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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1003-1012, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(11): 2987-2998, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

4.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/biossíntese
5.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 25(3): 305-316, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inflammation-based scores, such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), have been associated with prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); but variable cut-off values and potential lack of specificity have limited the utility of NLR. This study evaluates NLR in a large cohort of HCC patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 789 HCC cases (1993-2017) for demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival. NLR was stratified into NLR ≥1.5 and NLR ≥3 and analyzed for correlation with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages. In 235 patients who underwent liver resection, survival and recurrence were evaluated by NLR. RESULTS: In 789 HCC cases, mean NLR was increased with advanced AJCC and BCLC stages. Hepatitis C patients were less likely to have NLR ≥1.5 and ≥3. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients were more likely to have NLR ≥3. Patients with tumor size >5 cm, rupture, or macrovascular invasion were more likely to have NLR ≥3. In patients treated with resection, NLR ≥3 predicted early recurrence (odds ratio [OR] 4.14, P<0.01) and overall recurrence (OR 4.05, P<0.01). Mean NLR was 4.30 in those with recurrence and 2.75 in those without recurrence. Patients with NLR ≥3 showed significantly worse survival compared to those with NLR <3 (P<0.01 by log-rank test). CONCLUSION: Elevated NLR is associated with advanced cancer stage and aggressive tumor characteristics, such as large size, rupture, and invasion. NLR ≥3 was associated with early and overall recurrence after resection but varied with etiology. NLR may be a useful biomarker in predicting recurrence for HCC patients undergoing curative resection, but further studies are required to elucidate the effect of disease etiology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Linfócitos/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(6): 557-567, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes. METHODS: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 14 pathways and gene sets associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. After Bonferroni correction (P ≤ 1.3 × 10-5), the strongest associations were detected in five pathways and gene sets, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, regulation of beta-cell development, role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors in cardiac hypertrophy pathways, and the Nikolsky breast cancer chr17q11-q21 amplicon and Pujana ATM Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) network gene sets. We identified and validated rs876493 and three correlating SNPs (PGAP3) and rs3124737 (CASP7) from the Pujana ATM PCC gene set as eQTLs in two normal derived pancreas tissue datasets. CONCLUSION: Our agnostic pathway and gene set analysis integrated with functional annotation and eQTL analysis provides insight into genes and pathways that may be biologically relevant for risk of PDAC, including those not previously identified.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 31(3): 168-175, 2018 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460622

RESUMO

At similar smoking levels, African American's lung cancer risk is as much as twice that of whites. We hypothesized that racial/ethnic differences in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-catalyzed glucuronidation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a detoxication pathway for the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) may contribute to this variable risk. UGT2B10 catalyzes NNAL- N-glucuronidation, and a UGT2B10 splice variant is common among African Americans. Smokers from two independent studies were genotyped for this variant (rs116294140) and an Asp67Tyr variant (rs61750900), and urinary NNAL and NNAL-glucuronide concentrations were quantified. In the first, no significant differences in NNAL- N-glucuronidation between African Americans ( n = 257) and whites ( n = 354) or between homozygous carriers of UGT2B10 variants (genetic score 2) and noncarriers (score 0) were detected. However, total NNAL glucuronidation by score 2 compared to score 0 smokers was lower (68.9 vs 71.2%, p < 0.0001). For NNAL- N-glucuronide to be more precisely quantified in a second study, a sensitive high-resolution LC-MS/MS-based method, which separated NNAL, NNAL- O-glucuronide, and NNAL- N-glucuronide prior to analysis, was developed. In this study, the excretion of total NNAL (free plus glucuronides) by African American ( n = 52) and white ( n = 54) smokers was not different; however, total NNAL glucuronidation by African Americans (64.0%) was slightly less than by whites (68.3%, p = 0.05). The mean NNAL- N-glucuronidation by African Americans was much lower than for whites (14 vs 24.9%, p < 0.00001), but the NNAL- O-glucuronidation was greater (50.0 vs 43.3%, p = 0.013). UGT2B10 genotype influenced NNAL- N-glucuronidation; the geometric mean percentage N-glucuronidation was 22.5% for smokers with genetic score 0 ( n = 57) and 11.2% for score 2 ( n = 11). In summary, the high prevalence of a UGT2B10 splice variant among African Americans results in lower NNAL- N-glucuronidation but only a small decrease in total NNAL glucuronidation. Therefore, despite the significant contribution of UGT2B10 to NNAL- N-glucuronidation, the UGT2B10 genotype does not play a large role in NNAL detoxication. Any decrease in N-glucuronidation was accompanied by a parallel increase in O-glucuronidation.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Genótipo , Glucuronídeos/urina , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Nitrosaminas/urina , Fumar Tabaco/genética , Fumar Tabaco/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Fumantes
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(3): 512-519, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25587051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) represents a subset of colorectal cancers characterized by widespread aberrant DNA hypermethylation at select CpG islands. The risk factors and environmental exposures contributing to etiologic heterogeneity between CIMP and non-CIMP tumors are not known. METHODS: We measured the CIMP status of 3,119 primary population-based colorectal cancer tumors from the multinational Colon Cancer Family Registry. Etiologic heterogeneity was assessed by a case-case study comparing risk factor frequency of colorectal cancer cases with CIMP and non-CIMP tumors using logistic regression to estimate the case-case odds ratio (ccOR). RESULTS: We found associations between tumor CIMP status and MSI-H (ccOR = 7.6), BRAF V600E mutation (ccOR = 59.8), proximal tumor site (ccOR = 9; all P < 0.0001), female sex [ccOR = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-2.1], older age (ccOR = 4.0 comparing over 70 years vs. under 50; 95% CI, 3.0-5.5), and family history of CRC (ccOR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.7). While use of NSAIDs varied by tumor CIMP status for both males and females (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.02, respectively), use of multivitamin or calcium supplements did not. Only for female colorectal cancer was CIMP status associated with increased pack-years of smoking (Ptrend < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI; Ptrend = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of several colorectal cancer risk factors varied by CIMP status, and the associations of smoking and obesity with tumor subtype were evident only for females. IMPACT: Differences in the associations of a unique DNA methylation-based subgroup of colorectal cancer with important lifestyle and environmental exposures increase understanding of the molecular pathologic epidemiology of this heavily methylated subset of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 512-9. ©2015 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Idoso , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 19(21): 3241-8, 2013 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23745025

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the survival of individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD-associated CRC) compared to that of individuals without IBD diagnosed with CRC. METHODS: Epidemiologic, clinical, and follow-up data were obtained from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (Colon CFR). IBD-associated cases were identified from self-report of physician diagnosis. For a subset of participants, medical records were examined to confirm self-report of IBD. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95%CI of mortality, comparing IBD-associated to non-IBD-associated CRC, adjusted for age at CRC diagnosis, sex, Colon CFR phase, and number of prior endoscopies. Following imputation to complete CRC stage information, adjustment for CRC stage was examined. RESULTS: A total of 7202 CRC cases, including 250 cases of IBD-associated CRC, were analyzed. Over a twelve year follow-up period following CRC diagnosis, 2013 and 74 deaths occurred among non-IBD associated CRC and IBD-associated CRC patients, respectively. The difference in survival between IBD-associated and non-IBD CRC cases was not statistically significant (aHR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.85-1.36). However, the assumption of proportional hazards necessary for valid inference from Cox regression was not met over the entire follow-up period, and we therefore limited analyses to within five years after CRC diagnosis when the assumption of proportional hazards was met. Over this period, there was evidence of worse prognosis for IBD-associated CRC (aHR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.05-1.76). Results were similar when adjusted for CRC stage, or restricted to IBD confirmed in medical records. CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that IBD-associated CRC has a worse prognosis than non-IBD-associated CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Fam Cancer ; 12(3): 563-6, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23288611

RESUMO

Current screening practices have been able to identify PMS2 mutations in 78 % of cases of colorectal cancer from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (Colon CFR) which showed solitary loss of the PMS2 protein. However the detection of large-scale deletions in the 3' end of the PMS2 gene has not been possible due to technical difficulties associated with pseudogene sequences. Here, we utilised a recently described MLPA/long-range PCR-based approach to screen the remaining 22 % (n = 16) of CRC-affected probands for mutations in the 3' end of the PMS2 gene. No deletions encompassing any or all of exons 12 through 15 were identified; therefore, our results suggest that 3' deletions in PMS2 are not a frequent occurrence in such families.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deleção de Genes , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , DNA/genética , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros
11.
Gut ; 62(2): 272-9, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22345660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. The PREMM(1,2,6) model predicts the likelihood of a MMR gene mutation based on personal and family cancer history. OBJECTIVE: To compare strategies using PREMM(1,2,6) and tumour testing (microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining) to identify mutation carriers. DESIGN: Data from population-based or clinic-based patients with colorectal cancers enrolled through the Colon Cancer Family Registry were analysed. Evaluation included MSI, IHC and germline mutation analysis for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Personal and family cancer histories were used to calculate PREMM(1,2,6) predictions. Discriminative ability to identify carriers from non-carriers using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was assessed. Predictions were based on logistic regression models for (1) cancer assessment using PREMM(1,2,6), (2) MSI, (3) IHC for loss of any MMR protein expression, (4) MSI+IHC, (5) PREMM(1,2,6)+MSI, (6) PREMM(1,2,6)+IHC, (7) PREMM(1,2,6)+IHC+MSI. RESULTS: Among 1651 subjects, 239 (14%) had mutations (90 MLH1, 125 MSH2, 24 MSH6). PREMM(1,2,6) discriminated well with AUC 0.90 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.92). MSI alone, IHC alone, or MSI+IHC each had lower AUCs: 0.77, 0.82 and 0.82, respectively. The added value of IHC+PREMM(1,2,6) was slightly greater than PREMM(1,2,6)+MSI (AUC 0.94 vs 0.93). Adding MSI to PREMM(1,2,6)+IHC did not improve discrimination. CONCLUSION: PREMM(1,2,6) and IHC showed excellent performance in distinguishing mutation carriers from non-carriers and performed best when combined. MSI may have a greater role in distinguishing Lynch syndrome from other familial colorectal cancer subtypes among cases with high PREMM(1,2,6) scores where genetic evaluation does not disclose a MMR mutation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
12.
Hum Mutat ; 34(1): 200-9, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22949379

RESUMO

Mismatch repair (MMR) gene sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance are often identified in suspected Lynch syndrome families, and this constitutes a challenge for both researchers and clinicians. Multifactorial likelihood model approaches provide a quantitative measure of MMR variant pathogenicity, but first require input of likelihood ratios (LRs) for different MMR variation-associated characteristics from appropriate, well-characterized reference datasets. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and somatic BRAF tumor data for unselected colorectal cancer probands of known pathogenic variant status were used to derive LRs for tumor characteristics using the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CFR) resource. These tumor LRs were combined with variant segregation within families, and estimates of prior probability of pathogenicity based on sequence conservation and position, to analyze 44 unclassified variants identified initially in Australasian Colon CFR families. In addition, in vitro splicing analyses were conducted on the subset of variants based on bioinformatic splicing predictions. The LR in favor of pathogenicity was estimated to be ~12-fold for a colorectal tumor with a BRAF mutation-negative MSI-H phenotype. For 31 of the 44 variants, the posterior probabilities of pathogenicity were such that altered clinical management would be indicated. Our findings provide a working multifactorial likelihood model for classification that carefully considers mode of ascertainment for gene testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Biologia Computacional/classificação , Biologia Computacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Saúde da Família , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Sistema de Registros/classificação , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Carcinogenesis ; 33(3): 587-97, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22198214

RESUMO

Asthma has been hypothesized to be associated with lung cancer (LC) risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of 16 studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) to quantitatively assess this association and compared the results with 36 previously published studies. In total, information from 585 444 individuals was used. Study-specific measures were combined using random effects models. A meta-regression and subgroup meta-analyses were performed to identify sources of heterogeneity. The overall LC relative risk (RR) associated with asthma was 1.28 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.16-1.41] but with large heterogeneity (I(2) = 73%, P < 0.001) between studies. Among ILCCO studies, an increased risk was found for squamous cell (RR = 1.69, 95%, CI = 1.26-2.26) and for small-cell carcinoma (RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 0.99-2.95) but was weaker for adenocarcinoma (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.88-1.36). The increased LC risk was strongest in the 2 years after asthma diagnosis (RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.09-4.17) but subjects diagnosed with asthma over 10 years prior had no or little increased LC risk (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.94-1.30). Because the increased incidence of LC was chiefly observed in small cell and squamous cell lung carcinomas, primarily within 2 years of asthma diagnosis and because the association was weak among never smokers, we conclude that the association may not reflect a causal effect of asthma on the risk of LC.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/etiologia
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 19(11): 2877-87, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20810604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its main binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), have been associated with risk of several types of cancer. Heritable factors explain up to 60% of the variation in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in studies of adult twins. METHODS: We systematically examined common genetic variation in 18 genes in the IGF signaling pathway for associations with circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. A total of 302 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped in >5,500 Caucasian men and 5,500 Caucasian women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple testing, SNPs in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes were significantly associated with circulating IGF-I (P < 2.1 × 10(-4)); SNPs in the IGFBP3 and IGFALS genes were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3. Multi-SNP models explained R(2) = 0.62% of the variation in circulating IGF-I and 3.9% of the variation in circulating IGFBP-3. We saw no significant association between these multi-SNP predictors of circulating IGF-I or IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate or breast cancers. CONCLUSION: Common genetic variation in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes seems to influence circulating IGF-I levels, and variation in IGFBP3 and IGFALS seems to influence circulating IGFBP-3. However, these variants explain only a small percentage of the variation in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in Caucasian men and women. IMPACT: Further studies are needed to explore contributions from other genetic factors such as rare variants in these genes and variation outside of these genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores de Somatostatina/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 16(4): 1331-9, 2010 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20145170

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome family members with inherited germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes have a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and cases typically have tumors that exhibit a high level of microsatellite instability (MSI). There is some evidence that smoking is a risk factor for CRCs with high MSI; however, the association of smoking with CRC among those with Lynch syndrome is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A multicentered retrospective cohort of 752 carriers of pathogenic MMR gene mutations was analyzed, using a weighted Cox regression analysis, adjusting for sex, ascertainment source, the specific mutated gene, year of birth, and familial clustering. RESULTS: Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a significantly increased CRC risk [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.62; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-2.57] and former smokers who had quit smoking for 2 or more years were at decreased risk (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35-0.82). CRC risk did not vary according to age at starting. However, light smoking (<10 cigarettes per day) and shorter duration of smoking (<10 years) were associated with decreased CRC risk (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.91 and HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.89, respectively). For former smokers, CRC risk decreased with years since quitting (P trend <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: People with Lynch syndrome may be at increased risk of CRC if they smoke regularly. Although our data suggest that former smokers, short-term smokers, and light smokers are at decreased CRC risk, these findings need further confirmation, preferably using prospective designs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
Int J Cancer ; 127(2): 361-6, 2010 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19904757

RESUMO

Genomic imprinting refers to a parent-of-origin specific effect on gene expression. At least 1% of genes in the human genome are modulated in this manner. We sought evidence for genomic imprinting in colorectal cancer by studying the ages at diagnosis in the offspring of 2,061 parent-child pairs in which both parent and child were affected by nonsyndromic colorectal cancer. Families were ascertained through the colon Cancer Family Registry [http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/CFR/] from both population-based and clinic-based sources. We found that the affected offspring of affected fathers were on average younger than offspring of affected mothers (55.8 vs. 53.7 years; p = 0.0003), but when divided into sons and daughters, this difference was driven entirely by younger age at diagnosis in daughters of affected fathers compared to sons (52.3 years vs. 55.1 years; p = 0.0004). A younger age at diagnosis in affected daughters of affected fathers was also observable in various subsets including families that met Amsterdam II Criteria, families that did not meet Amsterdam Criteria, and in families with documented normal DNA mismatch repair in tumors. Imprinting effects are not expected to be affected by the sex of the offspring. Possible explanations for these unexpected findings include: (i) an imprinted gene on the pseudoautosomal regions of the X chromosome; (ii) an imprinted autosomal gene that affects a sex-specific pathway; or (iii) an X-linked gene unmasked because of colonic tissue-specific preferential inactivation of the maternal X chromosome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Impressão Genômica/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pai , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mol Genet Metab ; 99(2): 157-9, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19853488

