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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(5): 1374-1383, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507088

RESUMO

The interfacial electrochemistry of reversible redox molecules is central to state-of-the-art flow batteries, outer-sphere redox species-based fuel cells, and electrochemical biosensors. At electrochemical interfaces, because mass transport and interfacial electron transport are consecutive processes, the reaction velocity in reversible species is predominantly mass-transport-controlled because of their fast electron-transfer events. Spatial structuring of the solution near the electrode surface forces diffusion to dominate the transport phenomena even under convective fluid-flow, which in turn poses unique challenges to utilizing the maximum potential of reversible species by either electrode or fluid characteristics. We show Coulombic force gated molecular flux at the interface to target the transport velocity of reversible species; that in turn triggers a directional electrostatic current over the diffusion current within the reaction zone. In an iron-based redox flow battery, this gated molecular transport almost doubles the volumetric energy density without compromising the power capability.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(37): 15913-15917, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390281

RESUMO

Water-in-salt electrolytes based on highly concentrated bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonimide (TFSI) promise aqueous electrolytes with stabilities nearing 3 V. However, especially with an electrode approaching the cathodic (reductive) stability, cycling stability is insufficient. While stability critically relies on a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), the mechanism behind the cathodic stability limit remains unclear. Now, two distinct reduction potentials are revealed for the chemical environments of free and bound water and that both contribute to SEI formation. Free water is reduced about 1 V above bound water in a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and is responsible for SEI formation via reactive intermediates of the HER; concurrent LiTFSI precipitation/dissolution establishes a dynamic interface. The free-water population emerges, therefore, as the handle to extend the cathodic limit of aqueous electrolytes and the battery cycling stability.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 43(48): 18025-34, 2014 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25352309

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to investigate the synthesis of tin nanoparticles (NPs) or tin/carbon composites, in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), that could be used as structured anode materials for Li-ion batteries. An innovative route for the synthesis of Sn nanoparticles in such media is successfully developed. Compositions, structures, sizes and morphologies of NPs were characterized by high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Our findings indicated that (i) metallic tetragonal ß-Sn was obtained and (ii) the particle size could be tailored by tuning the nature of the RTILs, leading to nano-sized spherical particles with a diameter ranging from 3 to 10 nm depending on synthesis conditions. In order to investigate carbon composite materials for Li-ion batteries, Sn nanoparticles were successfully deposited on the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Moreover, electrochemical properties have been studied in relation to a structural study of the nanocomposites. The poor electrochemical performances as a negative electrode in Li-ion batteries is due to a significant amount of RTIL trapped within the pores of the nanotubes as revealed by XPS investigations. This dramatically affected the gravimetric capacity of the composites and limited the diffusion of lithium. The findings of this work however offer valuable insights into the exciting possibilities for synthesis of novel nano-sized particles and/or alloys (e.g. Sn-Cu, Sn-Co, Sn-Ni, etc.) and the importance of carbon morphology in metal pulverization during the alloying/dealloying process as well as prevention of ionic liquid trapping.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(23): 4162-6, 2014 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26278948

RESUMO

The present work investigates the electronic conduction of reduced graphene oxide flakes and the coupling between flakes through a combined SECM (scanning electrochemical microscopy), AFM, and SEM analysis. Images of individual and interconnected flakes directly reveal the signature of the contact resistance between flakes in a noncontact and substrate-independent way. Quantitative evaluation of the parameters is achieved with the support of numerical simulations to interpret the experimental results. The interflakes contact resistance importantly impacts the transport of electrons, which can be anticipated as a key parameter in r-GO-based materials used in fuel cells, lithium batteries, supercapacitors, and organic electronic devices.

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