basophils, promoting a Th2 environment and subsequent antibody production by plasma cells. In synergy with IgG, IgE is also able to activate plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) increasing interferon alpha production. Mirroring the IgG paradox, total nonautoreactive IgE is described as a potential regulator of IFNα production. This review summarizes recent and novel data on innate immunity in SLE pathophysiology with a focus on platelets and IgE, as they represent novel players in immune dysregulation and potential therapeutic targets.

9.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 119(4): 63-68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the correlation between severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and current staging systems based on nailfold capillaroscopy. METHODS: SCLEROCAP is a multicenter prospective study including consecutive scleroderma patients who have a yearly routine follow-up with capillaroscopy and digital blood pressure measurement. Capillaroscopy images were read by two observers blinded from each other, then by a third one in the case of discordance. A follow-up of 3 years is planned. The present study assessed the correlation between severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and current staging systems based on nail fold capillaroscopy at enrollment in the SCLEROCAP study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for both the Maricq and Cutolo classifications. RESULTS: SCLEROCAP included 387 patients in one year. Maricq's active and Cutolo's late classifications were very similar. In multivariate analysis, the number of digital ulcers (OR for 2 ulcers or more, respectively 2.023 [1.074-3.81] and 2.596 [1.434-4.699]) and Rodnan's skin score >15 (OR respectively 32.007 [6.457-158.658] and 18.390 [5.380-62.865]) correlated with Maricq's active and Cutolo's late stages. Haemoglobin rate correlated with Cutolo's late stage (hemoglobin<100 vs. >120 g/dl: OR 0.223 [0.051-0.980]), and total lung capacity with Maricq's active one: increase in 10%: OR0.833 [0.717-0.969]. CONCLUSIONS: The correlations found between capillaroscopy and severity of SSc are promising before the ongoing prospective study definitively assesses whether capillaroscopy staging predicts complications of SSc. Only two capillaroscopic patterns seem useful: one involving many giant capillaries and haemorrhages and the other with severe capillary loss.


Assuntos
Angioscopia Microscópica/métodos , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Úlcera Cutânea , Capilares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Unhas , Estudos Prospectivos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/classificação , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Úlcera Cutânea/classificação , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia
10.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(7): 714-720, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at onset of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) is commonly used to distinguish giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TA). However, LVV between age 50 and 60 years may be difficult to classify. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study including LVV aged between 50 and 60 years at onset (LVV50-60, cases) and compared them to LVV aged over 60 years (LVV>60, controls). LVV was defined histologically and/or morphologically. Controls fulfilled ACR 1990 criteria for GCA or presented isolated aortitis. RESULTS: We included 183 LVV50-60 and 183 gender-matched LVV>60. LVV50-60 had more frequent peripheral limb manifestations (23 vs. 5%), and less frequent cephalic (73 vs. 90%) and ocular signs (17 vs. 27%) than LVV>60. Compared to LVV>60, CT angiography and PET/CT scan were more frequently abnormal in LVV50-60 (74 vs. 38%, and 90 vs. 72%, respectively), with aorta being more frequently involved (78 vs. 47%). By multivariate analysis, absence of cephalic symptoms, presence of peripheral limb ischemia and aorta involvement, and increased CRP level were significantly associated with LVV50-60 presentation compared to LVV>60. At last follow-up, compared to LVV>60, LVV50-60 received significantly more lines of treatment (2 vs. 1), more frequent biologics (12 vs. 3%), had more surgery (10 vs. 0%), and had higher prednisone dose (8.8 vs. 6.5 mg/d) at last follow-up, CONCLUSION: LVV onset between 50 and 60 years identifies a subset of patients with more frequent aorta and peripheral vascular involvement and more refractory disease compared to patients with LVV onset after 60.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(9): 1565-1573, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Orbital mass is a rare and sight-threatening manifestation of ANCA-associated vasculitides, which remains a therapeutic challenge. We aimed to describe the presentation, therapeutic management and outcome of ANCA-associated vasculitides-related orbital mass. METHODS: We conducted a French nationwide retrospective study of patients with orbital mass in the setting of ANCA-associated vasculitides according to ACR criteria and/or Chapel Hill Consensus Conference definitions. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients [33 women, median age 46 (range 7-90) years] were included. Fifty-six (95%) patients had granulomatosis with polyangiitis, two eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and one microscopic polyangiitis. Orbital mass was unilateral in 47 (80%) cases, and seemed to develop from ENT involvement in most cases. Orbital mass biopsy was available in 32 (54%) patients, showing lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in 65%, fibrosis in 55%, granulomas in 48% and vasculitis in 36%. All patients but one received glucocorticoids as first-line therapy associated with immunosuppressive agents in 82%, mainly cyclophosphamide. Response to therapy was noted in 52% of patients treated with cyclophosphamide compared with 91% of those treated with rituximab. Twenty-seven (46%) patients required a second-line therapy because of relapse (59%) or refractory course (41%). Sequelae included visual impairment in 28%, with definitive blindness in 17%. Refractory course was associated with PR3-ANCA positivity, visual loss and contiguous pachymeningitis. CONCLUSION: Orbital mass is associated with refractory course and high frequency of sequelae, especially blindness. Refractory course is associated with PR3-ANCA positivity, visual loss and contiguous pachymeningitis.

