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1.
Trials ; 20(1): 275, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate staff behaviour during surgical procedures may disrupt the surgical performance and compromise patient safety. We developed an innovative monitoring and feedback system combined with an adaptive approach to optimise staff behaviour intraoperatively and prevent post-operative complications (POC) in orthopaedic surgery. METHODS/DESIGN: This protocol describes a parallel-group, cluster randomised, controlled trial with orthopaedic centre as the unit of randomisation. The intervention period will last 6 months and will be based on the monitoring of two surrogates of staff behaviour: the frequency of doors opening and the level of noise. Both will be collected from incision to wound closure, using wireless sensors and sonometers, and recorded and analysed on a dedicated platform (Livepulse®). Staff from centres randomised to the intervention arm will be informed in real time on their own data through an interactive dashboard available in each operating room (OR), and a posteriori for hip and knee replacement POC. Aggregated data from all centres will also be displayed for benchmarking. A lean method will be applied in each centre by a local multidisciplinary team to analyse baseline situations, determine the target condition, analyse the root cause(s), and take countermeasures. The education and awareness of participants on the impact of their behaviour on patient safety will assist the quality improvement process. The control centres will be blinded to monitoring data and quality improvement approaches. The primary outcome will be any POC occurring during the 30 days post operation. We will evaluate this outcome using local and national routinely collected data from hospital discharge and disease databases. Thirty orthopaedic centres will be randomised for a total of 9945 hip and knee replacement surgical procedures. DISCUSSION: The field of human factors and behaviour in the OR seems to offer potential room for improvement. An intervention providing goal-setting, monitoring, feedback and action planning may reduce the traffic flow and interruptions/distractions of the surgical team during procedures, preventing subsequent POCs. The results of this trial will provide important data on the impact of OR staff behaviour on patient safety, and promote best practice during surgical procedures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03158181 .

3.
Crit Care Med ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Fragility Index, which represents the number of patients responsible for a statistically significant finding, has been suggested as an aid for interpreting the robustness of results from clinical trials. A small Fragility Index indicates that the statistical significance of a trial depends on only a few events. Our objectives were to calculate the Fragility Index of statistically significant results from randomized controlled trials of anesthesia and critical care interventions and to determine the frequency of distorted presentation of results or "spin". DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched MEDLINE from January 01, 2007, to February 22, 2017, to identify randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of critical care medicine or anesthesia interventions. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they randomized patients 1:1 into two parallel arms and reported at least one statistically significant (p < 0.05) binary outcome (primary or secondary). DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. The Fragility Index was determined for the chosen outcome. We assessed the level of spin in negative trials and the presence of recommendations for clinical practice in positive trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: We identified 166 eligible randomized controlled trials with a median sample size of 207 patients (interquartile range, 109-497). The median Fragility Index was 3 (interquartile range, 1-7), which means that adding three events to one of the trials treatment arms eliminated its statistical significance. High spin was identified in 42% (n = 30) of negative randomized controlled trials, whereas 21% (n = 20) of positive randomized controlled trials provided recommendations. Lower levels of spin and recommendations were associated with publication in journals with high impact factors (p < 0.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Statistically significant results in anesthesia and critical care randomized controlled trials are often fragile, and study conclusions are frequently affected by spin. Routine calculation of the Fragility Index in medical literature may allow for better understanding of trials and therefore enhance the quality of reporting.

4.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(7): 850-862, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960614

