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1.
Schizophr Res ; 206: 209-216, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545758

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The persistence of schizophrenia in human populations separated by geography and time led to the evolutionary hypothesis that proposes schizophrenia as a by-product of the higher cognitive abilities of modern humans. To explore this hypothesis, we used here an evolutionary epigenetics approach building on differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the genome. METHODS: We implemented a polygenic enrichment testing pipeline using the summary statistics of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia and 12 other phenotypes. We investigated the enrichment of association of these traits across genomic regions with variable methylation between modern humans and great apes (orangutans, chimpanzees and gorillas; great ape DMRs) and between modern humans and recently extinct hominids (Neanderthals and Denisovans; hominid DMRs). RESULTS: Regions that are hypo-methylated in humans compared to great apes show enrichment of association with schizophrenia only if the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region is included. With the MHC region removed from the analysis, only a modest enrichment for SNPs of low effect persists. The INRICH pipeline confirms this finding after rigorous permutation and bootstrapping procedures. CONCLUSION: The analyses of regions with differential methylation changes in humans and great apes do not provide compelling evidence of enrichment of association with schizophrenia, in contrast to our previous findings on more recent methylation differences between modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Our results further support the evolutionary hypothesis of schizophrenia and indicate that the origin of some of the genetic susceptibility factors of schizophrenia may lie in recent human evolution.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 18088, 2018 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591712

RESUMO

A large fraction of genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is still not identified, limiting the understanding of AD pathology and study of therapeutic targets. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of AD cases and controls of European descent from the multi-center DemGene network across Norway and two independent European cohorts. In a two-stage process, we first performed a meta-analysis using GWAS results from 2,893 AD cases and 6,858 cognitively normal controls from Norway and 25,580 cases and 48,466 controls from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP), denoted the discovery sample. Second, we selected the top hits (p < 1 × 10-6) from the discovery analysis for replication in an Icelandic cohort consisting of 5,341 cases and 110,008 controls. We identified a novel genomic region with genome-wide significant association with AD on chromosome 4 (combined analysis OR = 1.07, p = 2.48 x 10-8). This finding implicated HS3ST1, a gene expressed throughout the brain particularly in the cerebellar cortex. In addition, we identified IGHV1-68 in the discovery sample, previously not associated with AD. We also associated USP6NL/ECHDC3 and BZRAP1-AS1 to AD, confirming findings from a follow-up transethnic study. These new gene loci provide further evidence for AD as a polygenic disorder, and suggest new mechanistic pathways that warrant further investigation.

3.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; : 1-10, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Activating mutations in the GUCY2C gene, which encodes the epithelial receptor guanylate cyclase C, cause diarrhea due to increased loss of sodium chloride to the intestinal lumen. Patients with familial GUCY2C diarrhea syndrome (FGDS) are predisposed to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated whether genes in the guanylate cyclase C pathway are enriched for association with IBD and reversely whether genetic or transcriptional changes associated with IBD are found in FGDS patients. METHODS: (1) A set of 27 genes from the guanylate cyclase C pathway was tested for enrichment of association with IBD by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, using genome-wide association summary statistics from 12,882 IBD patients and 21,770 controls. (2) We genotyped 163 known IBD risk loci and sequenced NOD2 in 22 patients with FGDS. Eight of them had concomitant Crohn's disease. (3) Global gene expression analysis was performed in ileal tissue from patients with FGDS, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals. RESULTS: The guanylate cyclase C gene set showed a significant enrichment of association in IBD genome-wide association data. Risk variants in NOD2 were found in 7/8 FGDS patients with concomitant Crohn's disease and in 2/14 FDGS patients without Crohn's disease. In ileal tissue, downregulation of metallothioneins characterized FGDS patients compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a role of guanylate cyclase C signaling and disturbed electrolyte homeostasis in development of IBD. Furthermore, downregulation of metallothioneins in the ileal mucosa of FGDS patients may contribute to IBD development, possibly alongside effects from NOD2 risk variants.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 210, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297702