12.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 53, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) phenotype appears to be dichotomized in systemic or chronic articular forms. As biologicals and particularly interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers play a more and more prominent role in the treatment, their place requires clarification. This study aimed to identify factors predictive of treatment response to anakinra or tocilizumab and investigate whether the choice of biotherapy and delays in the initiation of biotherapy influenced the likelihood of steroid discontinuation. METHODS: A multicenter exploratory retrospective study included all patients diagnosed with AOSD and receiving biological treatments in three regional hospitals until 2018. Clinical and biological characteristics at diagnosis and treatment-related data were collected. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to perform univariate analysis for quantitative variables, and Fisher's exact test was used for qualitative variables. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were included. All but one patient achieved remission with either anakinra or tocilizumab. Treatment responses depended on disease phenotype: the presence of arthritis and a chronic articular phenotype were associated with a substantial response to tocilizumab with p = 0.0009 (OR 36 [2.6-1703]) and p = 0.017 (OR 10 [1.22-92.6]), respectively, whereas the systemic form and the absence of arthritis were associated with a substantial response to anakinra with p = 0.0009 (OR 36 [2.6-1703]) and p = 0.017 (OR 10 [1.22-92.6]), respectively. Tocilizumab increased the likelihood of corticosteroid withdrawal (p = 0.029) regardless of delays in initiation or when it was initiated relative to other treatment in the overall therapeutic strategy. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the therapeutic implications of the phenotypic dichotomy of AOSD and should help us better codify AOSD treatment.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208657, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562358

RESUMO

Compared to the general population, HIV-infected patients are at higher risk of developing non-AIDS-defining cancers. Chronic HCV infection has also been associated with a higher risk than that of the general population of developing cancers other than hepatocarcinoma. Evaluation of the impact of HCV-related factors on non-AIDS-defining and non HCV-liver (NANL) related cancers among HIV/HCV co-infected patients are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of HIV/HCV clinical characteristics on NANL related cancers in a large cohort of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients followed from 2005 to 2017. Cox proportional hazards models with delayed entry were used to estimate factors associated with NANL related cancer. Among 1391 patients followed for a median of 5 years, 60 patients developed NANL related cancers, yielding an incidence rate of 8.9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, [6.6-11.1]). By final multivariable analysis, after adjustment for sex, tobacco or alcohol consumption, baseline CD4 cell count and HCV sustained viral response (SVR), age and a longer duration since HIV diagnosis were independently associated with a higher risk of NANL related cancer (aHR for each additional year 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.14, p<0.0001 and 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11, p = 0.02, respectively). Duration of HCV infection, cirrhosis, HCV viral load, genotype and SVR were not associated with the occurrence of NANL related cancer. Among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, age and the duration of HIV infection were the only characteristics found to be associated with the occurrence of NANL related cancer. In contrast, no association was observed with any HCV-related variables.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Coinfecção , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
JCI Insight ; 3(24)2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568041

RESUMO

Tregs are impaired in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and contribute to effector T cell activation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the Treg deficiency in SLE remain unclear. We hypothesized that the OX40L/OX40 axis is implicated in Treg and regulatory follicular helper T (Tfr) cell dysfunction in human SLE. OX40L/OX40 axis engagement on Tregs and Tfr cells not only specifically impaired their ability to regulate effector T cell proliferation, but also their ability to suppress T follicular helper (Tfh) cell-dependent B cell activation and immunoglobulin secretion. Antigen-presenting cells from patients with active SLE mediated Treg dysfunction in an OX40L-dependent manner, and OX40L-expressing cells colocalized with Foxp3+ cells in active SLE skin lesions. Engagement of the OX40L/OX40 axis resulted in Foxp3 downregulation in Tregs, and expression in SLE Tregs correlated with the proportion of circulating OX40L-expressing myeloid DCs. These data support that OX40L/OX40 signals are implicated in Treg dysfunction in human SLE. Thus, blocking the OX40L/OX40 axis appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Ligante OX40/imunologia , Receptores OX40/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Ligante OX40/metabolismo , Receptores OX40/metabolismo , Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
16.
Nat Chem Biol ; 14(12): 1079-1089, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429604

