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3.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(6): 282-288, nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185155

RESUMO

Introducción: Tras un evento cerebrovascular isquémico el riesgo de recurrencias es elevado, por lo que se hace necesario el uso de terapia antitrombótica para disminuir nuevos eventos. Desarrollo: A pesar de su beneficio, estas terapias aumentan el riesgo de sangrado. Por tanto, determinar qué pacientes presentan mayor riesgo de hemorragia es fundamental. Existen diferentes modelos predictores de hemorragia y, en particular, de hemorragia intracraneal, asociados al uso de antiagregantes en pacientes con ictus isquémico o AIT, como las escalas CCSC, Intracranial-B2LEED3S score o la S2TOP-BLEED. No obstante, mientras que las principales guías internacionales recomiendan el uso de escalas, como HAS-BLED, para evaluar el riesgo de sangrado en pacientes anticoagulados, no existe una recomendación específica en el caso del uso de antiagregantes. Conclusiones: En esta revisión se presentan los principales modelos disponibles en la actualidad para la predicción de sangrado de la terapia antitrombótica en pacientes con ictus o AIT


Introduction: After an ischemic cerebrovascular event the risk of new ischemic events is high, therefore antithrombotic therapy are indicated to prevent stroke recurrence. Discussion: Despite its clear benefit, these therapies increase the risk of bleeding. Therefore, it is essential to identify high hemorrhagic risk patients. There are different predictive models of hemorrhage, in particular of intracranial hemorrhage, associated with the use of antiaggregants in patients who have presented an ischemic stroke or TIA, such as the CCSC, intracranial scales -B2LEED3S score or S2TOP-BLEED. However, though main international guidelines recommend the use of scales, in particular, the HAS-BLED score, to assess the risk of bleeding in anticoagulated patients, there is no specific recommendation in the case of the use of antiplatelet drugs. Conclusions: In this review we present the main models currently available for the prediction of bleeding of antithrombotic therapy in patients who have had a stroke or TIA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/metabolismo
5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 158: 107916, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dulaglutide is an agonist of "glucagon-like peptide type 1″ receptors (arGLP1). The clinical efficacy of this molecule is based on reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, data shown in the pivotal AWARD studies. METHODS: We propose a retrospective and multicenter study that allows evaluating the effectiveness of dulaglutide at 24 months after treatment began, under conditions of usual clinical practice, and comparing the results obtained with those that are reflected in the controlled trials. RESULTS: The results show a reduction in the HbA1c levels -1.4% at 6 M and this reduction were maintained throughout 12 M and 24 M (p < 0.001). Plasma glucose showed significant reductions around -30 mg / dL at 6 months (p < 0.001) that remained until the end of the follow-up at 12 and 24 M, respectively. The weight decreased significantly at 6 M (p < 0.001) but continued decreasing at 12 and 24 M, showing statistically significant differences (p: 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results are similar to those obtained in pivotal clinical trials and confirm these benefits in real life.

7.
Clin Investig Arterioscler ; 31(6): 282-288, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005341

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After an ischemic cerebrovascular event the risk of new ischemic events is high, therefore antithrombotic therapy are indicated to prevent stroke recurrence. DISCUSSION: Despite its clear benefit, these therapies increase the risk of bleeding. Therefore, it is essential to identify high hemorrhagic risk patients. There are different predictive models of hemorrhage, in particular of intracranial hemorrhage, associated with the use of antiaggregants in patients who have presented an ischemic stroke or TIA, such as the CCSC, intracranial scales -B2LEED3S score or S2TOP-BLEED. However, though main international guidelines recommend the use of scales, in particular, the HAS-BLED score, to assess the risk of bleeding in anticoagulated patients, there is no specific recommendation in the case of the use of antiplatelet drugs. CONCLUSIONS: In this review we present the main models currently available for the prediction of bleeding of antithrombotic therapy in patients who have had a stroke or TIA.

