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1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; : 106781, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147573

RESUMO

Phylogenomic approaches now generate hundreds of loci representative of the whole genome that can be used for phylogenetic analyses. The South American lizard genus Liolaemus is the most species-rich vertebrate radiation from temperate zones (more than 265 described species), yet most higher-level phylogenetic relationships within Liolaemus remain poorly resolved. In this study, we used 584 nuclear loci collected using targeted sequenced capture to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among 26 species representing the two subgenera within Liolaemus (Eulaemus + Liolaemus), and all major groups within Eulaemus. Previous molecular and morphological-based phylogenetic analyses of Eulaemus based on a limited number of characters resolved few higher-level relationships, although one point of agreement is that the early divergence within Eulaemus corresponds to the lineomaculatus section, followed by the diversification of eight main clades that are strongly supported and recognized. Liolaemus probably experienced relatively rapid divergences during parts of its evolutionary history, and a phylogenomic approach was used to resolve the relationships among the major groups. The new analyses presented here support the division of Liolaemus into two subgenera, and resolve relationships among many of the major clades of Eulaemus with strong support. A Bayesian divergence dating analysis using 44 protein-coding genes provides an estimation of the split of the two Liolaemus subgenera of approximately 19,7 ma (95% HPD = 16,94 - 23,04), while diversification within Eulaemus started at 15,05 ma (95% HPD = 12,94 - 17,59) among the L. lineomaculatus and the L. montanus series by Mid Miocene. A novel phylogenetic network analyses for SNP data identified two hybridizing edges among different groups of Eulaemus at different points in time. Having a solid phylogenetic hypothesis of the main Eulaemus clades opens new opportunities to test a variety of macroevolutionary questions for this unique radiation.

2.
Evolution ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067219

RESUMO

Comparative phylogeographic studies often support shared divergence times for co-distributed species with similar life histories and habitat specializations. During the late Holocene, West Africa experienced aridification and the turnover of rain forest habitats into savannas. These fragmented rain forests harbor impressive numbers of endemic and threatened species. In this setting, populations of co-distributed rain forest species are expected to have diverged simultaneously, whereas divergence events for species adapted to savanna and forest-edge habitats should be absent or idiosyncratic. We conducted a Bayesian analysis of shared evolutionary events to test models of population divergence for 20 species of anurans (frogs) and squamates (lizards and snakes) that are distributed across the Dahomey Gap, a climate change-induced savanna barrier responsible for fragmenting previously contiguous rain forests of Ghana into two regions: the Togo-Volta Hills and the Southwestern Forests. A model of asynchronous diversification is supported for anurans and squamates, suggesting that drivers of diversification are not specifically related to ecological and life history associations with habitat types. Instead, the wide variability of genetic divergence histories exhibited by these species suggests that biodiversity in this region has been shaped by diversification events that extend beyond the Holocene. Comparisons of the genealogical divergence index, a measure of the genetic divergence between populations due to the combined effects of genetic isolation and gene flow, illustrate that these populations represent a broad sampling of the speciation continuum.

3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 139: 106524, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170522

RESUMO

Organisms rapidly diversifying across unstable environments such as mountain tops provide substantial challenges for resolving evolutionary histories and delimiting species. The Liolaemus leopardinus clade is a group of five species of lizards adapted to high altitudes in central Chile, with most species found in the Andes, but one species, L. frassinettii is found in the independent Costa Cordillera. Despite their allopatric distributions, they display shallow mitochondrial divergences, making phylogenetics and species delimitation of this clade hard to resolve. We use an integrative approach to delimit species by considering morphological data (linear and landmark-based), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and nuclear DNA (Sequences and SNPs collected with ddRADseq). We find strong conflicting signals between phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear and mtDNA data. While mtDNA places L. frassinettii as sister to the rest of the clade, the SNPs support a south to north order of divergences, with southernmost species (new taxon described here) as sister to the rest of the clade. Moreover, species delimitation using mtDNA only supports two species (one in the Costa and one in the Andes), whereas combined analyses using the nuclear data and morphology support multiple Andean taxa, including a new one we describe here. Based on these results, population structure analyses and our knowledge of the geological and climatic history of the Andes, we argue that this mito-nuclear discordance is explained by past introgression among the Andean taxa, likely during glacial periods that forced these lizards to lower altitudes where they would hybridize. The complete isolation between the Costa and Andes cordilleras has prevented any further contact between taxa on either mountain chain. Our study highlights the importance of using multiple lines of evidence to resolve evolutionary histories, and the potential misleading results from relying solely on mtDNA.

