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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214199

RESUMO

The lysosome has a key role in the presentation of lipid antigens by CD1 molecules. While defects in lipid antigen presentation and in invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cell response were detected in several mouse models of lysosomal storage diseases (LSD), the impact of lysosomal engorgement in human lipid antigen presentation is poorly characterized. Here, we analyzed the capacity of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) from Fabry, Gaucher, Niemann Pick type C and Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI disease patients to present exogenous antigens to lipid-specific T cells. The CD1b- and CD1d-restricted presentation of lipid antigens by Mo-DCs revealed an ability of LSD patients to induce CD1-restricted T cell responses within the control range. Similarly, freshly isolated monocytes from Fabry and Gaucher disease patients had a normal ability to present α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) antigen by CD1d. Gaucher disease patients' monocytes had an increased capacity to present α-Gal-(1-2)-αGalCer, an antigen that needs internalization and processing to become antigenic. In summary, our results show that Fabry, Gaucher, Niemann Pick type C, and Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI disease patients do not present a decreased capacity to present CD1d-restricted lipid antigens. These observations are in contrast to what was observed in mouse models of LSD. The percentage of total iNKT cells in the peripheral blood of these patients is also similar to control individuals. In addition, we show that the presentation of exogenous lipids that directly bind CD1b, the human CD1 isoform with an intracellular trafficking to the lysosome, is normal in these patients.

2.
Mitochondrion ; 47: 309-317, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831263

RESUMO

Mitochondrial diseases (MD) are a group of rare inherited disorders, characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity, with hitherto no effective therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to develop a next generation sequencing (NGS) strategy, by using a custom gene panel and whole mitochondrial genome, to identify the disease causing pathogenic variants in 146 patients suspicious of MD. The molecular analysis of this cohort revealed six novel and 15 described pathogenic variants, as well as 26 variants of unknown significance. Our findings are expanding the mutational landscape of these disorders and support the use of a NGS strategy for a higher diagnostic yield.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 128-139, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations. METHODS: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres. RESULTS: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.

5.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 2(5)Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-776671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis present several alterations of the stomatognathic complex, however, no data is available on saliva biochemistry and yeast colonization. The aim of the study was to evaluate caries experience as well as saliva biochemistry and microbiology parameters in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis. METHOD: The sample consisted of twelve participants with mucopolysaccharidosis followed in the Metabolic Disease Unit of the Centro Hospitalar de S. João and twelve healthy participants followed at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto. To all participants, Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index was evaluated. In addition, saliva was collected to evaluate biochemical parameters (flow rate, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphate, α-amylase and IgA) and the microbiological profile (total microorganisms, mutans streptococci and yeasts) of all participants. RESULTS: In comparison to controls, the mucoplysacharidosis patients presented a higher prevalence of decayed teeth, lower salivary flow and pH values. They also presented also lower calcium and higher phosphate ions in saliva. No differences were found between groups regarding oral microbial load for total microorganisms, mutans streptococci and yeasts as well as oral prevalence of mutans streptococci. However, MPS patients presented higher prevalence of oral Candida in comparison to controls. CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of decayed teeth and higher oral yeast colonization in MPS patients may be related to the lower saliva calcium concentration, pH and flow.


OBJETIVO: Pacientes portadores de mucopolissacaridose apresentam várias alterações do complexo estomatognático; no entanto, não existem dados disponíveis sobre a bioquímica da saliva e ou sobre a colonização por fungos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de cárie dentária bem como parâmetros bioquímicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com mucopolissacaridose. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por doze participantes com mucopolissacaridose, acompanhados na Unidade de Doenças Metabólicas do Centro Hospitalar de S. João do Porto e por doze participantes saudáveis acompanhados na Faculdade de Medicina Dentária da Universidade do Porto. Para todos os participantes, o índice de dentes cariados, perdidos ou obturados foi avaliado. Além disso, foram recolhidas amostras de saliva de todos os participantes para avaliar os parâmetros bioquímicos (fluxo salivar, pH, sódio, potássio, cloreto, cálcio, fosfato, α-amilase e IgA) e microorganismos tais como Streptococcus mutans e leveduras. RESULTADOS: Em comparação aos controles, os pacientes com MPS apresentam maior prevalência de dentes cariados assim como fluxo salivar e pH reduzido. Os pacientes com MPS apresentaram também taxas menores de íons de cálcio e maiores de íons de fosfato. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à carga microbiana oral por microrganismos totais, Streptococcus mutans e leveduras, bem como quanto à prevalência oral de Streptococcus mutans. No entanto, os pacientes com MPS apresentaram maior prevalência de candidíase oral em comparação com os controlos. CONCLUSÃO: A maior prevalência de dentes cariados e a maior colonização oral por leveduras em pacientes com MPS pode estar relacionada com a baixa concentração de cálcio salivar, com o pH ácido e com a hiposalivação.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Saúde Bucal , Mucopolissacaridoses/metabolismo , Mucopolissacaridoses/microbiologia , Saliva , Glândulas Salivares , Xerostomia , Cárie Dentária
6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(8): 1953-64, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24764221