RESUMO

Ankyrin-3 (ANK3) is one of the few genes that have been consistently identified as associated with bipolar disorder by multiple genome-wide association studies. However, the exact molecular basis of the association remains unknown. A rare loss-of-function splice-site SNP (rs41283526*G) in a minor isoform of ANK3 (incorporating exon ENSE00001786716) was recently identified as protective of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This suggests that an elevated expression of this isoform may be involved in the etiology of the disorders. In this study, we used novel approaches and data sets to test this hypothesis. First, we strengthen the statistical evidence supporting the allelic association by replicating the protective effect of the minor allele of rs41283526 in three additional large independent samples (meta-analysis p-values: 6.8E-05 for bipolar disorder and 8.2E-04 for schizophrenia). Second, we confirm the hypothesis that both bipolar and schizophrenia patients have a significantly higher expression of this isoform than controls (p-values: 3.3E-05 for schizophrenia and 9.8E-04 for bipolar type I). Third, we determine the transcription start site for this minor isoform by Pacific Biosciences sequencing of full-length cDNA and show that it is primarily expressed in the corpus callosum. Finally, we combine genotype and expression data from a large Norwegian sample of psychiatric patients and controls, and show that the risk alleles in ANK3 identified by bipolar disorder GWAS are located near the transcription start site of this isoform and are significantly associated with its elevated expression. Together, these results point to the likely molecular mechanism underlying ANK3´s association with bipolar disorder.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279459

RESUMO

The hippocampus is a heterogeneous structure, comprising histologically distinguishable subfields. These subfields are differentially involved in memory consolidation, spatial navigation and pattern separation, complex functions often impaired in individuals with brain disorders characterized by reduced hippocampal volume, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. Given the structural and functional heterogeneity of the hippocampal formation, we sought to characterize the subfields' genetic architecture. T1-weighted brain scans (n = 21,297, 16 cohorts) were processed with the hippocampal subfields algorithm in FreeSurfer v6.0. We ran a genome-wide association analysis on each subfield, co-varying for whole hippocampal volume. We further calculated the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of 12 subfields, as well as their genetic correlation with each other, with other structural brain features and with AD and schizophrenia. All outcome measures were corrected for age, sex and intracranial volume. We found 15 unique genome-wide significant loci across six subfields, of which eight had not been previously linked to the hippocampus. Top SNPs were mapped to genes associated with neuronal differentiation, locomotor behaviour, schizophrenia and AD. The volumes of all the subfields were estimated to be heritable (h2 from 0.14 to 0.27, all p < 1 × 10-16) and clustered together based on their genetic correlations compared with other structural brain features. There was also evidence of genetic overlap of subicular subfield volumes with schizophrenia. We conclude that hippocampal subfields have partly distinct genetic determinants associated with specific biological processes and traits. Taking into account this specificity may increase our understanding of hippocampal neurobiology and associated pathologies.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 114, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884845

RESUMO

Despite great interest in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for studying the effects of genes on brain structure in humans, current approaches have focused almost entirely on predefined regions of interest and had limited success. Here, we used multivariate methods to define a single neuroanatomical score of how William's Syndrome (WS) brains deviate structurally from controls. The score is trained and validated on measures of T1 structural brain imaging in two WS cohorts (training, n = 38; validating, n = 60). We then associated this score with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the WS hemi-deleted region in five cohorts of neurologically and psychiatrically typical individuals (healthy European descendants, n = 1863). Among 110 SNPs within the 7q11.23 WS chromosomal region, we found one associated locus (p = 5e-5) located at GTF2IRD1, which has been implicated in animal models of WS. Furthermore, the genetic signals of neuroanatomical scores are highly enriched locally in the 7q11.23 compared with summary statistics based on regions of interest, such as hippocampal volumes (n = 12,596), and also globally (SNP-heritability = 0.82, se = 0.25, p = 5e-4). The role of genetic variability in GTF2IRD1 during neurodevelopment extends to healthy subjects. Our approach of learning MRI-derived phenotypes from clinical populations with well-established brain abnormalities characterized by known genetic lesions may be a powerful alternative to traditional region of interest-based studies for identifying genetic variants regulating typical brain development.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6915, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720671

