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1.
J Ultrasound ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797736

RESUMO

Specialized training in ocular ultrasound is not a focus for most emergency medicine residencies, despite the fact that it allows physicians to quickly and accurately identify ocular pathology and prioritize emergency ophthalmological consultations. Therefore, we tested the value of utilizing normal and pathologic ocular ultrasound phantoms as a training tool for residents. Twenty emergency medicine residents were given a pre-test including written and practical skills diagnosis of ocular phantom pathologies, a short video on common ocular pathologies, practice time with the phantoms and a post-test including written and scanning components. Residents were then asked to complete an overall evaluation of the learning activity. After didactic and hands-on training with phantoms, residents demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge, skills and preparedness for diagnosing real patients with ocular pathologies. Overall, the phantoms allowed residents an unrestricted opportunity to practice and refine their technique. This study provided a framework for teaching emergency medicine residents the basics of ocular US through a brief didactic and practical intervention using novel ocular pathology US phantoms. Our curriculum resulted in both objective and subjective improvement in residents' performance and understanding of ocular US.

2.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 50(4): 451-453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222265

RESUMO

Radiologists are facing ever increasing volumes while trying to provide value-based care. There are several drivers of increasing volumes: increasing population size, aging population, increased utilization, gaps in evidence-based care, changes in the provider workforce, defensive medicine, and increasing case complexity. Higher volumes result in increased cognitive and systemic errors and contribute to radiologist fatigue and burnout. We discuss several strategies for mitigating high volumes including abbreviated MRI protocols, 24/7 radiologist coverage, reading room assistants, and other strategies to tackle radiologist burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Radiologistas , Idoso , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recursos Humanos
3.
Acad Radiol ; 28(4): 564-571, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448411

RESUMO

The rise of the #MeToo movement has sparked renewed conversations about sexual harassment in the workplace. All medical fields, including radiology, can benefit from reflecting on workplace culture, reviewing policies, and committing to change. This review provides an overview of the #MeToo movement, describes the prevalence of sexual harassment in medicine and radiology, summarizes barriers to reporting incidents of sexual harassment, evaluates the backlash to the #MeToo movement, and discusses policies and procedures to aid in preventing sexual harassment in the #MeToo era.


Assuntos
Radiologia , Assédio Sexual , Comunicação , Humanos , Prevalência , Local de Trabalho
4.
Acta Radiol ; 61(9): 1258-1265, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928346

RESUMO

The modern-day radiologist must be adept at image interpretation, and the one who most successfully leverages new technologies may provide the highest value to patients, clinicians, and trainees. Applications of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have the potential to revolutionize how imaging information is applied in clinical practice and how radiologists practice. This review provides an overview of VR and AR, highlights current applications, future developments, and limitations hindering adoption.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Radiologia , Realidade Virtual , Humanos
5.
Lasers Surg Med ; 51(2): 150-160, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adenotonsillectomy (AT) is commonly used to treat upper airway obstruction in children, but selection of patients who will benefit most from AT is challenging. The need for diagnostic evaluation tools without sedation, radiation, or high costs has motivated the development of long-range optical coherence tomography (LR-OCT), providing real-time cross-sectional airway imaging during endoscopy. Since the endoscope channel location is not tracked in conventional LR-OCT, airway curvature must be estimated and may affect predicted airway resistance. The study objective was to assess effects of three realistic airway curvatures on predicted airway resistance using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in LR-OCT reconstructions of the upper airways of pediatric patients, before and after AT. METHODS: Eight subjects (five males, three females, aged 4-9 years) were imaged using LR-OCT before and after AT during sedated endoscopy. Three-dimensional (3D) airway reconstructions included three airway curvatures. Steady-state, inspiratory airflow simulations were conducted under laminar conditions, along with turbulent simulations for one subject using the k-ω turbulence model. Airway resistance (pressure drop/flow) was compared using two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank tests. RESULTS: Regardless of the airway curvatures, CFD findings corroborate a surgical end-goal with computed post-operative airway resistance significantly less than pre-operative (P < 0.01). The individual resistances did not vary significantly for different airway curvatures (P > 0.25). Resistances computed using turbulent simulations differed from laminar results by less than ∼5%. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that reconstruction of the upper airways from LR-OCT imaging data may not need to account for airway curvature to be predictive of surgical effects on airway resistance. Lasers Surg. Med. 51:150-160, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Esofagoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Tonsila Faríngea/patologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Tonsila Palatina/patologia
6.
Radiol Case Rep ; 13(2): 490-494, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904496

