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1.
Transplant Proc ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035685

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A favorable attitude toward organ donation and transplantation (ODT) is fundamental among health professionals at the time of transplant promotion. In this sense, the training and awareness of professionals are fundamental. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the differences in the attitude toward ODT and the factors that condition it among Andalusian medical and nursing students. METHODS AND DESIGN: The study is a sociologic, multicenter, observational study. The population includes medical and nursing students in Andalusian universities. Database of the Collaborative International Donor Project is used and data are stratified by geographic area and academic course. The instrument of measurement was a validated questionnaire (PCID-DTO-RIOS) that was handed out to every student in a compulsory session. Completion of the questionnaire was anonymous and self-administered. The sample included Andalusian medical and nursing students (99% confidence and precision of ±1%) stratified by geographic area and year of study. RESULTS: There was a completion rate of 91%; 79% (n = 2879) of Andalusian students were in favor of donation and 21% were not in favor. The attitude toward ODT is more favorable in medical compared with nursing students (80% vs 77%; P = .021). The psychosocial profile toward donation is similar in both groups relating to the following variables (P < .05): knowing a transplant patient, having received information about the subject, attitude toward family donation, and having discussed transplantation with family and friends. CONCLUSION: Andalusian medical students favored organ donation more than Andalusian nursing students, and the favorable attitude is associated with having an awareness of the subject.

2.
Dig Dis ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Refractory Celiac Disease type II (RCD-II) is a very rare yet severe complication of Celiac Disease (CD) with a 50% rate of progression to EATL (Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma). Timely diagnosis and treatment of RCD-II is of the essence and requires the identification of a population of frequently clonal, phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Flow Cytometry (FCM) of intestinal IELs is the recommended method to identify the aberrant sCD3- icCD3ε+ IELs, and a proportion of >20% is diagnostic of RCD-II. There is substantial heterogeneity in the clinical course of RCD-II, and insufficient information on prognostic factors. AIM: To stablish flow cytometric predictors of the clinical evolution of RCD-II, to help guide treatment approaches. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective single center study of clinical and immunological features of 6 RCD-II patients and a control group, both identified from a 2000-patient cohort over 16 years. IEL subset frequencies and the intensity of staining for surface (s) and intracytoplasmic (ic) CD3ε+ on IEL subsets were quantified and correlated with the clinical outcome. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, the frequency of aberrant sCD3- icCD3ε+ cells at diagnosis did not correlate with histological or clinical affection. However, a higher intensity of icCD3ε+ staining in the aberrant IELs relative to expression on normal IELs correlated with monoclonality and with worse clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: The ratio of icCD3ε+ on aberrant IELs vs normal IELs appears to be a useful indicator of prognosis at the time of diagnosis, and may represent a novel tool in the follow-up of RCD-II patients after therapy.

3.
Gac Sanit ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980148

RESUMO

Recent changes in European regulations for personal data protection still allow the use of health data for research purposes, but they have set the Impact Assessment on Data Protection as an instrument for reflection and risk analysis in the process of data processing. The publication of a guide for facilitates this impact assessment, although it is not directly applicable to research projects. Experience in a specific project is detailed, showing how the context of the treatment becomes relevant with respect to the data characteristics. Carrying out an impact assessment is an opportunity to ensure compliance with the principles of data protection in an increasingly complex environment with greater ethical challenges.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 249: 112462, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816368

