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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the KEYNOTE-177 study, pembrolizumab monotherapy provided statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in progression-free survival versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer. To further support the efficacy and safety findings of the KEYNOTE-177 study, results of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) analyses are reported here. METHODS: KEYNOTE-177 is an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial being done at 192 cancer centres in 23 countries, in patients aged 18 years and older with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and who had not received previous systemic therapy for metastatic disease. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by use of interactive voice response or integrated web response technology to receive pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks or investigator's choice chemotherapy (mFOLFOX6 [leucovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin] or FOLFIRI [leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan] intravenously every 2 weeks with or without intravenous bevacizumab or cetuximab). Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (previously reported) and overall survival (data to be reported at the time of the final analysis). HRQOL outcomes were evaluated as prespecified exploratory endpoints. The analysis population comprised all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and completed at least one HRQOL assessment. HRQOL outcomes were mean change from baseline to prespecified week 18 in European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Colorectal 29 (EORTC QLQ-CR29) scale and item scores, and in the EuroQoL 5 Dimensions 3 Levels (EQ-5D-3L) visual analogue scale and health utility scores; the proportion of patients with improved, stable, or deteriorated scores from baseline to prespecified week 18 in EORTC QLQ-C30 scales and items; and time to deterioration in EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status/quality of life (GHS/QOL), physical functioning, social functioning, and fatigue scores and EORTC QLQ-CR29 urinary incontinence scores. The threshold for a small and clinically meaningful mean difference in EORTC QLQ-C30 score was 5-8 points. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02563002 and is ongoing; recruitment is closed. FINDINGS: Between Feb 11, 2016, and Feb 19, 2018, 307 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive pembrolizumab (n=153) or chemotherapy (n=154). The HRQOL analysis population comprised 294 patients (152 receiving pembrolizumab and 142 receiving chemotherapy). As of Feb 19, 2020, median time from randomisation to data cutoff was 32·4 months (IQR 27·7-37·8). Least squares mean (LSM) change from baseline to prespecified week 18 showed a clinically meaningful improvement in EORTC QLQ-C30 GHS/QOL scores with pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy (between-group LSM difference 8·96 [95% CI 4·24-13·69]; two-sided nominal p=0·0002). Median time to deterioration was longer with pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for GHS/QOL (hazard ratio 0·61 [95% CI 0·38-0·98]; one-sided nominal p=0·019), physical functioning (0·50 [95% CI 0·32-0·81]; one-sided nominal p=0·0016), social functioning (0·53 [95% CI 0·32-0·87]; one-sided nominal p=0·0050), and fatigue scores (0·48 [95% CI 0·33-0·69]; one-sided nominal p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab monotherapy led to clinically meaningful improvements in HRQOL compared with chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer. These data, along with the previously reported clinical benefits, support pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment option for this population. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

3.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653693

RESUMO

Inactivation of Beta 2-Microglobulin (B2M) is considered a determinant of resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPi) in melanoma and lung cancers. In contrast, B2M loss does not appear to impact response to ICPi in Mismatch Repair deficient (MMRd) colorectal tumors where biallelic inactivation of B2M is frequently observed. We inactivated B2M in multiple murine MMRd cancer models. While MMRd cells would not readily grow in immunocompetent mice, MMRd B2M null cells were tumorigenic and regressed when treated with anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4. The efficacy of ICPi against MMRd B2M null tumors did not require CD8+ T cells but relied on the presence of CD4+ T cells. Human tumors expressing low level of B2M display increased intra-tumoral CD4+ T cells. We conclude that B2M inactivation does not blunt the efficacy of ICPi in MMRd tumors and we identify a unique role for CD4+ T cells in tumor rejection.

4.
Pancreas ; 50(1): 64-70, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated survival outcomes in patients with distal pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (D-PDAC) after distal pancreatectomy (DP) and adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent DP for D-PDAC from 2000 to 2015 at the Johns Hopkins Hospital was performed. Demographics, baseline risk factors, and type of adjuvant treatment were assessed for associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Comparisons were made with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: A total of 294 patients underwent DP for D-PDAC. Of these, 105 patients were followed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Forty-five patients received chemotherapy only and 60 patients received chemoradiation. The median OS with chemoradiation was 33.6 months and 27.9 months (P = 0.54) with chemotherapy only. The median DFS was 15.3 months with chemoradiation and 19.8 months with chemotherapy only (P = 0.89). Elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9, stage II to III disease, splenic vein involvement, and vascular invasion were significant risk factors in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective analysis, there were no significant differences in OS or DFS with chemoradiation compared with chemotherapy alone after DP in patients with D-PDAC.