RESUMO

Myxomatous cerebral aneurysms are rare sequelae of cardiac atrial myxoma. These aneurysms are generally fusiform, multiple, and distal. Pathogenesis and evolution of these aneurysms is still debated. There are currently no guidelines on the management of aneurysms secondary to atrial myxoma. We present a case of a 52-year-old man with multiple fusiform aneurysms 3 years after resection of a left atrial myxoma. One of these aneurysms was followed with cerebral angiography and showed substantial interval enlargement. This aneurysm was subsequently embolized. All aneurysms were stable 6 months post-embolization.

7.
Radiol Case Rep ; 12(3): 546-548, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28828123

RESUMO

We present a case of a 50-year-old female with a 2-day history of back and abdominal pain who was discovered to have innumerable chronically retained acupuncture needles, which had migrated throughout her abdomen and pelvis. Although many of these needles were in precarious positions, including the epidural space, renal parenchyma, small bowel, and vasculature, there was no evidence for acute injury. We also briefly discuss evidence for the magnetic resonance imaging compatibility of acupuncture needles. Although a rare complication, given the high frequency of acupuncture therapy in the United States, physicians must be aware of the potential for retained and migrated needles.

8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 192(12): 1504-13, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26214043

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Subglottic edema and acquired subglottic stenosis are potentially airway-compromising sequelae in neonates following endotracheal intubation. At present, no imaging modality is capable of in vivo diagnosis of subepithelial airway wall pathology as signs of intubation-related injury. OBJECTIVES: To use Fourier domain long-range optical coherence tomography (LR-OCT) to acquire micrometer-resolution images of the airway wall of intubated neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit setting and to analyze images for histopathology and airway wall thickness. METHODS: LR-OCT of the neonatal laryngotracheal airway was performed a total of 94 times on 72 subjects (age, 1-175 d; total intubation, 1-104 d). LR-OCT images of the airway wall were analyzed in MATLAB. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for extubation outcome. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Backward stepwise regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant association between log(duration of intubation) and both laryngeal (P < 0.001; multiple r(2) = 0.44) and subglottic (P < 0.001; multiple r(2) = 0.55) airway wall thickness. Subjects with positive histopathology on LR-OCT images had a higher likelihood of extubation failure (odds ratio, 5.9; P = 0.007). Longer intubation time was found to be significantly associated with extubation failure. CONCLUSIONS: LR-OCT allows for high-resolution evaluation and measurement of the airway wall in intubated neonates. Our data demonstrate a positive correlation between laryngeal and subglottic wall thickness and duration of intubation, suggestive of progressive soft tissue injury. LR-OCT may ultimately aid in the early diagnosis of postintubation subglottic injury and help reduce the incidences of failed extubation caused by subglottic edema or acquired subglottic stenosis in neonates. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00544427).


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Laringoestenose/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 79(2): 119-26, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25532671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acquired subglottic stenosis (SGS) most commonly results from prolonged endotracheal intubation and is a diagnostic challenge in the intubated child. At present, no imaging modality allows for in vivo characterization of subglottic microanatomy to identify early signs of acquired SGS while the child remains intubated. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a minimally invasive, light-based imaging modality which provides high resolution, three dimensional (3D) cross-sectional images of biological tissue. We used long-range FD-OCT to image the subglottis in intubated pediatric patients undergoing minor head and neck surgical procedures in the operating room. METHODS: A long-range FD-OCT system and rotary optical probes (1.2mm and 0.7mm outer diameters) were constructed. Forty-six pediatric patients (ages 2-16 years) undergoing minor upper airway surgery (e.g., tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy) were selected for intraoperative, trans-endotracheal tube FD-OCT of the subglottis. Images were analyzed for anatomical landmarks and subepithelial histology. Volumetric image sets were rendered into virtual 3D airway models in Mimics software. RESULTS: FD-OCT was performed on 46 patients (ages 2-16 years) with no complications. Gross airway contour was visible on all 46 data sets. Twenty (43%) high-quality data sets clearly demonstrated airway anatomy (e.g., tracheal rings, cricoid and vocal folds) and layered microanatomy of the mucosa (e.g., epithelium, basement membrane and lamina propria). The remaining 26 data sets were discarded due to artifact, high signal-to-noise ratio or missing data. 3D airway models were allowed for user-controlled manipulation and multiplanar airway slicing (e.g., sagittal, coronal) for visualization of OCT data at multiple anatomic levels simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: Long-range FD-OCT produces high-resolution, 3D volumetric images of the pediatric subglottis. This technology offers a safe and practical means for in vivo evaluation of lower airway microanatomy in intubated pediatric patients. Ultimately, FD-OCT may be applied to serial monitoring of the neonatal subglottis in long-term intubated infants at risk for acquired SGS.