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic disorder with high heritability. Several common genetic variants, rare copy number variants and ultra-rare gene-disrupting mutations have been linked to disease susceptibility, but there is still a large gap between the estimated and explained heritability. Since several studies have indicated brain myelination abnormalities in schizophrenia, we aimed to examine whether variants in myelination-related genes could be associated with risk for schizophrenia. We established a set of 117 myelination genes by database searches and manual curation. We used a combination of GWAS (SCZ_N = 35,476; CTRL_N = 46,839), exome chip (SCZ_N = 269; CTRL_N = 336) and exome sequencing data (SCZ_N = 2,527; CTRL_N = 2,536) from schizophrenia cases and healthy controls to examine common and rare variants. We found that a subset of lipid-related genes was nominally associated with schizophrenia (p = 0.037), but this signal did not survive multiple testing correction (FWER = 0.16) and was mainly driven by the SREBF1 and SREBF2 genes that have already been linked to schizophrenia. Further analysis demonstrated that the lowest nominal p-values were p = 0.0018 for a single common variant (rs8539) and p = 0.012 for burden of rare variants (LRP1 gene), but none of them survived multiple testing correction. Our findings suggest that variation in myelination-related genes is not a major risk factor for schizophrenia.

8.
BMC Evol Biol ; 18(1): 63, 2018 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One explanation for the persistence of schizophrenia despite the reduced fertility of patients is that it is a by-product of recent human evolution. This hypothesis is supported by evidence suggesting that recently-evolved genomic regions in humans are involved in the genetic risk for schizophrenia. Using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia and 11 other phenotypes, we tested for enrichment of association with GWAS traits in regions that have undergone methylation changes in the human lineage compared to Neanderthals and Denisovans, i.e. human-specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We used analytical tools that evaluate polygenic enrichment of a subset of genomic variants against all variants. RESULTS: Schizophrenia was the only trait in which DMR SNPs showed clear enrichment of association that passed the genome-wide significance threshold. The enrichment was not observed for Neanderthal or Denisovan DMRs. The enrichment seen in human DMRs is comparable to that for genomic regions tagged by Neanderthal Selective Sweep markers, and stronger than that for Human Accelerated Regions. The enrichment survives multiple testing performed through permutation (n = 10,000) and bootstrapping (n = 5000) in INRICH (p < 0.01). Some enrichment of association with height was observed at the gene level. CONCLUSIONS: Regions where DNA methylation modifications have changed during recent human evolution show enrichment of association with schizophrenia and possibly with height. Our study further supports the hypothesis that genetic variants conferring risk of schizophrenia co-occur in genomic regions that have changed as the human species evolved. Since methylation is an epigenetic mark, potentially mediated by environmental changes, our results also suggest that interaction with the environment might have contributed to that association.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estatura/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1289, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249828

RESUMO

We have tested published methods for capturing allelic heterogeneity and identifying loci of joint effects to uncover more of the "hidden heritability" of schizophrenia (SCZ). We used two tools, cojo-GCTA and multi-SNP, to analyze meta-statistics from the latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on SCZ by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). Stepwise regression on markers with p values <10-7 in cojo-GCTA identified 96 independent signals. Eighty-five passed the genome-wide significance threshold. Cross-validation of cojo-GCTA by CLUMP was 76%, i.e., 26 of the loci identified by the PGC using CLUMP were found to be dependent on another locus by cojo-GCTA. The overlap between cojo-GCTA and multi-SNP was better (up to 92%). Three markers reached genome-wide significance (5 × 10-8) in a joint effect model. In addition, two loci showed possible allelic heterogeneity within 1-Mb genomic regions, while CLUMP analysis had identified 16 such regions. Cojo-GCTA identified fewer independent loci than CLUMP and seems to be more conservative, probably because it accounts for long-range LD and interaction effects between markers. These findings also explain why fewer loci with possible allelic heterogeneity remained significant after cojo-GCTA analysis. With multi-SNP, 86 markers were selected at the threshold 10-7. Multi-SNP identifies fewer independent signals, due to splitting of the data and use of smaller samples. We recommend that cojo-GCTA and multi-SNP are used for post-GWAS analysis of all traits to call independent loci. We conclude that only a few loci in SCZ show joint effects or allelic heterogeneity, but this could be due to lack of power for that data set.