RESUMO

Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a clinically heterogeneous and progressive disorder with multiorgan manifestations caused by deficient N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase activity. A cross-sectional Survey Study in individuals (n = 121) affected with MPS VI was conducted between 2001 and 2002 to establish demographics, urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, and clinical progression of disease. We conducted a Resurvey Study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01387854) to obtain 10-year follow-up data, including medical histories and clinical assessments (n = 59), and survival status over 12 years (n = 117). Patients received a mean (SD) of 6.8 (2.2) years of galsulfase ERT between baseline (Survey Study) and follow-up. ERT patients increased in height by 20.4 cm in the 4-7-year-old baseline age group and by 16.8 cm in the 8-12-year-old baseline age group. ERT patients <13 years-old demonstrated improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) by 68% and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) by 55%, and those ≥13 years-old increased FVC by 12.8% and maintained FEV1. Patients with >200 µg/mg baseline uGAG levels increased FVC by 48% in the <13-year-old baseline age group and by 15% in the ≥13-year-old baseline age group. ERT patients who completed the 6-min walk test demonstrated a mean (SD) increase of 65.7 (100.6) m. Cardiac outcomes did not significantly improve or worsen. Observed mortality rate among naïve patients was 50% (7/14) and 16.5% (17/103) in the ERT group (unadjusted hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.59). Long-term galsulfase ERT was associated with improvements in pulmonary function and endurance, stabilized cardiac function and increased survival.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas , Mucopolissacaridose VI/tratamento farmacológico , N-Acetilgalactosamina-4-Sulfatase/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Mucopolissacaridose VI/mortalidade , Mucopolissacaridose VI/urina , N-Acetilgalactosamina-4-Sulfatase/urina , Qualidade de Vida , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/urina , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adulto Jovem
7.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 8: 102, 2013 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23842438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common inherited defect in the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation pathway, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in undiagnosed patients.Newborn screening (NBS) has considerably improved MCADD outcome, but the risk of complication remains in some patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between genotype, biochemical parameters and clinical data at diagnosis and during follow-up, in order to optimize monitoring of these patients. METHODS: We carried out a multicenter study in southwest Europe, of MCADD patients detected by NBS. Evaluated NBS data included free carnitine (C0) and the acylcarnitines C8, C10, C10:1 together with C8/C2 and C8/C10 ratios, clinical presentation parameters and genotype, in 45 patients. Follow-up data included C0 levels, duration of carnitine supplementation and occurrence of metabolic crises. RESULTS: C8/C2 ratio and C8 were the most accurate biomarkers of MCADD in NBS. We found a high number of patients homozygous for the prevalent c.985A > G mutation (75%). Moreover, in these patients C8, C8/C10 and C8/C2 were higher than in patients with other genotypes, while median value of C0 was significantly lower (23 µmol/L vs 36 µmol/L).The average follow-up period was 43 months. To keep carnitine levels within the normal range, carnitine supplementation was required in 82% of patients, and for a longer period in patients homozygotes for the c.985A>G mutation than in patients with other genotypes (average 31 vs 18 months). Even with treatment, median C0 levels remained lower in homozygous patients than in those with other genotypes (14 µmol/L vs 22 µmol/L).Two patients died and another three suffered a metabolic crisis, all of whom were homozygous for the c.985 A>G mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show a direct association between homozygosity for c.985A>G and lower carnitine values at diagnosis, and a higher dose of carnitine supplementation for maintenance within the normal range. This study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between genotype and phenotype in newborn patients with MCADD detected through screening which could be useful in improving follow-up strategies and clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Acil-CoA Desidrogenase/deficiência , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Carnitina/sangue , Carnitina/deficiência , Hiperamonemia/epidemiologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculares/epidemiologia , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/diagnóstico , Hiperamonemia/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/tratamento farmacológico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculares/tratamento farmacológico , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue
8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 36(2): 373-84, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22127392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To outline the design, baseline data, and 5-year follow-up data of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI enrolled in the Clinical Surveillance Program (CSP), a voluntary, multinational, observational program. METHODS: The MPS VI CSP was opened in 2005 to collect, for at least 15 years, observational data from standard clinical and laboratory assessments of patients with MPS VI. Baseline and follow-up data are documented by participating physicians in electronic case report forms. RESULTS: Between September 2005 and March 2010 the CSP enrolled 132 patients, including 123 who received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase. Median age at enrolment was 13 years (range 1-59). Mean baseline data showed impaired growth, hepatosplenomegaly, and reduced endurance and pulmonary function. The most common findings were heart valve disease (90%), reduced visual acuity (79%), impaired hearing (59%), and hepatosplenomegaly (54%). Follow-up data up to 5 years in patients with pre- and post-ERT measurements showed a decrease in urinary glycosaminoglycans and increases in height and weight in patients <16 years and suggested reductions in liver and spleen size and improvements in endurance and pulmonary function after ERT was started. Vision, hearing, and cardiac function were unchanged. Safety data were in line with previous reports. CONCLUSIONS: The CSP represents the largest cross-sectional study of MPS VI to date. This first report provides information on the design and implementation of the program and population statistics for several clinical variables in patients with MPS VI. Data collected over 5 years suggest that ERT provides clinical benefit and is well-tolerated with no new safety concerns.