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia widely reported to be used to reduce opioid dependence and mitigate withdrawal symptoms. There is also evidence to suggest that opioid poly-drug users were using kratom to abstain from opioids. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the patterns and reasons for kratom use among current and former opioid poly-drug users in Malaysia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 204 opioid poly-drug users (142 current users vs. 62 former users) with current kratom use history were enrolled into this cross-sectional study. A validated UPLC-MS/MS method was used to evaluate the alkaloid content of a kratom street sample. RESULTS: Results from Chi-square analysis showed that there were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between current and former opioid poly-drug users except with respect to marital status. Current users had higher odds of being single (OR: 2.2: 95%CI: 1.21-4.11; p < 0.009). Similarly, there were no significant differences in the duration (OR: 1.1: 0.62-2.03; p < 0.708), daily quantity (OR: 1.5: 0.85-2.82; p < 0.154) or frequency of kratom use between current and former opioid poly-drug users (OR: 1.1: 0.62-2.06; p < 0.680). While both current and former opioid users reported using kratom to ameliorate opioid withdrawal, current users had significantly higher likelihood of using kratom for that purpose (OR: 5.4: 95%CI: 2.81-10.18; p < 0.0001). In contrast, former opioid users were more likely to be using kratom for its euphoric (mood elevating) effects (OR: 1.9: 95%CI: 1.04-3.50; p < 0.035). Results from the UPLC-MS/MS analysis indicated the major alkaloids present in the representative kratom street sample (of approximately 300 mL of brewed kratom) were mitragynine, followed by paynantheine, speciociliatine and speciogynine, as well as low levels of 7-hydroxymitragynine. CONCLUSIONS: Both current and former opioid poly-drug users regularly used kratom (three glasses or about 900 mL daily or the equivalent of 170.19 mg of mitragynine) to overcome opioid poly-drug use problems.

5.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 148-154, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707106

RESUMO

In vitro cytochrome P450 inhibition of major kratom alkaloids: mitragynine (MTG), speciogynine (SPG), speciocilliatine (SPC), corynantheidine (COR), 7-hydroxymitragynine (7HMG) and paynantheine (PAY) was evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs) to understand their drug-drug interaction potential. CYP450 isoform-specific substrates of CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4/5 were incubated in HLMs with or without alkaloids. Preliminary CYP450 inhibition (IC50) data were generated for each of these isoforms. In addition, the type of inhibition and estimation of the inhibition constants (Ki) of MTG and COR were determined. Among the tested alkaloids, MTG and COR were potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 (IC50, 2.2 and 4.2 µM, respectively). Both MTG and COR exhibited competitive inhibition of CYP2D6 activity and the Ki were found to be 1.1 and 2.8 µM, respectively. SPG and PAY showed moderate inhibition of CYP2D6 activity. Additionally, moderate inhibitory effects by SPC, MTG, and SPG were observed on CYP2C19 activity. Interestingly, inhibition of only midazolam hydroxylase CYP3A4/5 activity by COR, PAY, and MTG was observed while no inhibitory effect was observed when testosterone was used as a probe substrate. In conclusion, MTG and COR may lead to clinically significant adverse drug interactions upon coadministration of drugs that are substantially metabolized by CYP2D6.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Interações de Medicamentos , Mitragyna/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoenzimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo
6.
Ann Surg ; 271(1): 1-14, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate the first evidence-based guidelines on minimally invasive pancreas resection (MIPR) before and during the International Evidence-based Guidelines on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection (IG-MIPR) meeting in Miami (March 2019). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: MIPR has seen rapid development in the past decade. Promising outcomes have been reported by early adopters from high-volume centers. Subsequently, multicenter series as well as randomized controlled trials were reported; however, guidelines for clinical practice were lacking. METHODS: The Scottisch Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology was used, incorporating these 4 items: systematic reviews using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases to answer clinical questions, whenever possible in PICO style, the GRADE approach for assessment of the quality of evidence, the Delphi method for establishing consensus on the developed recommendations, and the AGREE-II instrument for the assessment of guideline quality and external validation. The current guidelines are cosponsored by the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association, the Americas Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association, the Asian-Pacific Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association, the European-African Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association, the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery, Pancreas Club, the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgery, the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, and the Society of Surgical Oncology. RESULTS: After screening 16,069 titles, 694 studies were reviewed, and 291 were included. The final 28 recommendations covered 6 topics; laparoscopic and robotic distal pancreatectomy, central pancreatectomy, pancreatoduodenectomy, as well as patient selection, training, learning curve, and minimal annual center volume required to obtain optimal outcomes and patient safety. CONCLUSION: The IG-MIPR using SIGN methodology give guidance to surgeons, hospital administrators, patients, and medical societies on the use and outcome of MIPR as well as the approach to be taken regarding this challenging type of surgery.