5.
Cancer Lett ; 497: 221-228, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127389

RESUMO

Recent research on genomic profiling of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has identified many potentially actionable alterations. However, the feasibility of using genomic profiling to guide routine clinical decision making for PDAC patients remains unclear. We retrospectively reviewed PDAC patients between October 2013 and December 2017, who underwent treatment at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and had clinical tumor next-generation sequencing (NGS) through commercial resources. Ninety-two patients with 93 tumors tested were included. Forty-eight (52%) patients had potentially curative surgeries. The median time from the tissue available to the NGS testing ordered was 229 days (interquartile range 62-415). A total of three (3%) patients had matched targeted therapies based on genomic profiling results. Genomic profiling guided personalized treatment for PDAC patients is feasible, but the percentage of patients who receive targeted therapy is low. The main challenges are ordering NGS testing early in the clinical course of the disease and the limited evidence of using a targeted approach in these patients. A real-time department level genomic testing ordering system in combination with an evidence-based flagging system for potentially actionable alterations could help address these shortcomings.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(23): 2207-2218, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed death 1 (PD-1) blockade has clinical benefit in microsatellite-instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch-repair-deficient (dMMR) tumors after previous therapy. The efficacy of PD-1 blockade as compared with chemotherapy as first-line therapy for MSI-H-dMMR advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer is unknown. METHODS: In this phase 3, open-label trial, 307 patients with metastatic MSI-H-dMMR colorectal cancer who had not previously received treatment were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive pembrolizumab at a dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks or chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-based therapy with or without bevacizumab or cetuximab) every 2 weeks. Patients receiving chemotherapy could cross over to pembrolizumab therapy after disease progression. The two primary end points were progression-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: At the second interim analysis, after a median follow-up (from randomization to data cutoff) of 32.4 months (range, 24.0 to 48.3), pembrolizumab was superior to chemotherapy with respect to progression-free survival (median, 16.5 vs. 8.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.80; P = 0.0002). The estimated restricted mean survival after 24 months of follow-up was 13.7 months (range, 12.0 to 15.4) as compared with 10.8 months (range, 9.4 to 12.2). As of the data cutoff date, 56 patients in the pembrolizumab group and 69 in the chemotherapy group had died. Data on overall survival were still evolving (66% of required events had occurred) and remain blinded until the final analysis. An overall response (complete or partial response), as evaluated with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1, was observed in 43.8% of the patients in the pembrolizumab group and 33.1% in the chemotherapy group. Among patients with an overall response, 83% in the pembrolizumab group, as compared with 35% of patients in the chemotherapy group, had ongoing responses at 24 months. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 22% of the patients in the pembrolizumab group, as compared with 66% (including one patient who died) in the chemotherapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Pembrolizumab led to significantly longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy when received as first-line therapy for MSI-H-dMMR metastatic colorectal cancer, with fewer treatment-related adverse events. (Funded by Merck Sharp and Dohme and by Stand Up to Cancer; KEYNOTE-177 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02563002.).

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunotherapy is currently ineffective for nearly all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas(PDAC), largely due to its tumor microenvironment(TME) that lacks antigen experienced T effector cells(Teffs). Vaccine-based immunotherapies are known to activate antigen-specific Teffs in the peripheral blood. To evaluate the effect of vaccine therapy on the PDAC TME, we designed a neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical trial of an irradiated, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor(GM-CSF)-secreting, allogeneic PDAC vaccine(GVAX). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eighty-seven eligible patients with resectable PDAC were randomly assigned(1:1:1) to receive GVAX alone or in combination with two forms of low-dose cyclophosphamide(Cy). Resected tumors following neoadjuvant immunotherapy were assessed for the formation of tertiary lymphoid aggregates(TLA) in response to treatment. The clinical endpoints are disease-free survival(DFS) and overall survival(OS). RESULTS: The neoadjuvant treatment with GVAX either alone or with two forms of low dose Cy is safe and feasible without adversely increasing the surgical complication rate. Patients in Arm A who received neoadjuvant and adjuvant GVAX alone had a trend toward longer median OS(35.0 months) than that(24.8 months) in the historical controls who received adjuvant GVAX alone. However, Arm C, who received low dose oral Cy in addition to GVAX, had a significantly shorter DFS than Arm A. When comparing patients with OS>24 months to those with OS<15 months, longer OS was found to be associated with higher density of intratumoral TLA. CONCLUSIONS: It is safe and feasible to use a neoadjuvant immunotherapy approach for PDACs to evaluate early biologic responses. In-depth analysis of TLAs is warranted in future neoadjuvant immunotherapy clinical trials.

