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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(11): 2178-2193, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803230

RESUMO

Reactions of the methylidyne (CH) radical with ammonia (NH3), methylamine (CH3NH2), dimethylamine ((CH3)2NH), and trimethylamine ((CH3)3N) have been investigated under multiple collision conditions at 373 K and 4 Torr. The reaction products are detected by using soft photoionization coupled to orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron. Kinetic traces are employed to discriminate between CH reaction products and products from secondary or slower reactions. Branching ratios for isomers produced at a given mass and formed by a single reaction are obtained by fitting the observed photoionization spectra to linear combinations of pure compound spectra. The reaction of the CH radical with ammonia is found to form mainly imine, HN═CH2, in line with an addition-elimination mechanism. The singly methyl-substituted imine is detected for the CH reactions with methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine. Dimethylimine isomers are formed by the reaction of CH with dimethylamine, while trimethylimine is formed by the CH reaction with trimethylamine. Overall, the temporal profiles of the products are not consistent with the formation of aminocarbene products in the reaction flow tube. In the case of the reactions with methylamine and dimethylamine, product formation is assigned to an addition-elimination mechanism similar to that proposed for the CH reaction with ammonia. However, this mechanism cannot explain the products detected by the reaction with trimethylamine. A C-H insertion pathway may become more probable as the number of methyl groups increases.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(37): 23833-46, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304769

RESUMO

Product detection studies of C((3)P) atom reactions with ethylene, C2H4(X(1)Ag) and propylene, C3H6(X(1)A') are carried out in a flow tube reactor at 332 K and 4 Torr (553.3 Pa) under multiple collision conditions. Ground state carbon atoms are generated by 193 nm laser photolysis of carbon suboxide, C3O2 in a buffer of helium. Thermalized reaction products are detected using tunable VUV photoionization and time of flight mass spectrometry. For C((3)P) + ethylene, propargyl (C3H3) is detected as the only molecular product in agreement with previous studies on this reaction. The temporal profiles of the detected ions are used to discriminate C((3)P) reaction products from side reaction products. For C((3)P) + propylene, two reaction channels are identified through the detection of methyl (CH3) and propargyl (C3H3) radicals for the first channel and C4H5 for the second one. Franck-Condon Factor simulations are employed to infer the C4H5-isomer distribution. The measured 1 : 4 ratio for the i-C4H5 isomer relative to the methylpropargyl isomers is similar to the C4H5 isomer distribution observed in low-pressure flames and differs from crossed molecular beams data. The accuracy of these isomer distributions is discussed in view of large uncertainties on the photoionization spectra of the pure C4H5 isomers.

3.
Nat Chem ; 6(2): 141-5, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24451590

RESUMO

The prototypical F + H2 â†’ HF + H reaction possesses a substantial energetic barrier (~800 K) and might therefore be expected to slow to a negligible rate at low temperatures. It is, however, the only source of interstellar HF, which has been detected in a wide range of cold (10-100 K) environments. In fact, the reaction does take place efficiently at low temperatures due to quantum-mechanical tunnelling. Rate constant measurements at such temperatures have essentially been limited to fast barrierless reactions, such as those between two radicals. Using uniform supersonic hydrogen flows we can now report direct experimental measurements of the rate of this reaction down to a temperature of 11 K, in remarkable agreement with state-of-the-art quantum reactive scattering calculations. The results will allow a stronger link to be made between observations of interstellar HF and the abundance of the most common interstellar molecule, H2, and hence a more accurate estimation of the total mass of astronomical objects.


Assuntos
Flúor/química , Hidrogênio/química , Temperatura Baixa , Gases/química , Teoria Quântica
4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(18): 8485-501, 2011 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21399840

RESUMO

The reaction between sulfur atoms in the first electronically excited state, S((1)D), and methane (CH(4)), has been investigated in a complementary fashion in (a) crossed-beam dynamics experiments with mass spectrometric detection and time-of-flight (TOF) analysis at two collision energies (30.4 and 33.6 kJ mol(-1)), (b) low temperature kinetics experiments ranging from 298 K down to 23 K, and (c) electronic structure calculations of stationary points and product energetics on the CH(4)S singlet potential energy surface. The rate coefficients for total loss of S((1)D) are found to be very large (ca. 2 × 10(-10) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1)) down to very low temperatures indicating that the overall reaction is barrier-less. Similar measurements are also performed for S((1)D) + C(2)H(2), and also for this system the rate coefficients are found to be very large (ca. 3 × 10(-10) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1)) down to very low temperatures. From laboratory angular and TOF distributions at different product masses for the reaction S((1)D) + CH(4), it is found that the only open reaction channel at the investigated collision energies is that leading to SH + CH(3). The product angular, T(θ), and translational energy, P(E'(T)), distributions in the center-of-mass frame are derived. The reaction dynamics are discussed in terms of two different micromechanisms: a dominant long-lived complex mechanism at small and intermediate impact parameters with a strongly polarized T(θ), and a direct pickup-type (stripping) mechanism occurring at large impact parameters with a strongly forward peaked T(θ). Interpretation of the experimental results on the S((1)D) + CH(4) reaction kinetics and dynamics is assisted by high-level theoretical calculations on the CH(4)S singlet potential energy surface. The dynamics of the SH + CH(3) forming channel are compared with those of the corresponding channel (leading to OH + CH(3)) in the related O((1)D) + CH(4) reaction, previously investigated in crossed-beams in other laboratories at comparable collision energies. The possible astrophysical relevance of S((1)D) reactions with hydrocarbons, especially in the chemistry of cometary comae, is discussed.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(39): 12702-10, 2010 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20737063