7.
J Med Chem ; 63(1): 433-439, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834797

RESUMO

Selected indole-based kratom alkaloids were evaluated for their opioid and adrenergic receptor binding and functional effects, in vivo antinociceptive effects, plasma protein binding, and metabolic stability. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid in Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), had higher affinity at opioid receptors than at adrenergic receptors while the vice versa was observed for corynantheidine. The observed polypharmacology of kratom alkaloids may support its utilization to treat opioid use disorder and withdrawal.

8.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784347

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether low-risk patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) should undergo echocardiogram. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of studies that enrolled patients with acute low-risk PE to assess the prognostic value of echocardiographic diagnosis of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction for the primary outcome of short-term all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome of short-term PE-related mortality. We used a random-effects model to pool study results, a Begg rank correlation method to evaluate for publication bias, and I2 testing to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included a total of 11 studies 1,868 patients with low-risk PE. Ten of the 447 (2.2%; 1.1%-4.1%) low-risk patients with echocardiographic RV dysfunction died soon after the diagnosis of PE compared with 10 of 1,421 (0.7%; 0.3-1.3%) patients without RV dysfunction. RV dysfunction was not significantly associated with short-term all-cause mortality (odds ratio 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-5.1, p=.14; I2=8%). RV dysfunction was significantly associated with short-term PE-related mortality (odds ratio 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-16, p <.01; I2=0%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with low-risk PE, echocardiographic RV dysfunction is not associated with all-cause mortality, but identifies patients with an increased risk for short-term PE-related mortality.

9.
Protoplasma ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823020

RESUMO

ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM 1 (AMP1) encodes a putative glutamate-carboxypeptidase important for plant growth and development. In this study, by comparing the growth of Arabidopsis wild-type, amp1-10 and amp1-13 mutants, and AMP1-GFP/OX2- and AMP1-GFP/OX7-overexpressing seedlings in vitro and in soil, we uncover the role of AMP1 in biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis. AMP1-overexpressing plants had longer primary roots and increased lateral root number and density than the WT, which correlated with improved root, shoot, and total biomass accumulation. AMP1-overexpressing seedlings had an enhanced rate of growth of primary roots, and accordingly, sucrose supplementation restored primary root growth and promoted lateral root formation in amp1 mutants, while reproductive development, fruit size, and seed content were also modified according to disruption or overexpression of AMP1. We further found that AMP1 plays an important role for stomatal development, guard cell functioning, and carbon assimilation. These data help explain the pleiotropic functions of AMP1 in both root and shoot system development, possibly acting in a sugar-dependent manner for regulation of root architecture, biomass accumulation, and seed production.

10.
TH Open ; 3(4): e356-e363, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815247

RESUMO

Limited information exists about the prevalence, management, and outcomes of intermediate-high risk patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated consecutive patients with intermediate-high risk PE at a large, tertiary, academic medical center between January 1, 2015 and March 31, 2019. Adjudicated outcomes included PE-related mortality and a complicated course through 30 days after initiation of PE treatment. Repeat systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measurements, and echocardiography were performed within 48 hours after diagnosis. Among 1,015 normotensive patients with acute PE, 97 (9.6%) had intermediate-high risk PE. A 30-day complicated course and 30-day PE-related mortality occurred in 23 (24%) and 7 patients (7.2%) with intermediate-high risk PE. Seventeen (18%) intermediate-high risk patients received reperfusion therapy. Within 48 hours after initiation of anticoagulation, normalization of SBP, HR, cTnI, BNP, and echocardiography occurred in 82, 86, 78, 72, and 33% of survivors with intermediate-high risk PE who did not receive immediate thrombolysis. A complicated course between day 2 and day 30 after PE diagnosis for the patients who normalized SBP, HR, cTnI, BNP, and echocardiography measured at 48 hours occurred in 2.9, 1.4, 4.5, 3.3, and 14.3%, respectively. Intermediate-high risk PE occurs in approximately one-tenth of patients with acute symptomatic PE, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Normalization of HR 48 hours after diagnosis might identify a group of patients with a very low risk of deterioration during the first month of follow-up.