8.
Oncotarget ; 11(21): 1929-1941, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523648

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metformin combined with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin showed potential synergistic anti-tumor activity in preclinical studies in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). This phase 1b study (NCT02048384) was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and activity of metformin +/- rapamycin in the maintenance setting for unselected patients with metastatic PDA (mPDA) treated with chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with stable or responding mPDA after ≥ 6 months on chemotherapy were randomized 1:1 to metformin alone (Arm A) or with rapamycin (Arm B), stratified by prior treatment with FOLFIRINOX. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained for exploratory analyses. RESULTS: 22 subjects (11 per arm) received treatment per protocol. Median PFS/OS were 3.5 and 13.2 months respectively, with 2 year OS rate of 37%; there were no differences between arms. No responses were observed by RECIST; however, decreases in FDG avidity and/or CA19-9 were observed in several long-term survivors. Treatment related adverse events of Grade ≥ 3 occurred in 0% vs 27% of patients in Arm A vs B and were asymptomatic hematologic or electrolyte abnormalities that were not clinically significant. Improved survival was associated with low baseline neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio, baseline lack of assessable disease by PET, and greater expansion of dendritic cells following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin +/- rapamycin maintenance for mPDA was well-tolerated and several patients achieved stable disease associated with exceptionally long survival. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of these agents in the maintenance setting and to enhance patient selection for such approaches.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(19): 5129-5139, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This phase II study tested granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells (GVAX) and ipilimumab in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) in the maintenance setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with PDA who were treated with front-line chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) in the metastatic setting and had ongoing response or stable disease after 8-12 doses were eligible. Patients were randomized 1:1 to treatment with GVAX and ipilimumab given every 3 weeks for four doses then every 8 weeks (Arm A) or to FOLFIRINOX continuation (Arm B). The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between the two arms. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were included in the final analysis (Arm A: 40; Arm B: 42). The study was stopped for futility after interim analysis. Median OS was 9.38 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.0-12.2] for Arm A and 14.7 months (95% CI, 11.6-20.0) for Arm B (HR, 1.75; P = 0.019). Using immune-related response criteria, two partial responses (5.7%) were observed in Arm A and four (13.8%) in Arm B. GVAX + ipilimumab promoted T-cell differentiation into effector memory phenotypes both in the periphery and in the tumor microenvironment and increased M1 macrophages in the tumor. CONCLUSIONS: GVAX and ipilimumab maintenance therapy did not improve OS over continuation of chemotherapy and resulted in a numerically inferior survival in metastatic PDA. However, clinical responses and biological effects on immune cells were observed. Further study of novel combinations in the maintenance treatment of metastatic PDA is feasible.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(14): 3578-3588, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Two studies in previously treated metastatic pancreatic cancer have been completed combining GVAX pancreas vaccine (GM-CSF-secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells) with cyclophosphamide (Cy) and CRS-207 (live, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes-expressing mesothelin). In the current study, we compared Cy/GVAX followed by CRS-207 with (Arm A) or without nivolumab (Arm B). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who received one prior therapy for metastatic disease and RECIST measurable disease were randomized 1:1 to receive treatment on Arm A or Arm B. The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between the arms. Additional objectives included assessment of progression-free survival, safety, tumor responses, CA19-9 responses, and immunologic correlates. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were treated (Arm A, 51; Arm B, 42). The median OS in Arms A and B were 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.7-8.6] and 6.1 (95% CI, 3.5-7.0) months, respectively, with an HR of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.55-1.34). Objective responses were seen in 3 patients using immune-related response criteria (4%, 2/51, Arm A; 2%, 1/42, Arm B). The grade ≥3 related adverse event rate, whereas higher in Arm A (35.3% vs. 11.9%) was manageable. Changes in the microenvironment, including increase in CD8+ T cells and a decrease in CD68+ myeloid cells, were observed in long-term survivors in Arm A only. CONCLUSIONS: Although the study did not meet its primary endpoint of improvement in OS of Arm A over Arm B, the OS was comparable with standard therapy. Objective responses and immunologic changes in the tumor microenvironment were evident.