RESUMO

Worldwide, more than 230 million adults have major noncardiac surgery each year. Although surgery can improve quality and duration of life, it can also precipitate major complications. Moreover, a substantial proportion of deaths occur after discharge. Current systems for monitoring patients postoperatively, on surgical wards and after transition to home, are inadequate. On the surgical ward, vital signs evaluation usually occurs only every 4-8 hours. Reduced in-hospital ward monitoring, followed by no vital signs monitoring at home, leads to thousands of cases of undetected/delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise. In this article we review work to date on postoperative remote automated monitoring on surgical wards and strategy for advancing this field. Key considerations for overcoming current barriers to implementing remote automated monitoring in Canada are also presented.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In elderly patients, goal-directed haemodynamic therapy (GDHT), depth of anaesthesia monitoring and lung-protective ventilation have been shown to improve postoperative outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate current practices concerning strategies of anaesthesia optimisation in patients aged≥75 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicentre observational study was performed from February to May 2015 in 23 French academic centres. On 30 consecutive days in each centre, patients≥75 years with at least one major comorbidity undergoing elective or emergency procedures (femoral-neck fractures surgery, intraperitoneal abdominal surgery or vascular surgery) were included. Patient characteristics and data related to GHDT, management of hypotension, monitoring of temperature and depth of anaesthesia, lung ventilation, point of care haemoglobin testing were collected. RESULTS: In total, 807 patients were included. Only 2% of patients [95% CI: 1-3] received GHDT in full accordance with guidelines. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was largely performed (53% [95% CI: 50-56]). The multifaceted strategy of lung-protective ventilation combining low tidal volumes (6-8mL/kg), PEEP of 5-8cm cmH2O, and repeated recruitment manoeuvres, was performed in only 4% [95% CI: 3-5] of patients. A centre effect was a major determinant of variation concerning implementation of these strategies. DISCUSSION: In patients'≥75 years, strategies of anaesthesia optimisation are not in accordance with eligible guidelines. Implementation of these techniques varies independently of factors related to the patient or the type of surgery and may be dependent on the generated constraints.

6.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 18(1): 58, 2018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848289

RESUMO

Unfortunately, after publication of this article [1], it was noticed that the name of Ashraf A. Dahaba is incorrectly displayed as Ashraf Dahaba. The full, corrected author list can be seen here.

7.
Can J Surg ; 61(3): 185-194, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a mostly asymptomatic condition that is strongly associated with 30-day mortality; however, it remains mostly undetected without systematic troponin T monitoring. We evaluated the cost and consequences of postoperative troponin T monitoring to detect MINS. METHODS: We conducted a model-based cost-consequence analysis to compare the impact of routine troponin T monitoring versus standard care (troponin T measurement triggered by ischemic symptoms) on the incidence of MINS detection. Model inputs were based on Canadian patients enrolled in the Vascular Events in Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study, which enrolled patients aged 45 years or older undergoing inpatient noncardiac surgery. We conducted probability analyses with 10 000 iterations and extensive sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The data were based on 6021 patients (48% men, mean age 65 [standard deviation 12] yr). The 30-day mortality rate for MINS was 9.6%. We determined the incremental cost to avoid missing a MINS event as $1632 (2015 Canadian dollars). The cost-effectiveness of troponin monitoring was higher in patient subgroups at higher risk for MINS, e.g., those aged 65 years or more, or with a history of atherosclerosis or diabetes ($1309). CONCLUSION: The costs associated with a troponin T monitoring program to detect MINS were moderate. Based on the estimated incremental cost per health gain, implementation of postoperative troponin T monitoring seems appealing, particularly in patients at high risk for MINS.

8.
Can J Anaesth ; 65(7): 813-821, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671186

RESUMO

Increasingly, clinicians and researchers recognize that studies of interventions need to evaluate not only their therapeutic efficacy (i.e., the effect on an outcome in ideal, controlled settings) but also their real-world effectiveness in broad, unselected patient groups. Effectiveness trials inform clinical practice by comparing variations in therapeutic approaches that fall within the standard of care. In this article, we discuss the need for studies of comparative effectiveness in anesthesia and the limitations of individual patient randomized-controlled trials in determining comparative effectiveness. We introduce the concept of randomized cluster crossover trials as a means of answering questions of comparative effectiveness in anesthesia, using the design of the Benzodiazepine-Free Cardiac Anesthesia for Reduction in Postoperative Delirium (B-Free) trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT03053869).

9.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 18(1): 39, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653517

RESUMO

Although significant advances in clinical monitoring technology and clinical practice development have taken place in the last several decades, in this editorial we argue that much more still needs to be done. We begin by identifying many of the improvements in perioperative technology that have become available in recent years; these include electroencephalographic depth of anesthesia monitoring, bedside ultrasonography, advanced neuromuscular transmission monitoring systems, and other developments. We then discuss some of the perioperative technical challenges that remain to be satisfactorily addressed, such as products that incorporate poor software design or offer a confusing user interface. Finally we suggest that the journal support initiatives to help remedy this problem by publishing reports on the evaluation of medical equipment as a means to restore the link between clinical research and clinical end-users.