Assuntos
Alelos , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
10.
Nature ; 548(7665): 87-91, 2017 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746312

RESUMO

Hundreds of thousands of human genomes are now being sequenced to characterize genetic variation and use this information to augment association mapping studies of complex disorders and other phenotypic traits. Genetic variation is identified mainly by mapping short reads to the reference genome or by performing local assembly. However, these approaches are biased against discovery of structural variants and variation in the more complex parts of the genome. Hence, large-scale de novo assembly is needed. Here we show that it is possible to construct excellent de novo assemblies from high-coverage sequencing with mate-pair libraries extending up to 20 kilobases. We report de novo assemblies of 150 individuals (50 trios) from the GenomeDenmark project. The quality of these assemblies is similar to those obtained using the more expensive long-read technology. We use the assemblies to identify a rich set of structural variants including many novel insertions and demonstrate how this variant catalogue enables further deciphering of known association mapping signals. We leverage the assemblies to provide 100 completely resolved major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and to resolve major parts of the Y chromosome. Our study provides a regional reference genome that we expect will improve the power of future association mapping studies and hence pave the way for precision medicine initiatives, which now are being launched in many countries including Denmark.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/normas , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Dinamarca , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Masculino , Idade Materna , Taxa de Mutação , Idade Paterna , Mutação Puntual/genética , Padrões de Referência
11.
Brain Behav Immun ; 61: 209-216, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890662

RESUMO

The complement cascade plays a role in synaptic pruning and synaptic plasticity, which seem to be involved in cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. Genetic variants in the closely related CSMD1 and CSMD2 genes, which are implicated in complement regulation, are associated with schizophrenia. Since patients with schizophrenia often show cognitive impairments, we tested whether variants in CSMD1 and CSMD2 are also associated with cognitive functions per se. We took a discovery-replication approach, using well-characterized Scandinavian cohorts. A total of 1637 SNPs in CSMD1 and 206 SNPs in CSMD2 were tested for association with cognitive functions in the NCNG sample (Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics; n=670). Replication testing of SNPs with p-value<0.001 (7 in CSMD1 and 3 in CSMD2) was carried out in the TOP sample (Thematically Organized Psychosis; n=1025) and the BETULA sample (Betula Longitudinal Study on aging, memory and dementia; n=1742). Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of these SNPs using all three samples. The previously identified schizophrenia marker in CSMD1 (SNP rs10503253) was also included. The strongest association was observed between the CSMD1 SNP rs2740931 and performance in immediate episodic memory (p-value=5×10-6, minor allele A, MAF 0.48-0.49, negative direction of effect). This association reached the study-wide significance level (p⩽1.2×10-5). SNP rs10503253 was not significantly associated with cognitive functions in our samples. In conclusion, we studied n=3437 individuals and found evidence that a variant in CSMD1 is associated with cognitive function. Additional studies of larger samples with cognitive phenotypes will be needed to further clarify the role of CSMD1 in cognitive phenotypes in health and disease.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética
12.
Schizophr Bull ; 43(3): 654-664, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27338279

RESUMO

There is evidence for genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and schizophrenia (SCZ), and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) demonstrate that both SCZ and general cognitive abilities have a strong polygenic component with many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) each with a small effect. Here we investigated the shared genetic architecture between SCZ and educational attainment, which is regarded as a "proxy phenotype" for cognitive abilities, but may also reflect other traits. We applied a conditional false discovery rate (condFDR) method to GWAS of SCZ (n = 82 315), college completion ("College," n = 95 427), and years of education ("EduYears," n = 101 069). Variants associated with College or EduYears showed enrichment of association with SCZ, demonstrating polygenic overlap. This was confirmed by an increased replication rate in SCZ. By applying a condFDR threshold <0.01, we identified 18 genomic loci associated with SCZ after conditioning on College and 15 loci associated with SCZ after conditioning on EduYears. Ten of these loci overlapped. Using conjunctional FDR, we identified 10 loci shared between SCZ and College, and 29 loci shared between SCZ and EduYears. The majority of these loci had effects in opposite directions. Our results provide evidence for polygenic overlap between SCZ and educational attainment, and identify novel pleiotropic loci. Other studies have reported genetic overlap between SCZ and cognition, or SCZ and educational attainment, with negative correlation. Importantly, our methods enable identification of bi-directional effects, which highlight the complex relationship between SCZ and educational attainment, and support polygenic mechanisms underlying both cognitive dysfunction and creativity in SCZ.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Escolaridade , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Genetics ; 204(2): 711-722, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27535931

RESUMO

Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country.