11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238470

RESUMO

As the field of cancer immunotherapy continues to advance at a fast pace, treatment approaches and drug development are evolving rapidly to maximize patient benefit. New agents are commonly evaluated for activity in patients who had previously received a programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor as standard of care or in an investigational study. However, because of the kinetics and patterns of response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, and the lack of consistency in the clinical definitions of resistance to therapy, the design of clinical trials of new agents and interpretation of results remains an important challenge. To address this unmet need, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer convened a multistakeholder taskforce-consisting of experts in cancer immunotherapy from academia, industry, and government-to generate consensus clinical definitions for resistance to PD-(L)1 inhibitors in three distinct scenarios: primary resistance, secondary resistance, and progression after treatment discontinuation. The taskforce generated consensus on several key issues such as the timeframes that delineate each type of resistance, the necessity for confirmatory scans, and identified caveats for each specific resistance classification. The goal of this effort is to provide guidance for clinical trial design and to support analyses of emerging molecular and cellular data surrounding mechanisms of resistance.

12.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(5): 609-617, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132105

RESUMO

The identification of biomarkers for patient stratification is fundamental to precision medicine efforts in oncology. Here, we identified two baseline, circulating immune cell subsets associated with overall survival in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer who were enrolled in two phase II randomized studies of GVAX pancreas and CRS-207 immunotherapy. Single-cell mass cytometry was used to simultaneously measure 38 cell surface or intracellular markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from a phase IIa patient subcohort (N = 38). CITRUS, an algorithm for identification of stratifying subpopulations in multidimensional cytometry datasets, was used to identify single-cell signatures associated with clinical outcome. Patients with a higher abundance of CD8+CD45RO-CCR7-CD57+ cells and a lower abundance of CD14+CD33+CD85j+ cells had improved overall survival [median overall survival, range (days) 271, 43-1,247] compared with patients with a lower abundance of CD8+CD45RO-CCR7-CD57+ cells and higher abundance of CD14+CD33+CD85j+ cells (77, 24-1,247 days; P = 0.0442). The results from this prospective-retrospective biomarker analysis were validated by flow cytometry in 200 patients with pancreatic cancer enrolled in a phase IIb study (P = 0.0047). The identified immune correlates provide potential prognostic or predictive signatures that could be employed for patient stratification.