RESUMO

We report the first measurements of rate constants for the reaction in which OH radicals associate with O(2) to form HO(3). Our recent measurements (Science, 2010, 328, 1258) have shown that the HO-O(2) bond dissociation energy is only (12.3 ± 0.3) kJ mol(-1). Consequently, above ca. 90 K under attainable experimental conditions, the rate of the reverse dissociation of HO(3) becomes comparable to, and then greater than, the rate of the forward association reaction. We have used the CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme) method to access low temperatures and have explored the kinetics of OH + O(2) + M → HO(3) + M in two series of experiments. At temperatures between 55.9 and 79.2 K, the OH radicals, created by pulsed laser photolysis of H(2)O(2) and observed by laser-induced fluorescence, decayed by pseudo-first-order kinetics to effectively zero concentration at longer times. The third-order rate constants derived from these experiments fit the expression: k(3rd)(o) (T) = (4.2 ± 1.9) × 10(-34) (T/298 K)(-(3.5 ± 0.3)) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1). At temperatures between 87.4 and 99.8 K, rate constants for the association reaction were determined allowing for the significant occurrence of the reverse dissociation reaction. The values of the derived rate constants are consistent with those obtained in the lower temperature range, though the errors are larger. The experimental values of k(3rd)(o) (T) are compared with (a) those for other association reactions involving species of similar complexity, and (b) values of k(3rd)(o) (T) estimated according to both the energy transfer (ET) and the radical-complex (RC) mechanisms. We conclude that the RC mechanism probably makes the major contribution to the association of OH + O(2) at the low temperatures of our experiments.

6.
Science ; 328(5983): 1258-62, 2010 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20522771

RESUMO

The role of HO3 as a temporary reservoir of atmospheric OH radicals remains an open question largely because of the considerable uncertainty in the value of the dissociation energy of the HO-O2 bond (D0) or, equivalently, the standard enthalpy of formation of HO3 (Delta(f)H;{\overline{);\circ }}$$). Using a supersonic flow apparatus, we have observed by means of laser-induced fluorescence the decay of OH radicals in the presence of O2 at temperatures between 55.7 and 110.8 kelvin (K). Between 87.4 and 99.8 K, the OH concentration approached a nonzero value at long times, allowing equilibrium constants for the reaction with O2 to be calculated. Using expressions for the equilibrium constant from classical and statistical thermodynamics, and values of partition functions and standard entropies calculated from spectroscopic data, we derived values of D0 = (12.3 +/- 0.3) kilojoules per mole and Delta(f)H;{\overline{);\circ }}$$ (298 K) = (19.3 +/- 0.5) kilojoules per mole. The atmospheric implications of HO3 formation are therefore very slight.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(31): 8737-49, 2010 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20372694

RESUMO

The chemical reaction dynamics to form o-, m-, and p-cyanophenylacetylene via the neutral-neutral reaction of ground state cyano radicals with phenylacetylene and D(1)-phenylacetylene were investigated in crossed beam experiments; these studies were combined with kinetics measurements of the rate coefficients at temperatures of 123, 200, and 298 K and supplemented by electronic structure calculations. The data suggest that the reaction is initiated by a barrier-less addition of the electrophilic cyano radical to the o-, m-, or p-position of the aromatic ring. The eventually fragmented via atomic hydrogen elimination to form o-, m-, and p-cyanophenylacetylene via tight exit transition states with the hydrogen atom being ejected almost perpendicularly to the molecular plane of the rotating complex. The overall reaction to form o-, m-, and p-cyanophenylacetylene was found to be exoergic by 89 +/- 18 kJ mol(-1) in nice agreement with the calculations. The o-cyanophenylacetylene isomer is of particular relevance as a potential building block to the formation of nitrogen-substituted didehydronaphthalene molecules in analogy to didehydronaphthalene in Titan's aerosol layers--a pathway hitherto neglected by the planetary science modeling community.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(15): 3666-76, 2010 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20358063