Assuntos
Glote/patologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Laringoestenose/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Laringoestenose/etiologia , Laringoestenose/cirurgia , Masculino , Razão Sinal-Ruído
10.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 79(1): 63-70, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25479699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: While upper airway obstruction is a common problem in the pediatric population, the first-line treatment, adenotonsillectomy, fails in up to 20% of patients. The decision to proceed to surgery is often made without quantitative anatomic guidance. We evaluated the use of a novel technique, long-range optical coherence tomography (LR-OCT), to image the upper airway of children under general anesthesia immediately before and after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. We investigated the feasibility of LR-OCT to identify both normal anatomy and sites of airway narrowing and to quantitatively compare airway lumen size in the oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal regions pre- and post-operatively. METHODS: 46 children were imaged intraoperatively with a custom-designed LR-OCT system, both before and after adenotonsillectomy. These axial LR-OCT images were both rendered into 3D airway models for qualitative analysis and manually segmented for quantitative comparison of cross-sectional area. RESULTS: LR-OCT images demonstrated normal anatomic structures (base of tongue, epiglottis) as well as regions of airway narrowing. Volumetric rendering of pre- and post-operative images clearly showed regions of airway collapse and post-surgical improvement in airway patency. Quantitative analysis of cross-sectional images showed an average change of 70.52mm(2) (standard deviation 47.87mm(2)) in the oropharynx after tonsillectomy and 105.58mm(2) (standard deviation 60.62mm(2)) in the nasopharynx after adenoidectomy. CONCLUSIONS: LR-OCT is an emerging technology that rapidly generates 3D images of the pediatric upper airway in a feasible manner. This is the first step toward development of an office-based system to image awake pediatric subjects and thus better identify loci of airway obstruction prior to surgery.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Tonsilectomia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios
11.
JAMA Facial Plast Surg ; 16(6): 425-31, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25275274

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Blepharoplasty is one of the most commonly performed facial aesthetic surgeries. While myriad techniques exist to improve the appearance of the lower eyelids, there is no clear consensus on the optimal management of the orbital septum. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the use of the holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG) laser for orbital septal tightening, and to determine whether modest use of this laser would provide some degree of clinical efficacy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Direct laser irradiation of ex vivo bovine tissue was used to determine appropriate laser dosimetry using infrared thermal imaging and optical coherence tomography before conducting a pilot clinical study in 5 patients. Laser irradiation of the lower eyelid orbital septum was performed through a transconjunctival approach. Standardized preoperative and postoperative photographs were taken for each patient and evaluated by 6 unbiased aesthetic surgeons. EXPOSURE: Use of the Ho:YAG laser for orbital septal tightening. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: To determine appropriate laser dosimetry, infrared thermal imaging and optical coherence tomography were used to monitor temperature and tissue shape changes of ex vivo bovine tissue that was subjected to direct laser irradiation. For the clinical study, preoperative and postoperative photographs were evaluated by 6 surgeons on a 10-point Likert scale. RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography demonstrated that laser irradiation of bovine tissue to a temperature range of 60°C to 80°C resulted in an increase in thickness of up to 2-fold. There were no complications or adverse cosmetic outcomes in the patient study. Patient satisfaction with the results of surgery averaged 7 on a 10-point Likert scale. For 3 patients, 3 (50%) of the evaluators believed there was a mild improvement in appearance of the lower eyelids after surgery. The remaining patients were thought to have no significant changes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Transconjunctival Ho:YAG laser blepharoplasty is a safe procedure that may ameliorate mild pseudoherniation of lower eyelid orbital fat and is a first step toward the development of percutaneous techniques.


Assuntos
Blefaroplastia/métodos , Raios Infravermelhos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Órbita/cirurgia , Radiometria , Adulto , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
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