10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 66(6): 1151-1157, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the association between a restrictive transfusion strategy and cardiovascular complications during hospitalization for hip fracture with the association between a liberal transfusion strategy and cardiovascular complications, accounting for all transfusions from the emergency department to postacute rehabilitation settings. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Perioperative geriatric care unit. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 70 and older admitted to the emergency department for hip fracture and hospitalized in our perioperative geriatric care unit (N=667; n=193 in the liberal transfusion group, n=474 in the restrictive transfusion group) from July 2009 to April 2016. INTERVENTION: A restrictive transfusion strategy (hemoglobin level threshold ≥8 g/dL or symptoms) used from January 2012 to April 2016 was compared with the liberal transfusion strategy (hemoglobin level threshold ≥10 g/dL) used from July 2009 to December 2011. MEASUREMENTS: Primary endpoint was in-hospital acute cardiovascular complications (heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation or stroke). RESULTS: The change to a restrictive transfusion strategy was associated with fewer acute cardiovascular complications (odds ratio=0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.31-0.67, p<.001), without any noticeable difference in in-hospital or 6-month mortality. The change also led to a reduction in packed red blood cell units used per participant (median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 0-2 in restrictive vs median 2, IQR 0-3 in liberal transfusion strategy, P<.001). In rehabilitation settings, the frequency of transfusion was greater with the restrictive transfusion strategy than the liberal transfusion strategy (18% vs 9%, P<.001). CONCLUSION: A restrictive transfusion strategy in older adults with hip fracture was found to be safe and was associated with fewer cardiovascular complications but more transfusions in rehabilitation settings. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

11.
J Vasc Surg ; 67(6): 1872-1880.e1, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent after major vascular surgery and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether the administration of combined oral antihypertensive medications on the day of surgery can increase the risk of postoperative AKI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of hypertensive patients undergoing elective major vascular surgery to determine the association between the number of antihypertensive medications continued on the morning of surgery and AKI at 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 406 patients who had undergone suprainguinal vascular surgery were included, and 10.3% suffered postoperative AKI. In multivariable analysis, the number of antihypertensive medications taken on the morning of surgery was independently associated with AKI (P = .026). Compared with patients who took no medication, taking one medication (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-3.75) and taking two or more medications (aOR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.13-6.44) were associated with a 1.6-fold and 2.7-fold increased risk of postoperative AKI, respectively. Other predictors of AKI were suprarenal surgery (aOR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.53-7.44), age (aOR, 2.29 per 10 years; 95% CI, 1.40-3.74), length of surgery (aOR, 1.40 per 1 hour; 95% CI, 1.10-1.76), hemoglobin drop (aOR, 1.37 per 10 g/L; 95% CI, 1.10-1.74), and history of coronary artery disease (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.08-5.00). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing major vascular surgery who are treated with chronic antihypertensive therapy, the administration of antihypertensive drugs on the morning of surgery is independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative AKI. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Medição de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Can J Anaesth ; 65(3): 263-271, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are commonly administered during cardiac surgery because of their limited effect on hemodynamics and presumed role in preventing intraoperative awareness. Recent concerns about an increased risk of delirium with benzodiazepines have resulted in decreased usage in the intensive care unit and in geriatric perioperative practice. Little is known, however, about current benzodiazepine usage in the setting of adult cardiac surgery. METHODS: We contacted all academic anesthesia departments in Canada to identify practicing attending cardiac anesthesiologists; this group constituted our sampling frame. Information regarding participant demographics, benzodiazepine usage, type, dose, and other administration details were obtained by electronic survey. Responses were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 243/346 (70%) of cardiac anesthesiologists. Eleven percent of respondents do not administer benzodiazepines. Midazolam was the most commonly used benzodiazepine, with a mean (standard deviation) dose of 4.9 (3.8) mg given to an average patient. When respondents were asked the proportion of patients that they gave benzodiazepines, the response was bimodal. The most common considerations that influenced benzodiazepine use were patient age (73%), patient anxiety (63%), history of alcohol/drug/benzodiazepine use (60%), and the presence of risk factors for intraoperative awareness (44%). CONCLUSIONS: Benzodiazepine use is common among academic cardiac anesthesiologists in Canada. Nonetheless, heterogeneity exists between individual practices, suggesting clinical equipoise between restrictive and liberal administration of benzodiazepines for cardiac anesthesia. L'administration de benzodiazépines pendant la chirurgie cardiaque chez l'adulte: évaluation de la pratique actuelle des anesthésiologistes canadiens exerçant en milieu universitaire.