RESUMO

The kinetics of the reactions of the linear butadiynyl radical, C4H (CCCCH), with methane, ethane, propane and butane have been studied over the temperature range of 39-300 K using a CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme or Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) apparatus combined with the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. The rate coefficients, except for the reaction with methane, show a negative temperature dependence and can be fitted with the following expressions over the temperature range of this study: k(C2H6) = 0.289 x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.23) exp(-24.8 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C3H8) = 1.06 x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.36) exp(-56.9 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C4H10) = 2.93 x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.30) exp(-90.1 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The rate coefficients for the reaction with methane were measured only at 200 K and 300 K yielding a positive temperature dependence: k(CH4) = 1.63 x 10(-11) exp(-610 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). Possible reaction mechanisms and product channels are discussed in detail for each of these reactions. Potential implications of these results for models of low temperature chemical environments, in particular cold interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres such as that of Titan, are considered.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(15): 3677-89, 2010 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20358064

RESUMO

The kinetics of the reactions of the linear butadiynyl radical, C4H (CCCCH), with a variety of unsaturated hydrocarbons have been studied over the temperature range of 39-300 K using a CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, or reaction kinetics in uniform supersonic flow) apparatus combined with the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. The rate coefficients for all the reactions studied are found to all be in excess of 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) over the entire temperature range. They can be fitted with the following expressions (valid from 39 K to 300 K, with RMS deviations of the experimental points from the predicted values shown, to which should be added 10% possible systematic error) for reaction of C4H with alkenes: k(C2H4) = (1.95 +/- 0.17) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.40) exp(9.4 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C3H6) = (3.25 +/- 0.12) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.84) exp(-48.9 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(1-C4H8) = (6.30 +/- 0.35) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.61) exp(-65.0 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), for reaction of C4H with dienes: k(C3H4) = (3.70 +/- 0.34) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.18) exp(-91.1 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(1,3-C4H6) = (5.37 +/- 0.30) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.25) exp(-116.8 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), and for reaction of C4H with alkynes: k(C2H2) = (1.82 +/- 0.19) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.06) exp(-65.9 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C3H4) = (3.20 +/- 0.08) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.82) exp(-47.5 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(1-C4H6) = (3.48 +/- 0.14) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.65) exp(-58.4 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). Possible reaction mechanisms and product channels are discussed in detail for each of these reactions. Potential implications of these results for models of low temperature chemical environments, in particular cold interstellar clouds and star-forming regions, are considered.

10.
Faraday Discuss ; 147: 155-71; discussion 251-82, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21302546

RESUMO

The kinetics of the reactions of cyano radical, CN (X2sigma+) with three hydrocarbons, propane (CH3CH2CH3), propene (CH3CH=CH2) and 1-butyne (CH[triple band]CCH2CH3) have been studied over the temperature range of 23-298 K using a CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme or Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) apparatus combined with the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. These reactions are of interest for the cold atmospheres of Titan, Pluto and Triton, as they might participate in the formation of nitrogen and carbon bearing molecules, including nitriles, that are thought to play an important role in the formation of hazes and biological molecules. All three reactions are rapid with rate coefficients in excess of 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at the lowest temperatures of this study and show behaviour characteristic of barrierless reactions. Temperature dependences, different for each reaction, are compared to those used in the most recent photochemical models of Titan's atmosphere.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(20): 203201, 2010 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21231230

RESUMO

We report combined studies on the prototypical S(1D2) + H2 insertion reaction. Kinetics and crossed-beam experiments are performed in experimental conditions approaching the cold energy regime, yielding absolute rate coefficients down to 5.8 K and relative integral cross sections to collision energies as low as 0.68 meV. They are supported by quantum calculations on a potential energy surface treating long-range interactions accurately. All results are consistent and the excitation function behavior is explained in terms of the cumulative contribution of various partial waves.

12.
J Phys Chem A ; 113(52): 15328-45, 2009 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19761231

RESUMO

The reaction between sulfur atoms in the first electronically excited state, S((1)D), and ethene (C(2)H(4)) has been investigated in a complementary fashion in (a) crossed-beam dynamic experiments with mass spectrometric detection and time-of-flight (TOF) analysis at two collision energies (37.0 and 45.0 kJ mol(-1)), (b) low temperature kinetics experiments ranging from 298 K down to 23 K, and (c) electronic structure calculations of stationary points and product energetics on the C(2)H(4)S singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces. The rate coefficients for total loss of S((1)D) are found to be very large (ca. 4 x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) down to very low temperatures indicating that the overall reaction is barrierless. From laboratory angular and TOF distributions at different product masses, three competing reaction channels leading to H + CH(2)CHS (thiovinoxy), H(2) + CH(2)CS (thioketene), and CH(3) + HCS (thioformyl) have been unambiguously identified and their dynamics characterized. Product branching ratios have also been estimated. Interpretation of the experimental results on the reaction kinetics and dynamics is assisted by high-level theoretical calculations on the C(2)H(4)S singlet potential energy surface. RRKM (Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus) estimates of the product branching ratios using the newly developed singlet potential energy surface have also been performed and compared with the experimental determinations.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 11(23): 4701-6, 2009 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19492122