8.
Curr Treat Options Neurol ; 21(5): 22, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957208

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe the current status of lipid-lowering therapies for ischemic stroke prevention. The SPARCL trial published in 2006 has been a landmark study in vascular neurology. The trial demonstrated that high-dose atorvastatin prevents recurrent stroke, and led the AHA/ASA to recommend statin therapy for patients with stroke or TIA of atherosclerotic origin. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, the J-STARS study demonstrated that therapy with low-dose pravastatin reduced atherothrombotic infarction incidence among patients with prior ischemic stroke. Besides, several trials have shown improved stroke outcomes with non-statin lipid-lowering medications: IMPROVE-IT with ezetimibe on top of simvastatin and PCSK9 inhibitors-FOURIER with evocolumab and ODYSSEY-OUTCOMES with alirocumab-on top of statin therapy. LDL-cholesterol remains the primary lipid treatment target for reduction of stroke risk. Randomized trials have shown that each reduction of 40 mg/dL in the level of LDL-cholesterol reduces the stroke risk by approximately one quarter, and further, reductions in LDL-cholesterol levels have shown to produce additional reductions in stroke risk. Currently, we have evidence of benefit for adding non-statin lipid-modifying therapies to statins to reduce stroke risk. Surely, these novel strategies to reduce residual lipidic risk will provide future benefits on stroke prevention.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5055, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911067

RESUMO

The intra-renal dopamine (DA) system is highly expressed in the proximal tubule and contributes to Na+ and blood pressure homeostasis, as well as to the development of nephropathy. In the kidney, the enzyme DOPA Decarboxylase (DDC) originating from the circulation. We used a twin/family study design, followed by polymorphism association analysis at DDC locus to elucidate heritable influences on renal DA production. Dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the DDC locus on chromosome 7p12 was analyzed by re-sequencing guided by trait-associated genetic markers to discover the responsible genetic variation. We also characterized kinetics of the expressed DDC mutant enzyme. Systematic polymorphism screening across the 15-Exon DDC locus revealed a single coding variant in Exon-14 that was associated with DA excretion and multiple other renal traits indicating pleiotropy. When expressed and characterized in eukaryotic cells, the 462Gln variant displayed lower Vmax (maximal rate of product formation by an enzyme) (21.3 versus 44.9 nmol/min/mg) and lower Km (substrate concentration at which half-maximal product formation is achieved by an enzyme.)(36.2 versus 46.8 µM) than the wild-type (Arg462) allele. The highly heritable DA excretion trait is substantially influenced by a previously uncharacterized common coding variant (Arg462Gln) at the DDC gene that affects multiple renal tubular and glomerular traits, and predicts accelerated functional decline in chronic kidney disease.

15.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 315(5): F1406-F1415, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066584

RESUMO

While sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been used for the routine management of type 2 diabetes for several years, it is perhaps their natriuretic effects that are most important clinically. This natriuresis activates tubuloglomerular feedback, resulting in reduced glomerular hypertension and proteinuria, leading to renal protective effects in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME and CANVAS Program trials. In the cardiovascular system, it is likely that plasma volume contraction due to natriuresis in response to SGLT2 inhibition is at least in part responsible for the reduction in the risk of heart failure observed in these trials. We compare this mechanism of action with other antidiabetics. Importantly, other diuretic classes, including thiazide and loop diuretics, have not resulted in such robust clinical benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes, possibly because these older agents do not influence intraglomerular pressure directly. In contrast, SGLT2 inhibitors do have important physiological similarities with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, which also act proximally, and have been shown to activate tubuloglomerular feedback.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Natriurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Eur J Intern Med ; 48: 1-5, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939005

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, the risk for stroke is twice that of patients without diabetes, and diabetes may be responsible for >8% of first ischemic strokes. Therefore, the way to prevent stroke in these patients has become an important issue. Traditionally, glucose-lowering drugs had not been shown to protect against stroke. Moreover, several antidiabetic drugs (i.e., sulfonylureas, rosiglitazone) have been reported to be associated with increased risks of CVD and stroke. On the contrary, data on the CV risks and benefits associated with new antidiabetic treatment in patients with T2D are emerging - and look promising. Therefore, it could be of great value to find out if any type of these new antidiabetic agents has protective effect against stroke. We review the available evidence regarding the risk of stroke in individuals taking non-insulin antidiabetic agents. To date, several antidiabetic agents have shown to have a positive effect on stroke prevention. The accumulated evidence suggests that metformin, pioglitazone and semaglutide reduce stroke risk. These agents do not represent only a way of controlling blood glucose and but also offer the opportunity to reduce stroke risk. Surely, new data from ongoing and future studies will provide additional information to select the best treatment for decreasing stroke risk in T2D patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pioglitazona , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico
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