Assuntos
Demografia , Genética Populacional , Genômica , Adolescente , Antropometria , Dinamarca , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica
14.
PLoS Genet ; 12(7): e1006143, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459196

RESUMO

The many subcomponents of the human cortex are known to follow an anatomical pattern and functional relationship that appears to be highly conserved between individuals. This suggests that this pattern and the relationship among cortical regions are important for cortical function and likely shaped by genetic factors, although the degree to which genetic factors contribute to this pattern is unknown. We assessed the genetic relationships among 12 cortical surface areas using brain images and genotype information on 2,364 unrelated individuals, brain images on 466 twin pairs, and transcriptome data on 6 postmortem brains in order to determine whether a consistent and biologically meaningful pattern could be identified from these very different data sets. We find that the patterns revealed by each data set are highly consistent (p<10-3), and are biologically meaningful on several fronts. For example, close genetic relationships are seen in cortical regions within the same lobes and, the frontal lobe, a region showing great evolutionary expansion and functional complexity, has the most distant genetic relationship with other lobes. The frontal lobe also exhibits the most distinct expression pattern relative to the other regions, implicating a number of genes with known functions mediating immune and related processes. Our analyses reflect one of the first attempts to provide an assessment of the biological consistency of a genetic phenomenon involving the brain that leverages very different types of data, and therefore is not just statistical replication which purposefully use very similar data sets.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cadáver , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Fenótipo , Gêmeos/genética
15.
Brain Struct Funct ; 221(9): 4643-4661, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26852023

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic factors underlying brain structural connectivity is a major challenge in imaging genetics. Here, we present results from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of whole-brain white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural coherence measured using diffusion tensor imaging. Data from independent GWASs of 355 Swedish and 250 Norwegian healthy adults were integrated by meta-analysis to enhance power. Complementary GWASs on behavioral data reflecting processing speed, which is related to microstructural properties of WM pathways, were performed and integrated with WM FA results via multimodal analysis to identify shared genetic associations. One locus on chromosome 17 (rs145994492) showed genome-wide significant association with WM FA (meta P value = 1.87 × 10-08). Suggestive associations (Meta P value <1 × 10-06) were observed for 12 loci, including one containing ZFPM2 (lowest meta P value = 7.44 × 10-08). This locus was also implicated in multimodal analysis of WM FA and processing speed (lowest Fisher P value = 8.56 × 10-07). ZFPM2 is relevant in specification of corticothalamic neurons during brain development. Analysis of SNPs associated with processing speed revealed association with a locus that included SSPO (lowest meta P value = 4.37 × 10-08), which has been linked to commissural axon growth. An intergenic SNP (rs183854424) 14 kb downstream of CSMD1, which is implicated in schizophrenia, showed suggestive evidence of association in the WM FA meta-analysis (meta P value = 1.43 × 10-07) and the multimodal analysis (Fisher P value = 1 × 10-07). These findings provide novel data on the genetics of WM pathways and processing speed, and highlight a role of ZFPM2 and CSMD1 in information processing in the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Substância Branca/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/fisiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
16.
Brain Behav ; 5(10): e00376, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26516611