RESUMO

The reaction between excited sulfur atoms, S((1)D), and the simplest alkene molecule, ethene, has been investigated in a complementary fashion in (a) crossed-beam dynamic experiments with mass spectrometric detection and time-of-flight (TOF) analysis at a collision energy of 37.0 kJ mol(-1), (b) low temperature kinetic experiments ranging from room temperature down to 23 K, and (c) electronic structure calculations of stationary points and product energetics on the C(2)H(4)S singlet potential energy surface. The rate coefficients for total loss of S((1)D) are found to be very large (ca. 4 x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) down to very low temperature indicating that the overall reaction is barrier-less. From laboratory angular and TOF distributions at different product masses, three competing reaction channels leading to H + CH(2)CHS (thiovinoxy), H(2) + CH(2)CS (thioketene), and CH(3) + HCS (thioformyl) have been unambiguously identified and their dynamics characterized. Branching ratios have also been estimated. These studies, which exploit the capability of producing intense supersonic beams of sulfur S((3)P,(1)D) atoms and measuring rate coefficients down to very low temperature, offer considerable promise for further dynamical investigations of other sulfur atom reactions of particular relevance to combustion and atmospheric chemistry.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 112(39): 9591-600, 2008 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18646738

RESUMO

The kinetics of reactions of C2(a(3)Pi(u)) and C2(X(1)Sigma(g)(+)) with various hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and C3H8) have been studied in a uniform supersonic flow expansion over the temperature range 24-300 K. Rate coefficients have been obtained by using the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique, where both radicals were produced at the same time but detected separately. The reactivity of the triplet state was found to be significantly lower than that of the singlet ground state for all reactants over the whole temperature range of the study. Whereas C2(X(1)Sigma(g)(+)) reacts with a rate coefficient close to the gas kinetic limit with all hydrocarbons studied apart from CH4, C2(a(3)Pi(u)) appears to be more sensitive to the molecular and electronic structure of the reactant partners. The latter reacts at least one order of magnitude faster with unsaturated hydrocarbons than with alkanes, and the rate coefficients increase very significantly with the size of the alkane. Results are briefly discussed in terms of their potential astrophysical impact.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 110(9): 3121-7, 2006 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16509634

RESUMO

A low-temperature gas-phase kinetics study of the reactions and collisional relaxation processes involving C2(X1Sigma(g)+) and C2(a3Pi(u)) in collision with O2 and NO partners at temperatures from 300 to 24 K is reported. The experiments employed a CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme) apparatus to attain low temperatures. The C2 species were created using pulsed laser photolysis at 193 nm of mixtures containing C2Cl4 diluted in N2, Ar, or He carrier gas. C2(X1Sigma(g)+) molecules were detected via pulsed laser-induced fluorescence in the (D1Sigma(u)+ <-- X1Sigma(g)+) system, and C2(a3Pi(u)) molecules were detected via pulsed laser-induced fluorescence in the (d 3Pi(g) <-- a 3Pi(u)) system. Relaxation of 3C2 by intersystem crossing induced by oxygen was measured at temperatures below 200 K, and it was found that this process remains very efficient in the temperature range 50-200 K. Reactivity of C2(X1Sigma(g)+) with oxygen became very inefficient below room temperature. Using these two observations, it was found to be possible to obtain the C2(X1Sigma(g)+) state alone at low temperatures by addition of a suitable concentration of O2 and then study its reactivity with NO without any interference coming from the possible relaxation of C2(a3Pi(u)) to C2(X1Sigma(g)+) induced by this reagent. The rate coefficient for reaction of C2(X1Sigma(g)+) with NO was found to be essentially constant over the temperature range 36-300 K with an average value of (1.6 +/- 0.1) x 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). Reactivity of C2(a3Pi(u)) with NO was found to possess a slight negative temperature dependence over the temperature range 50-300 K, which is in very good agreement with data obtained at higher temperatures.

16.
J Phys Chem A ; 110(9): 3132-7, 2006 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16509636

RESUMO

The rate coefficient of the reaction of the methylidine radical CH with anthracene has been studied over a wide temperature range (58-470 K) in a dedicated "Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme" (Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) apparatus. The reaction exhibits a slight positive temperature dependence, which can be fitted to the expression k(T) = (3.32 +/- 1.00) x 10(-10)(T/298)((0.46+/-0.14)) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). Even at the lowest temperature, the reaction remains very fast indicating that the kinetics are probably driven by a capture process.

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