11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 180: 113019, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838282

RESUMO

Corynantheidine, a minor alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil, has been shown to bind to opioid receptors and act as a functional opioid antagonist, but its unique contribution to the overall properties of kratom remains relatively unexplored. The first validated bioanalytical method for the quantification of corynantheidine in rat plasma is described. The method was linear in the dynamic range from 1-500 ng/mL, requires a small plasma sample volume (25 µL), and a simple protein precipitation method for extraction of the analyte. The separation was achieved with Waters BEH C18 2.1 × 50 mm column and the 3-minute gradient of 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 3.5) and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, recovery, stability, and dilution integrity. It was applied to the analysis of the male Sprague Dawley rat plasma samples obtained during pharmacokinetic studies of corynantheidine administered both intravenously (I.V.) and orally (P.O.) (2.5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively). The non-compartmental analysis performed in Certara Phoenix® yielded the following parameters: clearance 884.1 ±â€¯32.3 mL/h, apparent volume of distribution 8.0 ±â€¯1.2 L, exposure up to the last measured time point 640.3 ±â€¯24.0 h*ng/mL, and a mean residence time of 3.0 ±â€¯0.2 h with I.V. dose. The maximum observed concentration after a P.O. dose of 213.4 ±â€¯40.4 ng/mL was detected at 4.1 ±â€¯1.3 h with a mean residence time of 8.8 ±â€¯1.8 h. Absolute oral bioavailability was 49.9 ±â€¯16.4 %. Corynantheidine demonstrated adequate oral bioavailability, prolonged absorption and exposure, and an extensive extravascular distribution. In addition, imaging mass spectrometry analysis of the brain tissue was performed to evaluate the distribution of the compound in the brain. Corynantheidine was detected in the corpus callosum and some regions of the hippocampus.

12.
Biomolecules ; 9(11)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766217

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid content, and the in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, cytotoxicity, and antiprotozoal activities of the Algerian plant Cytisus villosus Pourr. (Syn. Cytisus triflorus L'Hérit.). Additionally, the radioligand displacement affinity on opioid and cannabinoid receptors was assessed for the extracts and isolated pure compounds. The hydro alcoholic extract of the aerial part of C. villosus was partitioned with chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol (n-BuOH). The phenolic content of the C. villosus extracts was evaluated using a modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. The total flavonoid content was measured spectrometrically using the aluminum chloride colorimetric assay. The known flavonoids genistein (1), chrysin (2), chrysin-7-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 2″-O-α-l-rhamnosylorientin (4) were isolated. The antioxidant activities of the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The plant extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with IC50 values of 48 and 90 µg/mL, respectively. The isolated pure compounds 1 and 3 showed good inhibition of Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with IC50 values of 9 and 20 µg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited lower inhibition of Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) with IC50 values of 28 and 38 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts and isolated pure compounds have been shown to exhibit low affinity for cannabinoid and opioid receptors. Finally, n-BuOH extract was a potent inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei with IC50 value of 7.99 µg/mL and IC90 value of 12.61 µg/mL. The extracts and isolated compounds showed no antimicrobial, antimalarial nor antileishmanial activities. No cytotoxic effect was observed on cancer cell lines. The results highlight this species as a promising source of anti-inflammatory and antitrypanosomal agents.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0223918, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Originally believed to be primarily a disorder of T-cell signaling, evidence shows that macrophage-lineage cells also contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is a key regulator of the macrophage lineage, but its role in CD has not been well established. We examined transcriptional data from CD mucosa for evidence of CSF-1 pathway activation and tested JNJ-40346527 (PRV-6527), a small molecule inhibitor of CSF-1 receptor kinase (CSF-1R), for its ability to inhibit disease indices in murine colitis. METHODS: A CSF-1 pathway gene set was created from microarray data of human whole blood cultured ex vivo with CSF-1 and compared to a TNFα-induced gene set generated from epithelial-lineage cells. Gene set variation analysis was performed using existing Crohn's mucosa microarray data comparing patients who either responded or failed to respond to anti-TNFα therapy. Commencing day 14 or day 21, mice with T-cell transfer colitis were treated with vehicle or JNJ-40346527 until study termination (day 42). Endpoints included colon weight/length ratios and histopathology scores, and macrophage and T cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Mucosal gene expression was investigated using RNAseq. RESULTS: Both the CSF-1 and the TNFα gene sets were enriched in the colonic mucosal transcriptomes of Crohn's disease and in mouse colitis, and expression of both gene sets was highest in patients who did not respond to anti-TNFα therapy. In these patients neither set was reduced by therapy. In the mouse model, JNJ-40346527 inhibited the increase in colon weight/length ratio by ∼50%, reduced histological disease scores by ∼60%, and reduced F4/80+ mononuclear cell and CD3+ lymphocyte numbers. RNAseq analysis confirmed the CSF-1 gene set was sharply reduced in treated mice, as were gene sets enriched in "M1" inflammatory and "M0" resident macrophages and in activated T cells. CONCLUSIONS: CSF-1 biology is activated in Crohn's disease and in murine T cell transfer colitis. Inhibition of CSF-1R by JNJ-40346527 was associated with attenuated clinical disease scores and reduced inflammatory gene expression in mice. These data provide rationale for testing JNJ-40346527 (PRV-6527) in human inflammatory bowel disease.

