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Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7248, 2021 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903755


The coexistence of closely-related species in sympatry is puzzling because ecological niche proximity imposes strong competition and reproductive interference. A striking example is the widespread wing pattern convergence of several blue-banded Morpho butterfly species with overlapping ranges of distribution. Here we perform a series of field experiments using flying Morpho dummies placed in a natural habitat. We show that similarity in wing colour pattern indeed leads to interspecific territoriality and courtship among sympatric species. In spite of such behavioural interference, demographic inference from genomic data shows that sympatric closely-related Morpho species are genetically isolated. Mark-recapture experiments in the two most closely-related species unravel a strong temporal segregation in patrolling activity of males. Such divergence in phenology reduces the costs of reproductive interference while simultaneously preserving the benefits of convergence in non-reproductive traits in response to common ecological pressures. Henceforth, the evolution of multiple traits may favour species diversification in sympatry by partitioning niche in different dimensions.

Borboletas/genética , Especiação Genética , Simpatria , Animais , Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas/classificação , Corte , Ecossistema , Masculino , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Territorialidade , Asas de Animais
Science ; 374(6571): 1158-1162, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822295


The diversity of flying animals suggests that countless combinations of flight morphologies and behaviors have evolved with specific lifestyles, thereby exploiting diverse aerodynamic mechanisms. How morphology, flight behavior, and aerodynamic properties together diversify with contrasting ecology remains to be elucidated. We studied the adaptive codivergence in wing shape, flight behavior, and aerodynamic efficiency among Morpho butterflies living in different forest strata by combining high-speed videography in the field with morphometric analyses and aerodynamic modeling. By comparing canopy and understory species, we show that adaptation to an open canopy environment resulted in increased glide efficiency. Moreover, this enhanced glide efficiency was achieved by different canopy species through distinct combinations of flight behavior, wing shape, and aerodynamic mechanisms, highlighting the multiple pathways of adaptive evolution.

Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Borboletas/fisiologia , Voo Animal , Florestas , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Seleção Genética
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 16)2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371404


Flying insects frequently experience wing damage during their life. Such irreversible alterations of wing shape affect flight performance and ultimately fitness. Insects have been shown to compensate for wing damage through various behavioural adjustments, but the importance of damage location over the wings has scarcely been studied. Using natural variation in wing damage, we tested how the loss of different wing parts affects flight performance. We quantified flight performance in two species of large butterflies, Morpho helenor and Morpho achilles, caught in the wild and displaying large variation in the extent and location of wing damage. We artificially generated more severe wing damage in our sample to contrast natural versus higher magnitude wing loss. Wing shape alteration across our sample was quantified using geometric morphometrics to test the effect of different damage distributions on flight performance. Our results show that impaired flight performance clearly depends on damage location over the wings, pointing to a relative importance of different wing parts for flight. A deteriorated forewing leading edge most critically affected flight performance, specifically decreasing flight speed and the proportion of gliding flight. In contrast, the most frequent natural damage, deteriorated wing margin, had no detectable effect on flight behaviour. Damage located on the hindwings - although having a limited effect on flight - was associated with reduced flight height, suggesting that the forewings and hindwings play different roles in butterfly flight. By contrasting harmless and deleterious consequences of various types of wing damage, our study highlights different selective regimes acting on morphological variations of butterfly wings.

Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Voo Animal , Masculino
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 94(4): 1261-1281, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793489


Butterflies display extreme variation in wing shape associated with tremendous ecological diversity. Disentangling the role of neutral versus adaptive processes in wing shape diversification remains a challenge for evolutionary biologists. Ascertaining how natural selection influences wing shape evolution requires both functional studies linking morphology to flight performance, and ecological investigations linking performance in the wild with fitness. However, direct links between morphological variation and fitness have rarely been established. The functional morphology of butterfly flight has been investigated but selective forces acting on flight behaviour and associated wing shape have received less attention. Here, we attempt to estimate the ecological relevance of morpho-functional links established through biomechanical studies in order to understand the evolution of butterfly wing morphology. We survey the evidence for natural and sexual selection driving wing shape evolution in butterflies, and discuss how our functional knowledge may allow identification of the selective forces involved, at both the macro- and micro-evolutionary scales. Our review shows that although correlations between wing shape variation and ecological factors have been established at the macro-evolutionary level, the underlying selective pressures often remain unclear. We identify the need to investigate flight behaviour in relevant ecological contexts to detect variation in fitness-related traits. Identifying the selective regime then should guide experimental studies towards the relevant estimates of flight performance. Habitat, predators and sex-specific behaviours are likely to be major selective forces acting on wing shape evolution in butterflies. Some striking cases of morphological divergence driven by contrasting ecology involve both wing and body morphology, indicating that their interactions should be included in future studies investigating co-evolution between morphology and flight behaviour.

Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Borboletas/genética , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica