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1.
Oncogene ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831835

RESUMO

The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements: Professor Stebbing sits on SABs for Celltrion, Singapore Biotech, Vor Biopharma, TLC Biopharmaceuticals and Benevolent AI, has consulted with Lansdowne partners, Vitruvian and Social Impact Capital and Chairs the Board of Directors for BB Biotech Healthcare Trust and Xerion Healthcare. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828732

RESUMO

Lung cancer results in more patient deaths each year than any other cancer type. Additional treatment strategies are needed to improve clinical responses to approved treatment modalities and prevent the emergence of resistant disease. Catecholamines including norepinephrine and epinephrine are elevated as a result of chronic stress and mediate their physiological effects through activation of adrenergic receptors on target tissues. Lung cancer cells express ß-adrenergic receptors (ß-ARs), and numerous preclinical studies indicate that ß2-AR signaling on lung cancer cells facilities cellular programs including proliferation, motility, apoptosis resistance, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, metastasis, and the acquisition of an angiogenic and immunosuppressive phenotype. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a potential role for beta-blockers in improving the clinical outcome of lung cancer patients. Graphical Abstract Catecholamines including norepinephrine and epinephrine act of ß-ARs expressed on NSCLC tumor cells and activate pathways regulating tumor progression.

3.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754213

RESUMO

EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients inevitably develop drug resistance when treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Systematic genetic analysis is important to understand drug-resistant mechanisms; however, the clinical significance of co-occurring genetic alterations at baseline, co-acquired mutations at progressive disease (PD), and the clonal evolution remain underinvestigated. We performed targeted sequencing of pre-treatment and PD tumor samples from 54 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. Ten additional patients were sequenced using whole-exome sequencing to infer the clonal evolution patterns. We observed a domain-dependent effect of PIK3CA mutation at baseline on patient progression-free survival (PFS). In addition, at baseline, 9q34.3/19p13.3 (NOTCH1/STK11/GNA11) showed a co-deletion pattern, which was associated with a significantly worse PFS (p = 0.00079). T790M-postive patients with other concurrent acquired oncogenic mutations had a significantly shorter PFS (p = 0.005). Besides acquired T790M mutation, chromosomal instability (CIN) related genes, including AURKA and TP53 alterations, were the most frequently acquired events. CIN significantly increased during TKI treatment in T790M-negative patients and is a candidate resistance mechanism to the first-generation TKIs. Clonal evolution analyses suggest that the composition and relationship among resistant subclones, particularly relationship with T790M subclone, affect patients' outcomes. Overall, our findings of novel co-occurring alterations and clonal evolution patterns can be served as predictive biomarkers to stratify patients and help to better understand the drug-resistant mechanism to TKIs.

4.
Cancer Cell ; 36(4): 444-457.e7, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588020

RESUMO

We characterized the landscape and drug sensitivity of ERBB2 (HER2) mutations in cancers. In 11 datasets (n = 211,726), ERBB2 mutational hotspots varied across 25 tumor types. Common HER2 mutants yielded differential sensitivities to eleven EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in vitro, and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that mutants with a reduced drug-binding pocket volume were associated with decreased affinity for larger TKIs. Overall, poziotinib was the most potent HER2 mutant-selective TKI tested. Phase II clinical testing in ERBB2 exon 20-mutant non-small cell lung cancer resulted in a confirmed objective response rate of 42% in the first 12 evaluable patients. In pre-clinical models, poziotinib upregulated HER2 cell-surface expression and potentiated the activity of T-DM1, resulting in complete tumor regression with combination treatment.

5.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(1): 43-47, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343004

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although most NSCLC patients with sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have an impressive initial response, the vast majority has residual disease and develops acquired resistance after 9 to 14 months of EGFR tyrosine kinase (TKI) therapy. We recently reported a phase II trial showing that, for patients with molecularly unselected oligometastatic NSCLC who did not progress after first-line systemic therapy, local consolidation therapy (LCT) with surgery or radiation improved progression-free survival (PFS), compared with maintenance therapy alone. Herein, we report a retrospective analysis of LCT after TKI in patients with metastatic EGFR mutant NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified patients with metastatic EGFR mutant NSCLC treated with TKI plus LCT or with TKI alone in the MD Anderson GEMINI (Genomic Marker-Guided Therapy Initiative) database and in our recently published LCT trial. PFS was compared between LCT plus TKI and TKI only treated patients using the log-rank test. RESULTS: We identified 129 patients with EGFR mutant NSCLC who were treated with first-line TKI and 12 that were treated with TKI followed by LCT. Among the 12 patients treated with TKI plus LCT, 8 patients had oligometastatic disease (defined as ≤ 3 metastases), and 4 patients had > 3 metastases. LCT regimens were hypofractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy for 11 patients and surgery for 1 patient. TKI followed by LCT resulted in a significantly longer PFS (36 months) compared with TKI alone (PFS, 14 months; log-rank P = .0024). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that first-line TKI plus LCT is a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with EGFR mutant NSCLC that merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(24): 6195-6203, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osimertinib was initially approved for T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and, more recently, for first-line treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLC. However, resistance mechanisms to osimertinib have been incompletely described. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using cohorts from The University of Texas MD Anderson Lung Cancer Moonshot GEMINI and Moffitt Cancer Center lung cancer databases, we collected clinical data for patients treated with osimertinib. Molecular profiling analysis was performed at the time of progression in a subset of the patients. RESULTS: In the 118 patients treated with osimertinib, 42 had molecular profiling at progression. T790M was preserved in 21 (50%) patients and lost in 21 (50%). EGFR C797 and L792 (26%) mutations were the most common resistance mechanism and were observed exclusively in T790M-preserved cases. MET amplification was the second most common alteration (14%). Recurrent alterations were observed in 22 genes/pathways, including PIK3CA, FGFR, and RET. Preclinical studies confirmed MET, PIK3CA, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as potential resistance drivers. Alterations of cell-cycle genes were associated with shorter median progression-free survival (PFS, 4.4 vs. 8.8 months, P = 0.01). In 76 patients with progression, osimertinib was continued in 47 cases with a median second PFS (PFS2) of 12.6 months; 21 patients received local consolidation radiation with a median PFS of 15.5 months. Continuation of osimertinib beyond progression was associated with a longer overall survival compared with discontinuation (11.2 vs. 6.1 months, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Osimertinib resistance is associated with diverse, predominantly EGFR-independent genomic alterations. Continuation of osimertinib after progression, alone or in conjunction with radiotherapy, may provide prolonged clinical benefit in selected patients.See related commentary by Devarakonda and Govindan, p. 6112.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Acrilamidas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Anilina/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(7): 3909-3921, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174832

RESUMO

The first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have brought substantial clinical benefit to patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and sensitizing EGFR mutation. However, acquired resistance is inevitable since the vast majority of patients experience disease relapse within ~1-2 years. Osimertinib is a novel irreversible, covalent third-generation EGFR-TKI and potent inhibitor of EGFR T790M mutation, the most common mechanism of acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKIs. Several trials have consistently demonstrated the superior clinical activity and safety of osimertinib in patients with advanced NSCLC and acquired EGFR T790M mutation after treatment with a first-generation EGFR-TKI. Recently, the efficacy of osimertinib in a first-line setting was demonstrated to be clearly superior to standard-first line treatment in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC regardless of T790M mutation status. Nevertheless, this advance, several unresolved issues of osimertinib should be emphasized including the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance to osimertinib, the feasibility of testing EGFR T790M mutation from plasma circulating tumor DNA, its efficacy to patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases or exon 20 mutations, its combination with other therapeutic strategies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and its role in adjuvant therapy.

12.
J Thorac Oncol ; 12(5): 878-883, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28104537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Targeted somatic genomic analysis (EGFR, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene [ALK], and ROS1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) are used for selection of first-line therapies in advanced lung cancer; however, the frequency of overlap of these biomarkers in routine clinical practice is poorly reported. METHODS: We retrospectively probed the first 71 pairs of patients with lung adenocarcinoma from our institution. They were analyzed for PD-L1 by IHC using the clone 22C3 pharmDx kit (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA) and evaluated for co-occurrence of genomic aberrations and clinicopathologic characteristics. RESULTS: Surgical resection specimens, small biopsy (transbronchial or core needle) samples, and cytologic cell blocks (needle aspirates or pleural fluid) were tested. A PD-L1 TPS of at least ≥50% was seen in 29.6% of tumors. Of 19 tumors with EGFR mutations, ALK fluorescence in situ hybridization positivity, or ROS1 fluorescence in situ hybridization positivity, 18 had a PD-L1 TPS less than 50% versus only one tumor with a PD-L1 TPS of at least 50% (p = 0.0073). Tumors with a PD-L1 TPS of at least 50% were significantly associated with smoking status compared with tumors with a PD-L1 TPS less than 50% but were not associated with patient sex, ethnicity, tumor stage, biopsy site, or biopsy type/preparation. CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 IHC can be performed on routine clinical lung cancer specimens. A TPS of at least 50% seldom overlaps with presence of driver oncogenes with approved targeted therapies. Three biomarker-specified groups of advanced lung adenocarcinomas can now be defined, each paired with a specific palliative first-line systemic therapy of proven clinical benefit: (1) EGFR/ALK/ROS1-affected adenocarcinoma paired with a matched tyrosine kinase inhibitor (∼20% of cases), (2) PD-L1-enriched adenocarcinoma (TPS ≥50%) paired with anti-PD-1 pembrolizumab (∼30% of cases), and (3) biomarker-negative (i.e., EGFR/ALK/ROS1/PD-L1-negative) adenocarcinoma paired with platinum doublet chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab (∼50% of cases).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Genes erbB-1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/metabolismo
13.
Cancer Discov ; 6(10): 1134-1147, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27604488

RESUMO

PIK3CA (which encodes the PI3K alpha isoform) is the most frequently mutated oncogene in breast cancer. Small-molecule PI3K inhibitors have shown promise in clinical trials; however, intrinsic and acquired resistance limits their utility. We used a systematic gain-of-function approach to identify genes whose upregulation confers resistance to the PI3K inhibitor BYL719 in breast cancer cells. Among the validated resistance genes, Proviral Insertion site in Murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases conferred resistance by maintaining downstream PI3K effector activation in an AKT-independent manner. Concurrent pharmacologic inhibition of PIM and PI3K overcame this resistance mechanism. We also observed increased PIM expression and activity in a subset of breast cancer biopsies with clinical resistance to PI3K inhibitors. PIM1 overexpression was mutually exclusive with PIK3CA mutation in treatment-naïve breast cancers, suggesting downstream functional redundancy. Together, these results offer new insights into resistance to PI3K inhibitors and support clinical studies of combined PIM/PI3K inhibition in a subset of PIK3CA-mutant cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: PIM kinase overexpression confers resistance to small-molecule PI3K inhibitors. Combined inhibition of PIM and PI3K may therefore be warranted in a subset of breast cancers. Cancer Discov; 6(10); 1134-47. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1069.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/genética , Regulação para Cima , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia
14.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 16(4): 383-90, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26943236

RESUMO

First- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the evidence-based first-line treatment for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) that harbor sensitizing EGFR mutations (i.e. exon 19 deletions or L858R). However, acquired resistance to EGFR TKI monotherapy occurs invariably within a median time frame of one year. The most common form of biological resistance is through the selection of tumor clones harboring the EGFR T790M mutation, present in >50% of repeat biopsies. The presence of the EGFR T790M mutation negates the inhibitory activity of gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib. A novel class of third-generation EGFR TKIs has been identified by probing a series of covalent pyrimidine EGFR inhibitors that bind to amino-acid residue C797 of EGFR and preferentially inhibit mutant forms of EGFR versus the wild-type receptor. We review the rapid clinical development and approval of the third-generation EGFR TKI osimertinib for treatment of NSCLCs with EGFR-T790M.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Acrilamidas , Compostos de Anilina , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Interações de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Mutação , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Cancer Treat Commun ; 4: 174-181, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26601054