14.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 189, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for novel treatments, such as drugs or vaccines, adjunctive to or replacing a burdensome life-long gluten-free diet for coeliac disease. The gold standard for successful treatment is a healed small intestinal mucosa, and therefore, the outcome measures in proof-of-concept studies should be based on evaluation of small intestine biopsies. We here evaluated morphometric, immunohistochemical and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression changes in coeliac disease patients challenged with gluten using PAXgene fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies. METHODS: Fifteen coeliac disease patients were challenged with 4 g of gluten per day for 10 weeks and 24 non-coeliac patients served as disease controls. A wide array of histological and immunohistochemical staining and mRNA-based gene expression tests (RT-qPCR and RNAseq) were carried out. RESULTS: Digital quantitative villous height: crypt depth ratio (VH: CrD) measurements revealed significant duodenal mucosal deterioration in all coeliac disease patients on gluten challenge. In contrast, the Marsh-Oberhuber class worsened in only 80% of coeliac patients. Measuring the intraepithelial CD3+ T-lymphocyte and lamina propria CD138+ plasma cell densities simultaneously proved to be a meaningful new measure of inflammation. Stainings for γδ T cells and IgA deposits, where previously frozen samples have been needed, were successful in PAXgene fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Messenger RNA extraction from the same paraffin-embedded biopsy block was successful and allowed large-scale qRT-PCR and RNAseq analyses for gene expression. Molecular morphometry, using the mRNA expression ratio of villous epithelium-specific gene APOA4 to crypt proliferation gene Ki67, showed a similar significant distinction between paired baseline and post-gluten challenge biopsies as quantitative histomorphometry. CONCLUSION: Rigorous digitally measured histologic and molecular markers suitable for gluten challenge studies can be obtained from a single paraffin-embedded biopsy specimen. Molecular morphometry seems to be a promising new tool that can be used in situations where assessing duodenal mucosal health is of paramount importance. In addition, the diagnostically valuable IgA deposits were now stained in paraffin-embedded specimens making them more accessible in routine clinics.

15.
PeerJ ; 7: e7755, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616586

RESUMO

Massively parallel DNA sequencing offers many benefits, but major inhibitory cost factors include: (1) start-up (i.e., purchasing initial reagents and equipment); (2) buy-in (i.e., getting the smallest possible amount of data from a run); and (3) sample preparation. Reducing sample preparation costs is commonly addressed, but start-up and buy-in costs are rarely addressed. We present dual-indexing systems to address all three of these issues. By breaking the library construction process into universal, re-usable, combinatorial components, we reduce all costs, while increasing the number of samples and the variety of library types that can be combined within runs. We accomplish this by extending the Illumina TruSeq dual-indexing approach to 768 (384 + 384) indexed primers that produce 384 unique dual-indexes or 147,456 (384 × 384) unique combinations. We maintain eight nucleotide indexes, with many that are compatible with Illumina index sequences. We synthesized these indexing primers, purifying them with only standard desalting and placing small aliquots in replicate plates. In qPCR validation tests, 206 of 208 primers tested passed (99% success). We then created hundreds of libraries in various scenarios. Our approach reduces start-up and per-sample costs by requiring only one universal adapter that works with indexed PCR primers to uniquely identify samples. Our approach reduces buy-in costs because: (1) relatively few oligonucleotides are needed to produce a large number of indexed libraries; and (2) the large number of possible primers allows researchers to use unique primer sets for different projects, which facilitates pooling of samples during sequencing. Our libraries make use of standard Illumina sequencing primers and index sequence length and are demultiplexed with standard Illumina software, thereby minimizing customization headaches. In subsequent Adapterama papers, we use these same primers with different adapter stubs to construct amplicon and restriction-site associated DNA libraries, but their use can be expanded to any type of library sequenced on Illumina platforms.