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-associated (ARC) gene encodes a protein that is critical for the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. Given ARC's key role in synaptic plasticity, we hypothesized that genetic variations in ARC may contribute to interindividual variability in human cognitive abilities or to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) susceptibility, where cognitive impairment often accompanies the disorder. METHODS: We tested whether ARC variants are associated with six measures of cognitive functioning in 670 healthy subjects in the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG) by extracting data from its Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). In addition, the Swedish Betula sample of 1800 healthy subjects who underwent similar cognitive testing was also tested for association with 19 tag SNPs. RESULTS: No ARC variants show association at the study-wide level, but several markers show a trend toward association with human cognitive functions. We also tested for association between ARC SNPs and ADHD in a Norwegian sample of cases and controls, but found no significant associations. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that common genetic variants located in ARC do not account for variance in human cognitive abilities, though small effects cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7549, 2015 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26189703

RESUMO

Little is known about how genetic variation contributes to neuroanatomical variability, and whether particular genomic regions comprising genes or evolutionarily conserved elements are enriched for effects that influence brain morphology. Here, we examine brain imaging and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) data from ∼2,700 individuals. We show that a substantial proportion of variation in cortical surface area is explained by additive effects of SNPs dispersed throughout the genome, with a larger heritable effect for visual and auditory sensory and insular cortices (h(2)∼0.45). Genome-wide SNPs collectively account for, on average, about half of twin heritability across cortical regions (N=466 twins). We find enriched genetic effects in or near genes. We also observe that SNPs in evolutionarily more conserved regions contributed significantly to the heritability of cortical surface area, particularly, for medial and temporal cortical regions. SNPs in less conserved regions contributed more to occipital and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Gêmeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 168B(5): 363-73, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25951819

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits and reduced educational achievement are common in psychiatric illness; understanding the genetic basis of cognitive and educational deficits may be informative about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported a genome-wide significant locus for years of education, which subsequently demonstrated association to general cognitive ability ("g") in overlapping cohorts. The current study was designed to test whether GWAS hits for educational attainment are involved in general cognitive ability in an independent, large-scale collection of cohorts. Using cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT; up to 20,495 healthy individuals), we examined the relationship between g and variants associated with educational attainment. We next conducted meta-analyses with 24,189 individuals with neurocognitive data from the educational attainment studies, and then with 53,188 largely independent individuals from a recent GWAS of cognition. A SNP (rs1906252) located at chromosome 6q16.1, previously associated with years of schooling, was significantly associated with g (P = 1.47 × 10(-4) ) in COGENT. The first joint analysis of 43,381 non-overlapping individuals for this a priori-designated locus was strongly significant (P = 4.94 × 10(-7) ), and the second joint analysis of 68,159 non-overlapping individuals was even more robust (P = 1.65 × 10(-9) ). These results provide independent replication, in a large-scale dataset, of a genetic locus associated with cognitive function and education. As sample sizes grow, cognitive GWAS will identify increasing numbers of associated loci, as has been accomplished in other polygenic quantitative traits, which may be relevant to psychiatric illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0123886, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25860228

RESUMO

Relational complexity (RC) is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ), reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787). Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG), followed by meta-analysis (N>6500) at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%), has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%), and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%). At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB), and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ.


Assuntos
Cognição , Estudos de Associação Genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Biológicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Gêmeos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 222(1-2): 60-6, 2014 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24636489

RESUMO

The rs1344706 single nucleotide polymorphism within intron 2 of the ZNF804A gene is strongly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This variant has also been associated in some studies with a range of cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes, but several studies have reported no effect on the same phenotypes in other samples. Here, we genotyped 670 healthy adult Norwegian subjects and 1753 healthy adult Swedish subjects for rs1344706, and tested for associations with cognitive phenotypes including general intellectual abilities, memory functions and cognitive inhibition. We also tested whether rs1344706 is associated with white matter microstructural properties using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 250 to 340 of the Norwegian and Swedish subjects, respectively. Whole-brain voxel-wise statistical modeling of the effect of the ZNF804A variant on two DTI indices, fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD), was performed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), and commonly reported effect sizes were calculated within several large-scale white matter pathways based on neuroanatomical atlases. No significant associations were found between rs1344706 and the cognitive traits or white matter microstructure. We conclude that the rs1344706 SNP has no significant effect on these phenotypes in our two reasonably powered samples.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anisotropia , Axônios/fisiologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Inibição (Psicologia) , Inteligência/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Noruega , Fenótipo , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
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