Assuntos
Mucopolissacaridose VI/tratamento farmacológico , Mucopolissacaridose VI/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucopolissacaridose VI/diagnóstico , N-Acetilgalactosamina-4-Sulfatase/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 18(17): 3244-56, 2009 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19494034

RESUMO

The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is a hetero-octameric complex essential for normal glycosylation and intra-Golgi transport. An increasing number of congenital disorder of glycosylation type II (CDG-II) mutations are found in COG subunits indicating its importance in glycosylation. We report a new CDG-II patient harbouring a p.R729W missense mutation in COG4 combined with a submicroscopical deletion. The resulting downregulation of COG4 expression additionally affects expression or stability of other lobe A subunits. Despite this, full complex formation was maintained albeit to a lower extent as shown by glycerol gradient centrifugation. Moreover, our data indicate that subunits are present in a cytosolic pool and full complex formation assists tethering preceding membrane fusion. By extending this study to four other known COG-deficient patients, we now present the first comparative analysis on defects in transport, glycosylation and Golgi ultrastructure in these patients. The observed structural and biochemical abnormalities correlate with the severity of the mutation, with the COG4 mutant being the mildest. All together our results indicate that intact COG complexes are required to maintain Golgi dynamics and its associated functions. According to the current CDG nomenclature, this newly identified deficiency is designated CDG-IIj.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Complexo de Golgi/química , Complexo de Golgi/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Transporte Proteico , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular
11.
Virchows Arch ; 453(3): 291-300, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18762974

RESUMO

A 39-year-old male with classical Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) and long-standing idiopathic splenomegaly, who had been on haemodialysis since the age of 24, was splenectomised for symptomatic pancytopaenia. Spleen enlargement was first noted at clinical presentation, at age 16, but despite thorough investigation its cause remained unclear. Anaemia, leukopaenia and thrombocytopaenia were first observed a few years thereafter, but well before the start of dialytic treatment. On gross pathological examination the spleen weighed 700 g and had a fibrocongestive appearance. Histologically, it showed expansion of the red pulp and decreased white pulp. Some histiocytes and many of the endothelial cells lining the sinusoids had vacuolated cytoplasm with argyrophilic material within, suggesting their involvement in the storage pathology of AFD. In a retrospective review of our cohort of patients with classical AFD (n = 10), complete blood counts showing anaemia, leukopaenia or thrombocytopaenia were found in five, two and four patients, respectively, including a 6-year-old boy, whose spleen was also enlarged. Data from AFD international registries show that peripheral blood cytopaenias, particularly anaemia, are prevalent among these patients. Sinusoidal endothelial involvement resulting in compromise of splenic blood flow may be the cause of congestive splenomegaly and hypersplenism in classical AFD.


Assuntos
Doença de Fabry/patologia , Hiperesplenismo/etiologia , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Baço/patologia , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença de Fabry/complicações , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hiperesplenismo/patologia , Doenças Linfáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pancitopenia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esplenectomia , Esplenomegalia/patologia
12.
Hum Mutat ; 28(9): 897-903, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17458871

RESUMO

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI; Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (arylsulfatase B, ARSB) gene. ARSB is a lysosomal enzyme involved in the degradation of the glycosaminoglycans (GAG) dermatan and chondroitin sulfate. ARSB mutations reduce enzyme function and GAG degradation, causing lysosomal storage and urinary excretion of these partially degraded substrates. Disease onset and rate of progression is variable, producing a spectrum of clinical presentation. In this study, 105 MPS VI patients-representing about 10% of the world MPS VI population-were studied for molecular genetic and biochemical parameters. Direct sequencing of patient genomic DNA was used to identify ARSB mutations. In total, 83 different disease-causing mutations were found, 62 of which were previously unknown. The novel sequence changes included: 38 missense mutations, five nonsense mutations, 11 deletions, one insertion, seven splice-site mutations, and four polymorphisms. ARSB mutant protein and residual activity were determined on fibroblast extracts for each patient. The identification of many novel mutations unique to individuals/their families highlighted the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder and provided an appropriate cohort to study the MPS VI phenotypic spectrum. This mutation analysis has identified a clear correlation between genotype and urinary GAG that can be used to predict clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Mucopolissacaridose VI/genética , N-Acetilgalactosamina-4-Sulfatase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Frequência do Gene , Heterogeneidade Genética , Testes Genéticos , Glicosaminoglicanos/urina , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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