13.
Ann Intern Med ; 168(4): 237-244, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132159

RESUMO

Background: Uncertainty remains about the effects of aspirin in patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) having noncardiac surgery. Objective: To evaluate benefits and harms of perioperative aspirin in patients with prior PCI. Design: Nonprespecified subgroup analysis of a multicenter factorial trial. Computerized Internet randomization was done between 2010 and 2013. Patients, clinicians, data collectors, and outcome adjudicators were blinded to treatment assignment. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01082874). Setting: 135 centers in 23 countries. Patients: Adults aged 45 years or older who had or were at risk for atherosclerotic disease and were having noncardiac surgery. Exclusions were placement of a bare-metal stent within 6 weeks, placement of a drug-eluting stent within 1 year, or receipt of nonstudy aspirin within 72 hours before surgery. Intervention: Aspirin therapy (overall trial, n = 4998; subgroup, n = 234) or placebo (overall trial, n = 5012; subgroup, n = 236) initiated within 4 hours before surgery and continued throughout the perioperative period. Of the 470 subgroup patients, 99.9% completed follow-up. Measurements: The 30-day primary outcome was death or nonfatal myocardial infarction; bleeding was a secondary outcome. Results: In patients with prior PCI, aspirin reduced the risk for the primary outcome (absolute risk reduction, 5.5% [95% CI, 0.4% to 10.5%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.50 [CI, 0.26 to 0.95]; P for interaction = 0.036) and for myocardial infarction (absolute risk reduction, 5.9% [CI, 1.0% to 10.8%]; HR, 0.44 [CI, 0.22 to 0.87]; P for interaction = 0.021). The effect on the composite of major and life-threatening bleeding in patients with prior PCI was uncertain (absolute risk increase, 1.3% [CI, -2.6% to 5.2%]). In the overall population, aspirin increased the risk for major bleeding (absolute risk increase, 0.8% [CI, 0.1% to 1.6%]; HR, 1.22 [CI, 1.01 to 1.48]; P for interaction = 0.50). Limitation: Nonprespecified subgroup analysis with small sample. Conclusion: Perioperative aspirin may be more likely to benefit rather than harm patients with prior PCI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

14.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 26(12): 1513-1519, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As covariates are not always adequately balanced after propensity score matching and double- adjustment can be used to remove residual confounding, we compared the performance of several double-robust estimators in different scenarios. METHODS: We conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations on virtual observational studies. After estimating the propensity scores by logistic regression, we performed 1:1 optimal, nearest-neighbor, and caliper matching. We used 4 estimators on each matched sample: (1) a crude estimator without double-adjustment, (2) double-adjustment for the propensity scores, (3) double-adjustment for the unweighted unbalanced covariates, and (4) double-adjustment for the unbalanced covariates, weighted by their strength of association with the outcome. RESULTS: The crude estimator led to highest bias in all tested scenarios. Double-adjustment for the propensity scores effectively removed confounding only when the propensity score models were correctly specified. Double-adjustment for the unbalanced covariates was more robust to misspecification. Double-adjustment for the weighted unbalanced covariates outperformed the other approaches in every scenario and using any matching algorithm, as measured by the mean squared error. CONCLUSION: Double-adjustment can be used to remove residual confounding after propensity score matching. The unbalanced covariates with the strongest confounding effects should be adjusted.