16.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505752

RESUMO

Snakebite envenomation is a life-threatening disease that was recently re-included as a neglected tropical disease (NTD), affecting millions of people in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Improvement in the therapeutic approaches to envenomation is required to palliate the morbidity and mortality effects of this NTD. The specific therapeutic treatment for this NTD uses snake antivenom immunoglobulins. Unfortunately, access to these vital drugs is limited, principally due to their cost. Different ethnic groups in the affected regions have achieved notable success in treatment for centuries using natural sources, especially plants, to mitigate the effects of snake envenomation. The ethnopharmacological approach is essential to identify the potential metabolites or derivatives needed to treat this important NTD. Here, the authors describe specific therapeutic snakebite envenomation treatments and conduct a review on different strategies to identify the potential agents that can mitigate the effects of the venoms. The study also covers an increased number of literature reports on the ability of natural sources, particularly plants, to treat snakebites, along with their mechanisms, drawbacks and future perspectives.


Assuntos
Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Venenos de Serpentes/efeitos adversos , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/patologia , Serpentes
17.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(12): 948-959, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is implicated in the pathophysiology of coeliac disease. AMG 714 is the first anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody to be investigated for the treatment of coeliac disease. We aimed to investigate the effects of AMG 714 in patients with coeliac disease who underwent gluten challenge. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 2a trial was done at three clinical sites in Finland. Inclusion criteria included age 18-80 years, a confirmed diagnosis of coeliac disease, and adherence to a gluten-free diet for at least 12 months before screening. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 150 mg AMG 714, 300 mg AMG 714, or placebo using permuted blocks and stratified by study site and sex. Patients and study staff were masked to treatment assignment. Treatments were administered by two subcutaneous injections every 2 weeks for 10 weeks (total six doses). Patients without severe villous atrophy at baseline received a gluten challenge (2-4 g daily) during weeks 2-12. Small bowel biopsy samples were obtained for histological assessments at baseline and week 12. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage change from baseline to week 12 in villous height-to-crypt depth (VHCD) ratio. Secondary endpoints were CD3-positive intraepithelial lymphocyte density; clinical symptoms measured by gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS), coeliac disease GSRS, and Bristol stool form scale (BSFS); and changes in anti-tTG and anti-DGP antibodies from baseline. The primary analysis was done in the per-protocol 1 population of patients who received at least one dose of study drug and who underwent the gluten challenge. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02637141 and EudraCT, 2015-003647-19. FINDINGS: Between April 13, 2016, and Nov 22, 2016, 64 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the 150 mg AMG 714 group (n=22), the 300 mg AMG 714 group (n=22), or the placebo group (n=20). Two patients did not start treatment and two did not provide post-treatment biopsy samples. 49 patients underwent the gluten challenge (per-protocol 1 population) and 11 patients did not because of baseline villous atrophy. AMG 714 did not prevent mucosal injury due to gluten challenge. The least square mean difference in the relative change from baseline in VHCD ratio was -2·49% (95% CI -16·82 to 11·83; p=0·73) between 150 mg AMG 714 and placebo and 6·39% (-7·07 to 19·85; p=0·34) between 300 mg AMG 714 and placebo. Neither comparison was statistically significant. The density of CD3-positive intraepithelial lymphocytes increased in all groups, with smaller increases in the 300 mg group (-41·24% [95% CI -79·28 to -3·20] vs placebo, nominal p=0·03) but not the 150 mg group (-14·32% [-54·39 to 25·74], nominal p=0·47). Clinical symptoms were ameliorated with AMG 714 treatment between baseline and week 12, particularly diarrhoea as measured by the BSFS (nominal p=0·01 for 150 mg vs placebo, and nominal p=0·0002 for 300 mg vs placebo). Serum antibody titres for anti-tTG and anti-DGP antibodies increased in all three treatment groups, with no significant difference between AMG 714 and placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 21 (95%) patients in the 150 mg AMG 714 group, 0 (95%) in the 300 mg AMG 714 group, and 19 (100%) in the placebo group. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders (17 [77%] participants in the 150 mg AMG 714 group, 16 [76%] in the 300 mg AMG 714 group, and 13 [68%] in the placebo group). Injection site reactions were the most common individual adverse event, reported in eight (36%) patients in the 150 mg AMG 714 group, 11 (52%) in the 300 mg group, and five (26%) in the placebo group. No serious adverse events occurred. INTERPRETATION: The primary endpoint, change in VHCD ratio from baseline after 12 weeks of treatment in patients with coeliac disease undergoing gluten challenge, was not significantly different between placebo and AMG 714 at either 150 mg or 300 mg. Effects on intraepithelial lymphocyte density and symptoms suggest that further research of AMG 714 may be warranted in patients with non-responsive coeliac disease. FUNDING: Celimmune and Amgen.