RESUMO

In a previous study, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency alleles were found to be over represented among individuals with microsatellite unstable (MSI-high) colorectal cancers, and this was most significant in former or current smokers. We evaluated this association in a larger case-control study, stratified by microsatellite instability phenotypes. Concordant with prior observations, gender (female) and smoking history were positively associated with colorectal cancers having an MSI-high phenotype. No difference in frequency of A1AT deficiency alleles was found between cases and controls, irrespective of the MSI subtype.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Sistema de Registros , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/patologia
18.
Gastroenterology ; 136(4): 1251-60, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19245865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The MutY human homologue (MYH) gene is a member of the base-excision repair pathway involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. The objective of this study was to determine colorectal cancer (CRC) risk associated with mutations in the MYH gene. METHODS: A total of 3811 CRC cases and 2802 controls collected from a multisite CRC registry were screened for 9 germline MYH mutations; subjects with any mutation underwent screening of the entire MYH gene. Logistic regression was used to estimate age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Clinicopathologic and epidemiologic data were reviewed to describe the phenotype associated with MYH mutation status and assess for potential confounding and effect modification. RESULTS: Twenty-seven cases and 1 control subject carried homozygous or compound heterozygous MYH mutations (AOR, 18.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-132.7). CRC cases with homozygous/compound heterozygous mutations were younger at diagnosis (P=.01), had a higher proportion of right-sided (P=.01), synchronous cancers (P<.01), and personal history of adenomatous polyps (P=.003). Heterozygous MYH mutations were identified in 87 CRC cases and 43 controls; carriers were at increased risk of CRC (AOR, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.16). There was a higher prevalence of low-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI) in tumors from heterozygous and homozygous/compound heterozygous MYH mutation carriers (P=.02); MSI status modified the CRC risk associated with heterozygous MYH mutations (P interaction<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Homozygous/compound heterozygous MYH mutations account for less than 1% of CRC cases. Heterozygous carriers are at increased risk of CRC. Further studies are needed to understand the possible interaction between the base excision repair and low-frequency MSI pathways.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Canadá , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 17(11): 3081-9, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18990748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Lung Cancer Consortium was established in 2004. To clarify the role of DNA repair genes in lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a pooled analysis of genetic variants in DNA repair pathways, whose associations have been investigated by at least 3 individual studies. METHODS: Data from 14 studies were pooled for 18 sequence variants in 12 DNA repair genes, including APEX1, OGG1, XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, ERCC1, XPD, XPF, XPG, XPA, MGMT, and TP53. The total number of subjects included in the analysis for each variant ranged from 2,073 to 13,955 subjects. RESULTS: Four of the variants were found to be weakly associated with lung cancer risk with borderline significance: these were XRCC3 T241M [heterozygote odds ratio (OR), 0.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79-0.99 and homozygote OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-1.00] based on 3,467 cases and 5,021 controls from 8 studies, XPD K751Q (heterozygote OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.10 and homozygote OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39) based on 6,463 cases and 6,603 controls from 9 studies, and TP53 R72P (heterozygote OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.29 and homozygote OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.42) based on 3,610 cases and 5,293 controls from 6 studies. OGG1 S326C homozygote was suggested to be associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians (homozygote OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79) based on 2,569 cases and 4,178 controls from 4 studies but not in Asians. The other 14 variants did not exhibit main effects on lung cancer risk. DISCUSSION: In addition to data pooling, future priorities of International Lung Cancer Consortium include coordinated genotyping and multistage validation for ongoing genome-wide association studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Int J Cancer ; 122(2): 387-92, 2008 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17935138

RESUMO

Exposure to exogenous (oral contraceptives, postmenopausal hormone therapy) and endogenous (number of ovulatory cycles, adiposity) steroid hormones is associated with breast cancer risk. Breast cancer risk associated with these exposures could hypothetically be modified by genes in the steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and signaling pathways. Estrogen receptors are the first step along the path of signaling cell growth and development upon stimulation with estrogens. The National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium has systematically selected haplotype tagging SNPs in genes along the steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and binding pathways, including the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene. Four htSNPs tag the 6 major (>5% frequency) haplotypes of the ESR2 gene. These polymorphisms have been genotyped in 5,789 breast cancer cases and 7,761 controls nested within the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, Multiethnic Cohort, Nurses' Health Study and Women's Health Study cohorts. None of the SNPs were independently associated with breast cancer risk. One haplotype of the ESR2 gene was associated with breast cancer risk before correction for multiple testing (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28, p = 0.0007). This haplotype remained associated with breast cancer risk after adjustment for multiple testing using a permutation procedure. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity in SNP or haplotype odds ratios across cohorts. These data suggest that inherited variants in ESR2 (while possibly conferring a small increased risk of breast cancer) are not associated with appreciable (OR > 1.2) changes in breast cancer risk among Caucasian women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/biossíntese , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão , Risco
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