13.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 19(1): 32-38.e3, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-line (1L) and second-line (2L) therapies for advanced/metastatic gastric cancer (GC) and gastroesophageal junction cancer (GEJC) have modest efficacy, and therapeutic options in subsequent lines are limited as disease progresses. We assessed real-world treatment patterns and outcomes for advanced/metastatic GC/GEJC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with advanced/metastatic GC/GEJC between January 1, 2011 and April 30, 2018 were identified using the Flatiron Health database. Median overall survival (OS) from start of each line of therapy until death was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Duration of therapy (DoT) was time from start date until end date of each line. RESULTS: We identified 3291 patients with advanced/metastatic GC/GEJC adenocarcinoma. At diagnosis, the median age was 68 years, 60% were white, 53% had initial stage IV disease, and 57% had GC. Of these 3291 patients, most (75%) received at least 1 therapy; 32% received 2L, 14% received third-line (3L) therapy, and 6% received at least 4 lines of therapy (4L+). The median OS from start of 1L was 10.7 months (2L, 7.6 months; 3L, 6.1 months; 4L+, 2.8 months). The median DoT in 1L was 2.2 months (2L, 2.1 months; 3L, 1.7 months; 4L+, 3.0 months). Use of targeted and immunotherapies generally increased progressively with each subsequent line of therapy. CONCLUSION: One-quarter of patients with advanced/metastatic GC/GEJC remained untreated, and only approximately one-half of patients receiving 1L therapy received subsequent treatment. In all lines of therapy, OS was generally poor and DoT was short. More effective treatment options are needed across all lines of therapy for this highly burdensome disease.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(1): 11-19, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: KEYNOTE-164 (NCT02460198) evaluated the antitumor activity of pembrolizumab in previously treated, metastatic, microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: This phase II open-label study involved 128 centers worldwide. Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years and had metastatic MSI-H/dMMR CRC treated with ≥ 2 prior lines of standard therapy, including fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan with or without anti-vascular endothelial growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody (cohort A) or ≥ 1 prior line of therapy (cohort B). MSI-H/dMMR status was assessed locally. Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for up to 2 years until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal. The primary end point was objective response rate by RECIST version 1.1 by independent central review. Secondary end points were duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, safety, and tolerability. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients with MSI-H/dMMR CRC (61 in cohort A, 63 in cohort B) enrolled. At data cutoff, median follow-up was 31.3 months (range, 0.2-35.6 months) for cohort A and 24.2 months (range, 0.1-27.1 months) for cohort B. Objective response rate was 33% (95% CI, 21% to 46%) and 33% (95% CI, 22% to 46%), respectively, with median duration of response not reached in either cohort. Median PFS was 2.3 months (95% CI, 2.1 to 8.1 months) and 4.1 months (95% CI, 2.1 to 18.9 months). Median overall survival was 31.4 months (95% CI, 21.4 months to not reached) and not reached (95% CI, 19.2 months to not reached). Treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in 10 patients (16%) in cohort A and 8 (13%) in cohort B, with the most common occurring in ≥ 2 patients being pancreatitis, fatigue, increased alanine aminotransferase, and increased lipase (2 patients each; 3%) in cohort A. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab is effective with a manageable safety profile in patients with MSI-H/dMMR CRC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Med ; 9(4): 1485-1494, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatch repair proficient (MMRp) colorectal cancer (CRC) has been refractory to single-agent programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) inhibitor therapy. Colon GVAX is an allogeneic, whole-cell, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor -secreting cellular immunotherapy that induces T-cell immunity against tumor-associated antigens and has previously been studied in combination with low-dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) to inhibit regulatory T cells. METHODS: We conducted a single-arm study of GVAX/Cy in combination with the PD1 inhibitor pembrolizumab in patients with advanced MMRp CRC. Patients received pembrolizumab plus Cy on day 1, GVAX on day 2, of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. Secondary objectives included safety, overall survival, progression-free survival, changes in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels, and immune-related correlates. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were enrolled. There were no objective responses, and the disease control rate was 18% by RECIST 1.1. The median progression-free survival was 82 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 48-97 days) and the median overall survival was 213 days (95% CI 179-441 days). Biochemical responses (≥30% decline in CEA) were observed in 7/17 (41%) of patients. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events were observed in two patients (hemolytic anemia and corneal transplant rejection). Paired pre- and on-treatment biopsy specimens showed increases in programmed death-ligand 1 expression and tumor necrosis in a subset of patients. CONCLUSIONS: GVAX/Cy plus pembrolizumab failed to meet its primary objective in MMRp CRC. Biochemical responses were observed in a subset of patients and have not previously been observed with pembrolizumab monotherapy in MMRp CRC, indicating that GVAX may modulate the antitumor immune response.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(1): 1-10, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genomes of tumors that are deficient in DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) have high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and harbor hundreds to thousands of somatic mutations that encode potential neoantigens. Such tumors are therefore likely to be immunogenic, triggering upregulation of immune checkpoint proteins. Pembrolizumab, an anti‒programmed death-1 monoclonal antibody, has antitumor activity against MSI-H/dMMR cancer. We report data from the phase II KEYNOTE-158 study of pembrolizumab in patients with previously treated, advanced noncolorectal MSI-H/dMMR cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with histologically/cytologically confirmed MSI-H/dMMR advanced noncolorectal cancer who experienced failure with prior therapy received pembrolizumab 200 mg once every 3 weeks for 2 years or until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or patient withdrawal. Radiologic imaging was performed every 9 weeks for the first year of therapy and every 12 weeks thereafter. The primary end point was objective response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, as assessed by independent central radiologic review. RESULTS: Among 233 enrolled patients, 27 tumor types were represented, with endometrial, gastric, cholangiocarcinoma, and pancreatic cancers being the most common. Median follow up was 13.4 months. Objective response rate was 34.3% (95% CI, 28.3% to 40.8%). Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months (95% CI, 2.4 to 4.9 months) and median overall survival was 23.5 months (95% CI, 13.5 months to not reached). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 151 patients (64.8%). Thirty-four patients (14.6%) had grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse events. Grade 5 pneumonia occurred in one patient; there were no other treatment-related fatal adverse events. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the clinical benefit of anti-programmed death-1 therapy with pembrolizumab among patients with previously treated unresectable or metastatic MSI-H/dMMR noncolorectal cancer. Toxicity was consistent with previous experience of pembrolizumab monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gastric Cancer ; 23(1): 133-141, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few third-line or later (3L+) treatment options for advanced/metastatic (adv/met) gastric cancer/gastroesophageal junction cancers (GC/GEJC). 3L+ Nivolumab demonstrated encouraging results in Asian patients in the ATTRACTION-2 study compared with placebo (12-month survival, 26% vs 11%), and in Western patients in the single-arm CheckMate 032 study (12-month survival, 44%). This analysis aimed to establish comparator cohorts of US patients receiving routine care in real-world (RW) clinical practice. METHODS: A 2-step matching process generated RW cohorts from Flatiron Health's oncology database (January 1, 2011-April 30, 2017), for comparison with each trial: (1) clinical trial eligibility criteria were applied; (2) patients were frequency-matched with trial arms for baseline variables significantly associated with survival. Median overall survival (OS) was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis from last treatment until death. RESULTS: Of 742 adv/met GC/GEJC patients with at least 2 prior lines of therapy, matching generated 90 US RW ATTRACTION-2-matched patients (median OS: 3.5 months) versus 163 ATTRACTION-2 placebo patients (median OS: 4.1 months), and 100 US RW CheckMate 032-matched patients (median OS: 2.9 months) versus 42 CheckMate 032 nivolumab-treated patients (median OS: 8.5 months). Baseline characteristics were generally similar between clinical trial arms and RW-matched cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully developed RW cohorts for comparison with data from clinical trials, with comparable baseline characteristics. Survival in US patients receiving RW care was similar to that seen in Asian patients receiving placebo in ATTRACTION-2; survival with nivolumab in CheckMate 032 appeared favorable compared with US RW clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Placebos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(36): 3546-3555, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675272