18.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(12): 960-970, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Refractory coeliac disease type 2 is a rare subtype of coeliac disease with high mortality rates; interleukin 15 (IL-15) is strongly implicated in its pathophysiology. This trial aimed to investigate the effects of AMG 714, an anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody, on the activity and symptoms of refractory coeliac disease type 2. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2a study of adults with a confirmed diagnosis of refractory coeliac disease type 2. Patients were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to receive seven intravenous doses over 10 weeks of AMG 714 (8 mg/kg) or matching placebo. Biopsy samples were obtained at baseline and week 12 for cellular analysis and histology. The change in the proportion of aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes from baseline to week 12 with respect to all intraepithelial lymphocytes was the primary endpoint and was quantified using flow cytometry. Secondary endpoints were the change in aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes with respect to intestinal epithelial cells; intestinal histological scores (villous height-to-crypt depth ratio; VHCD); intraepithelial lymphocyte counts; Marsh score; and patient-reported symptom measures, including the Bristol stool form scale (BSFS) and gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS). Main analyses were done in the per-protocol population of patients who received their assigned treatment, provided evaluable biopsy samples, and did not have major protocol deviations; only patients with non-atypical disease were included in the analyses of aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes, including the primary analysis. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02633020) and EudraCT (2015-004063-36). FINDINGS: From April 13, 2016, to Jan 19, 2017, 28 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to AMG 714 (n=19) and placebo (n=9). Six patients were not included in the primary analysis because of protocol deviation (one in the AMG 714 group), insufficient biopsy samples (one in the AMG 714 group), and atypical intraepithelial lymphocytes (three in the AMG 714 group and one in the placebo group). At 12 weeks, the least square mean difference between AMG 714 and placebo in the relative change from baseline in aberrant intraepithelial lymphocyte percentage was -4·85% (90% CI -30·26 to 20·56; p=0·75). The difference between the AMG 714 and placebo groups in aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes with respect to epithelial cells at 12 weeks was -38·22% (90% CI -95·73 to 19·29; nominal p=0·18); the difference in change in Marsh score from baseline was 0·09% (95% CI -1·60-1·90; nominal p=0·92); the difference in VHCD ratio was 10·67% (95% CI -38·97 to 60·31; nominal p=0·66); and the difference in change in total intraepithelial lymphocyte count was -12·73% (95% CI -77·57-52·12); nominal p=0·69). Regarding symptoms, the proportion of patients with diarrhoea per the BSFS score decreased from ten (53%) of 19 at baseline to seven (37%) of 19 at week 12 in the AMG 714 group and increased from two (22%) of nine at baseline to four (44%) of nine at week 12 in the placebo group (nominal p=0·0008); and the difference between the groups in change in GSRS score was -0·14 (SE 0·19; nominal p=0·48). Eight (89%) patients in the placebo group and 17 (89%) in the AMG 714 group had treatment-emergent adverse events, including one (11%) patient in the placebo group and five (26%) in the AMG 714 group who had serious adverse events. The most common adverse event in the AMG 714 group was nasopharyngitis (eight [42%] patients vs one [11%] in the placebo group). INTERPRETATION: In patients with refractory coeliac disease type 2 who were treated with AMG 714 or placebo for 10 weeks, there was no difference between the groups in terms of the primary endpoint of aberrant intraepithelial lymphocyte reduction from baseline. Effects on symptoms and other endpoints suggest that further research of AMG 714 may be warranted in patients with refractory coeliac disease type 2. FUNDING: Celimmune and Amgen.