RESUMO

CD95L is a transmembrane ligand (m-CD95L) that is cleaved by metalloproteases to release a soluble ligand (s-CD95L). Unlike m-CD95L, interaction between s-CD95L and CD95 fails to recruit caspase-8 and FADD to trigger apoptosis and instead induces a Ca2+ response via docking of PLCγ1 to the calcium-inducing domain (CID) within CD95. This signaling pathway induces accumulation of inflammatory Th17 cells in damaged organs of lupus patients, thereby aggravating disease pathology. A large-scale screen revealed that the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir is a potent disruptor of the CD95-PLCγ1 interaction. A structure-activity relationship approach highlighted that ritonavir is a peptidomimetic that shares structural characteristics with CID with respect to docking to PLCγ1. Thus, we synthesized CID peptidomimetics abrogating both the CD95-driven Ca2+ response and transmigration of Th17 cells. Injection of ritonavir and the CID peptidomimetic into lupus mice alleviated clinical symptoms, opening a new avenue for the generation of drugs for lupus patients.

17.
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(12): 1153-1168, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316994

RESUMO

The relapse rate in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) remains high, i.e. around 20%-21% at 5 years in thrombotic APS and 20-28% in obstetrical APS [2, 3]. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) appears as an additional therapy, as it possesses immunomodulatory and anti-thrombotic various effects [4-16]. Our group recently obtained the orphan designation of HCQ in antiphospholipid syndrome by the European Medicine Agency. Furthermore, the leaders of the project made the proposal of an international project, HIBISCUS, about the use of Hydroxychloroquine in secondary prevention of obstetrical and thrombotic events in primary APS. This study has been launched in several countries and at now, 53 centers from 16 countries participate to this international trial. This trial consists in two parts: a retrospective and a prospective study. The French part of the trial in thrombosis has been granted by the French Minister of Health in December 2015 (the academic trial independent of the pharmaceutical industry PHRC N PAPIRUS) and is coordinated by one of the members of the leading consortium of HIBISCUS.

18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1702, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083163

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by three interconnected hallmarks (i) vasculopathy, (ii) aberrant immune activation, and (iii) fibroblast dysfunction leading to extracellular matrix deposition and fibrosis. Blocking or reversing the fibrotic process associated with this devastating disease is still an unmet clinical need. Although various components of innate immunity, including macrophages and type I interferon, have long been implicated in SSc, the precise mechanisms that regulate the global innate immune contribution to SSc pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Recent studies have identified new innate immune players, such as pathogen-recognition receptors, platelet-derived danger-associated molecular patterns, innate lymphoid cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the pathophysiology of SSc, including vasculopathy and fibrosis. In this review, we describe the evidence demonstrating the importance of innate immune processes during SSc development with particular emphasis on their role in the initiation of pathology. We also discuss potential therapeutic options to modulate innate immune cells or signaling in SSc that are emerging from these recent advances.

19.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079582

RESUMO

Nonadherence to treatment is a major cause of lupus flares. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a major medication in systemic lupus erythematosus, has a long half-life and can be quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. This international study evaluated nonadherence in 305 lupus patients with flares using drug levels (HCQ < 200 ng/ml or undetectable desethylchloroquine), and self-administered questionnaires (MASRI < 80%). Drug levels defined 18.4% of the patients as severely nonadherent. In multivariate analyses, younger age, nonuse of steroids, higher body mass index, and unemployment were associated with nonadherence by drug level. Questionnaires classified 23.4% of patients as nonadherent. Correlations between adherence measured by questionnaires, drug level, and physician assessment were moderate. Both methods probably measured two different patterns of nonadherence: self-administered questionnaires mostly captured relatively infrequently missed tablets, while drug levels identified severe nonadherence (i.e., interruption or erratic tablet intake). The frequency with which physicians miss nonadherence, together with underreporting by patients, suggests that therapeutic drug monitoring is useful in this setting. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01509989.).

20.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1637, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065726

RESUMO

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a distinct subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, specialized in B cell help and in regulation of antibody responses. They are required for the generation of germinal center reactions, where selection of high affinity antibody producing B cells and development of memory B cells occur. Owing to the fundamental role of Tfh cells in adaptive immunity, the stringent control of their production and function is critically important, both for the induction of an optimal humoral response against thymus-dependent antigens but also for the prevention of self-reactivity. Indeed, deregulation of Tfh activities can contribute to a pathogenic autoantibody production and can play an important role in the promotion of autoimmune diseases. In the present review, we briefly introduce the molecular factors involved in Tfh cell formation in the context of a normal immune response, as well as markers associated with their identification (transcription factor, surface marker expression, and cytokine production). We then consider in detail the role of Tfh cells in the pathogenesis of a broad range of autoimmune diseases, with a special focus on systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as on the other autoimmune/inflammatory disorders. We summarize the observed alterations in Tfh numbers, activation state, and circulating subset distribution during autoimmune and some other inflammatory disorders. In addition, central role of interleukin-21, major cytokine produced by Tfh cells, is discussed, as well as the involvement of follicular regulatory T cells, which share characteristics with both Tfh and regulatory T cells.

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