Assuntos
Pontuação de Propensão , Viés , Simulação por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Período Perioperatório , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
16.
CMAJ Open ; 5(3): E594-E603, 2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943515

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Various definitions of bleeding have been used in perioperative studies without systematic assessment of the diagnostic criteria for their independent association with outcomes important to patients. Our proposed definition of bleeding impacting mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS) is bleeding that is independently associated with death during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. We describe our analysis plan to sequentially 1) establish the diagnostic criteria for BIMS, 2) estimate the independent contribution of BIMS to 30-day mortality and 3) develop and internally validate a clinical prediction guide to estimate patient-specific risk of BIMS. METHODS: In the Vascular Events In Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study, we prospectively collected bleeding data for 16 079 patients aged 45 years or more who had noncardiac inpatient surgery between 2007 and 2011 at 12 centres in 8 countries across 5 continents. We will include bleeding features independently associated with 30-day mortality in the diagnostic criteria for BIMS. Candidate features will include the need for reoperation due to bleeding, the number of units of erythrocytes transfused, the lowest postoperative hemoglobin concentration, and the absolute and relative decrements in hemoglobin concentration from the preoperative value. We will then estimate the incidence of BIMS and its independent association with 30-day mortality. Last, we will construct and internally validate a clinical prediction guide for BIMS. INTERPRETATION: This study will address an important gap in our knowledge about perioperative bleeding, with implications for the 200 million patients who undergo noncardiac surgery globally every year. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no NCT00512109.

17.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 87: 87-97, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Propensity score (PS) analysis allows an unbiased estimate of treatment effects but assumes that all confounders are measured. We assessed the impact of omitting confounders from a PS analysis on clinical decision making. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted Monte Carlo simulations on hypothetical observational studies based on virtual populations and on the population from a large randomized trial (CRASH-2). In both series of simulations, PS analysis was conducted with all confounders and with omitted confounders, which were defined to have different strengths of association with the outcome and treatment exposure. After inverse probability of treatment weighting, we calculated the absolute risk differences and numbers needed to treat (NNT). RESULTS: In both series of simulations, omitting a confounder that was moderately associated with the outcome and exposure led to negligible bias on the NNT scale. The bias induced by omitting strongly positive confounding variables remained less than 15 patients to treat. Major bias and reversed effects were found only when omitting highly prevalent, strongly negative confounders that were similarly associated with the outcome and exposure with odds ratios greater than 4.00 (or <0.25). This omission was accompanied by a substantial decrease in analysis power. CONCLUSION: The omission of strongly negative confounding variables from a PS analysis can lead to incorrect clinical decision making. However, omitting these variables also decreases the analysis power, which may prevent the reporting of significant but misleading effects.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Método de Monte Carlo , Pontuação de Propensão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Viés , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Risco
18.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 34(7): 471-476, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28437261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Handovers during anaesthesia are common, and failures in communication may lead to morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that intraoperative handover training and display of a checklist would improve communication during anaesthesia care transition in the operating room. DESIGN: Interventional cohort study. SETTING: Single-centre tertiary care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 204 random observations of handovers between anaesthesia providers (residents and nurse anaesthetists) over a 6-month period in 2016. INTERVENTION: Two geographically different hospital sites were studied simultaneously (same observations, but no training/checklist at the control site): first a 2-week 'baseline' observation period; then handover training and display of checklists in each operating room (at the intervention site only) followed by an 'immediate' second and finally a third (3 months later) observation period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A 22-item checklist was created by a modified DELPHI method and a checklist score calculated for each handover by adding the individual scores for each item as follows: -1, if error in communicating item; 0, unreported item; 0.5, if partly communicated item; 1, if correctly communicated item. RESULTS: Before training and display of the checklist, the scores in the interventional and the control groups were similar. There was no improvement in the control group's scores over the three observation periods. In the interventional group, the mean (95% confidence interval) score increased by 43% [baseline 7.6 (6.7 to 8.4) n = 42; 'immediate' 10.9 (9.4 to 12.4) n = 27, P < 0.001]. This improvement persisted at 3 months without an increase in the mean duration of handovers. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative handover training and display of a checklist in the operating room improved the checklist score for intraoperative transfer of care in anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/normas , Lista de Checagem/normas , Internato e Residência/normas , Enfermeiras Anestesistas/normas , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/normas , Transferência de Pacientes/normas , Anestesia/normas , Anestesiologia/educação , Estudos de Coortes , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermeiras Anestesistas/educação , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Método Simples-Cego
19.
JAMA ; 317(16): 1642-1651, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444280