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Response to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade is often conceptualized as resulting from reinvigoration of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. However, recruited antitumor immunity from the periphery may also be an important contributor to response. A detailed assessment of the response dynamics of individual metastasis could provide insight to the systemic and local features that mediate response and resistance to immunotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or mismatch repair deficiency (MMRD) carcinoma treated with PD-1 monotherapy were evaluated independently. Absolute and percent change of each target lesion were quantified at each computed tomography scan using RECIST. Patterns of progression were predefined as systemic or mixed and were correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 761 individual lesions from 214 patients with NSCLC and 290 lesions from 78 patients with MMRD carcinoma were examined. Individual target lesion responses aligned with best overall response of each patient (85% NSCLC and 93% MMRD lesions responded in patients with partial response/complete response). In responding patients, timing of response was uniform (73% NSCLC and 76% MMRD lesions responded synchronously), and deeper responses were associated with prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival. By contrast, at progression, mixed progression was common (45% of NSCLC and 53% of MMRD) and associated with improved survival compared with those who experienced systemic progression (NSCLC hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; P = .001; MMRD HR, 0.40; P = .07). Organ sites had differential responses, with lymph node and liver metastasis among the most and least responsive, respectively. CONCLUSION: Temporal-spatial patterns of response across individual metastases tend to be uniform, favoring the role of peripheral, clonally directed antitumor immunity as a key mediator of response to PD-1 blockade. In contrast, progression is more heterogeneous, potentially revealing the clinical importance of local features and intertumoral heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 366(19)2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758686

RESUMO

Human norovirus is one of the major causes of foodborne gastroenteritis, and it can be easily transmitted from infected person, virus-contaminated foods and environmental surfaces. Effective disinfection method is needed to stop the transmission of human norovirus. CAC-717 is a new disinfectant consisting of calcium hydrogen carbonate mesoscopic crystals. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CAC-717 against human norovirus. This study used human norovirus derived from fecal specimens and cultured murine norovirus, which is one of the surrogate viruses for human norovirus. The disinfection effect against murine norovirus was estimated by infectivity assay and transmission electron microscopy. The inactivation effect against human norovirus was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Disinfection effect of CAC-717 against the infectivity of murine norovirus was shown within 100 s after the CAC-717 treatment, presenting the destruction of viral capsids. The treatment of CAC-717 significantly reduced human norovirus genomic RNA (3.25-log reduction) by the presence of the mesoscopic structure of calcium hydrogen carbonate. CAC-717 stably inactivated human norovirus in stool suspensions. The inactivation effect of CAC-717 against human norovirus was less susceptible to organic substances than sodium hypochlorite. CAC-717 would be a useful alternative for disinfecting human norovirus in contaminated environmental surfaces.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carbonatos/química , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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