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tumor genotyping using single gene assays (SGAs) is standard practice in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated how the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) into day-to-day clinical practice altered therapeutic decision-making. METHODS: Clinicopathologic data, tumor genotype, and clinical decisions were retrospectively compiled over 6 months following introduction of NGS assay use at our institution in 82 patient-tumor samples (7 by primary NGS, 22 by sequential SGAs followed by NGS, and 53 by SGAs). RESULTS: SGAs identified abnormalities in 34 samples, and all patients with advanced EGFR-mutated or ALK-rearranged tumors received approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or were consented for clinical trials. NGS was more commonly requested for EGFR, ALK, and KRAS-negative tumors (p<0.0001). NGS was successful in 24/29 (82.7%) tumors. Of 17 adenocarcinomas (ACs), 11 (7 from patients with ≤15 pack-years of smoking) had abnormalities in a known driver oncogene. This led to a change in decision-making in 8 patients, trial consideration in 6, and off-label TKI use in 2. Of 7 squamous cell (SC) carcinomas, 1 had a driver aberration (FGFR1); 6 had other genomic events (all with TP53 mutations). In no cases were clinical decisions altered (p=0.0538 when compared to ACs). CONCLUSIONS: Targeted NGS can identify a significant number of therapeutically-relevant driver events in lung ACs; particularly in never or light smokers. For SC lung cancers, NGS is less likely to alter current practice. Further research into the cost effectiveness and optimal use of NGS and improved provider training in genomic oncology are warranted.

17.
Lung Cancer ; 88(1): 70-3, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25700797

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are present in 10-20% of all non-small-cell lung cancers and predict for response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the incidence of these mutations and their ability to predict response to TKIs in high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas [i.e. small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC)] is unknown. METHODS: The presence of EGFR mutations, clinicopathologic and anti-cancer therapy response data were retrospectively compiled and analyzed from a cohort of 608 patients-lung tumors to identify EGFR mutated high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas. We identified 126 EGFR-mutated (21.8% of 578 successful genotyped cases) lung cancers and only 2 (1.6%) were high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. RESULTS: Case one was of a 63 year-old white never smoker woman with extensive stage SCLC harboring EGFR-delL747_P753insS but without EGFR protein expression. After progression on carboplatin/etoposide, the patient was treated with erlotinib and developed progressive disease with a survival <3 months from start of erlotinib. Case two was of a 73 year-old Asian 30 pack-year smoker man with metastatic LCNEC harboring EGFR-delL747_P753insQS and also lacking EGFR protein expression. The patient received first line therapy with erlotinib and had progressive disease with a survival of 4 months. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of response to EGFR TKIs in EGFR mutated de novo SCLC and LCNEC reported here may indicate that tumor differentiation affects tumor dependency on EGFR as a driver oncogene.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico por imagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/farmacologia , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Radiografia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética
19.
Development ; 140(11): 2354-64, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23615277

RESUMO

The zebrafish is a powerful genetic model that has only recently been used to dissect developmental pathways involved in oncogenesis. We hypothesized that operative pathways during embryogenesis would also be used for oncogenesis. In an effort to define RAS target genes during embryogenesis, gene expression was evaluated in Tg(hsp70-HRAS(G12V)) zebrafish embryos subjected to heat shock. dusp6 was activated by RAS, and this was used as the basis for a chemical genetic screen to identify small molecules that interfere with RAS signaling during embryogenesis. A KRAS(G12D)-induced zebrafish embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was then used to assess the therapeutic effects of the small molecules. Two of these inhibitors, PD98059 and TPCK, had anti-tumor activity as single agents in both zebrafish embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and a human cell line of rhabdomyosarcoma that harbored activated mutations in NRAS. PD98059 inhibited MEK1 whereas TPCK suppressed S6K1 activity; however, the combined treatment completely suppressed eIF4B phosphorylation and decreased translation initiation. Our work demonstrates that the activated pathways in RAS induction during embryogenesis are also important in oncogenesis and that inhibition of these pathways suppresses tumor growth.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Tosilfenilalanil Clorometil Cetona/farmacologia , Transgenes , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
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