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about the relationship between perioperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measurements and 30-day mortality and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). Objective: To determine the association between perioperative hsTnT measurements and 30-day mortality and potential diagnostic criteria for MINS (ie, myocardial injury due to ischemia associated with 30-day mortality). Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years or older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a postoperative hsTnT measurement. Starting in October 2008, participants were recruited at 23 centers in 13 countries; follow-up finished in December 2013. Exposures: Patients had hsTnT measurements 6 to 12 hours after surgery and daily for 3 days; 40.4% had a preoperative hsTnT measurement. Main Outcomes and Measures: A modified Mazumdar approach (an iterative process) was used to determine if there were hsTnT thresholds associated with risk of death and had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.0 or higher and a risk of 30-day mortality of 3% or higher. To determine potential diagnostic criteria for MINS, regression analyses ascertained if postoperative hsTnT elevations required an ischemic feature (eg, ischemic symptom or electrocardiography finding) to be associated with 30-day mortality. Results: Among 21 842 participants, the mean age was 63.1 (SD, 10.7) years and 49.1% were female. Death within 30 days after surgery occurred in 266 patients (1.2%; 95% CI, 1.1%-1.4%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that compared with the reference group (peak hsTnT <5 ng/L), peak postoperative hsTnT levels of 20 to less than 65 ng/L, 65 to less than 1000 ng/L, and 1000 ng/L or higher had 30-day mortality rates of 3.0% (123/4049; 95% CI, 2.6%-3.6%), 9.1% (102/1118; 95% CI, 7.6%-11.0%), and 29.6% (16/54; 95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%), with corresponding adjusted HRs of 23.63 (95% CI, 10.32-54.09), 70.34 (95% CI, 30.60-161.71), and 227.01 (95% CI, 87.35-589.92), respectively. An absolute hsTnT change of 5 ng/L or higher was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.52-6.25). An elevated postoperative hsTnT (ie, 20 to <65 ng/L with an absolute change ≥5 ng/L or hsTnT ≥65 ng/L) without an ischemic feature was associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.37-4.32). Among the 3904 patients (17.9%; 95% CI, 17.4%-18.4%) with MINS, 3633 (93.1%; 95% CI, 92.2%-93.8%) did not experience an ischemic symptom. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, peak postoperative hsTnT during the first 3 days after surgery was significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Elevated postoperative hsTnT without an ischemic feature was also associated with 30-day mortality.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
20.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 17(1): 78, 2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28454568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Double-adjustment can be used to remove confounding if imbalance exists after propensity score (PS) matching. However, it is not always possible to include all covariates in adjustment. We aimed to find the optimal imbalance threshold for entering covariates into regression. METHODS: We conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations on virtual populations of 5,000 subjects. We performed PS 1:1 nearest-neighbor matching on each sample. We calculated standardized mean differences across groups to detect any remaining imbalance in the matched samples. We examined 25 thresholds (from 0.01 to 0.25, stepwise 0.01) for considering residual imbalance. The treatment effect was estimated using logistic regression that contained only those covariates considered to be unbalanced by these thresholds. RESULTS: We showed that regression adjustment could dramatically remove residual confounding bias when it included all of the covariates with a standardized difference greater than 0.10. The additional benefit was negligible when we also adjusted for covariates with less imbalance. We found that the mean squared error of the estimates was minimized under the same conditions. CONCLUSION: If covariate balance is not achieved, we recommend reiterating PS modeling until standardized differences below 0.10 are achieved on most covariates. In case of remaining imbalance, a double adjustment might be worth considering.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pontuação de Propensão , Viés , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Método de Monte Carlo
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