19.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater ; 17(3): 2280800019851771, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main microorganism associated with the failure of endodontic treatments is Enterococcus faecalis. Although several endodontic therapeutics have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, the antimicrobial effectiveness of chitosan (CsNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) included into conventional endodontic sealers for endodontic therapies is still unclear. AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity increment (AAI) of endodontic sealers containing CsNPs and AgNPs as well as some chemical components against E. faecalis by direct contact assays. METHODS: CsNPs and AgNPs were synthesized by reduction and ionic gelation methods, respectively. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The bactericidal activity was tested on monolayers on agar plates and collagen membrane surface assays against E. faecalis. RESULTS: The size of CsNPs was 70.6±14.8 nm and zeta potential was 52.0±5.4 mV; the size of AgNPs was 54.2±8.5 nm, and zeta potential was -48.4±6.9 mV. All materials, single or combined, showed an AAI, especially when CsNPs, chlorhexidine (Chx), and the combination of CsNPs-Chx were added. However, the combination of CsNPs-Chx showed the highest (55%) AAI, followed by Chx (35.5%) and CsNPs (11.1%), respectively. There was a significant statistical difference in all comparisons (p < 0.05). Tubliseal (40%) and AH Plus (32%) sealants showed a higher AAI on E. faecalis in the monolayer test and collagen membrane assay analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Tubliseal and AH plus sealers combined with nanoparticles, especially CsNPs-Chx, could be used for conventional endodontic treatments in the control of E. faecalis bacteria.

20.
Rev. ADM ; 76(4): 229-233, jul.-ago 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023911

RESUMO

La medición de los signos vitales es de gran importancia en el consultorio dental, de esta forma podemos obtener una visión objetiva y anticipada del estado funcional del paciente. Según la información obtenida, se tomarán decisiones terapéuticas. El odontólogo debe saber que el seguimiento clínico y el uso de la técnica adecuada para sus mediciones representan un aspecto muy relevante para prevenir emergencias en el consultorio dental. El odontólogo debe medir los signos vitales antes, durante y después del procedimiento dental y, del mismo modo, debe estar involucrado en la situación individual de cada paciente y proporcionar medidas higiénicodietéticas para mejorar su calidad de vida. La evaluación continua de los signos vitales durante el procedimiento quirúrgico dental, en el que se usan anestésicos locales, es particularmente relevante en este caso, ya que puede ayudarnos a prevenir complicaciones como arritmias cardiacas, crisis hipertensivas o angina de pecho. El objetivo de este artículo es promover en toda la profesión odontológica, el monitoreo de los signos vitales, su técnica de medición correcta y su correlación con otros datos de un historial completo médico y dental (AU)


The measurement of vital signs is of great importance in the dental office, this way we can obtain an objective and anticipated vision of the functional state of the patient. According to the information obtained, therapeutic decisions will be made. The dentist must know that monitoring and using the appropriate technique for its measurements, represents a very relevant aspect for the emergency in the dental office. The dentist must measure the vital signs before, during and after the dental procedure, likewise, they must be involved in the individual situation of each patient and provide hygienic-dietetic measures to improve their quality of life. The continuous assessment of vital signs during the dental surgical procedure, in which local anesthetics are used, is particularly relevant in this case since it can help us prevent complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, hypertensive crisis or angor pectoris. The objective of this article is to promote throughout the dental profession, the monitoring of vital signs, their correct measurement technique and their correlation with other data from a complete medical and dental history (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Emergências , Sinais Vitais , Arritmias Cardíacas , Pulso Arterial , Vasoconstritores , Assistência Odontológica Integral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Angina Pectoris
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