4.
Syst Biol ; 68(6): 859-875, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140573

RESUMO

Theory predicts that sexually dimorphic traits under strong sexual selection, particularly those involved with intersexual signaling, can accelerate speciation and produce bursts of diversification. Sexual dichromatism (sexual dimorphism in color) is widely used as a proxy for sexual selection and is associated with rapid diversification in several animal groups, yet studies using phylogenetic comparative methods to explicitly test for an association between sexual dichromatism and diversification have produced conflicting results. Sexual dichromatism is rare in frogs, but it is both striking and prevalent in African reed frogs, a major component of the diverse frog radiation termed Afrobatrachia. In contrast to most other vertebrates, reed frogs display female-biased dichromatism in which females undergo color transformation, often resulting in more ornate coloration in females than in males. We produce a robust phylogeny of Afrobatrachia to investigate the evolutionary origins of sexual dichromatism in this radiation and examine whether the presence of dichromatism is associated with increased rates of net diversification. We find that sexual dichromatism evolved once within hyperoliids and was followed by numerous independent reversals to monochromatism. We detect significant diversification rate heterogeneity in Afrobatrachia and find that sexually dichromatic lineages have double the average net diversification rate of monochromatic lineages. By conducting trait simulations on our empirical phylogeny, we demonstrate that our inference of trait-dependent diversification is robust. Although sexual dichromatism in hyperoliid frogs is linked to their rapid diversification and supports macroevolutionary predictions of speciation by sexual selection, the function of dichromatism in reed frogs remains unclear. We propose that reed frogs are a compelling system for studying the roles of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of sexual dichromatism across micro- and macroevolutionary timescales.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Filogenia , Pigmentação , África , Animais , Anuros/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 138: 89-101, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128241

RESUMO

Coalescent-based algorithms coupled with the access to genome-wide data have become powerful tools for assessing questions on recent or rapid diversification, as well as delineating species boundaries in the absence of reciprocal monophyly. In southern South America, the diversification of Liolaemus lizards during the Pleistocene is well documented and has been attributed to the climatic changes that characterized this recent period of time. Past climatic changes had harsh effects at extreme latitudes, including Patagonia, but habitat changes at intermediate latitudes of South America have also been recorded, including expansion of sand fields over northern Patagonia and Pampas). In this work, we apply a coalescent-based approach to study the diversification of the Liolaemus wiegmannii species complex, a morphologically conservative clade that inhabits sandy soils across northwest and south-central Argentina, and the south shores of Uruguay. Using four standard sequence markers (mitochondrial DNA and three nuclear loci) along with ddRADseq data we inferred species limits and a time-calibrated species tree for the L. wiegmannii complex in order to evaluate the influence of Quaternary sand expansion/retraction cycles on diversification. We also evaluated the evolutionary independence of the recently described L. gardeli and inferred its phylogenetic position relative to L. wiegmannii. We find strong evidence for six allopatric candidate species within L. wiegmannii, which diversified during the Pleistocene. The Great Patagonian Glaciation (∼1 million years before present) likely split the species complex into two main groups: one composed of lineages associated with sub-Andean sedimentary formations, and the other mostly related to sand fields in the Pampas and northern Patagonia. We hypothesize that early speciation within L. wiegmannii was influenced by the expansion of sand dunes throughout central Argentina and Pampas. Finally, L. gardeli is supported as a distinct lineage nested within the L. wiegmannii complex.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Lagartos/classificação , Animais , Argentina , Teorema de Bayes , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Genoma , Geografia , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo , Uruguai
6.
Syst Biol ; 68(1): 168-181, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982825

RESUMO

Recent simulation studies examining the performance of Bayesian species delimitation as implemented in the bpp program have suggested that bpp may detect population splits but not species divergences and that it tends to over-split when data of many loci are analyzed. Here, we confirm these results and provide the mathematical justifications. We point out that the distinction between population and species splits made in the protracted speciation model (PSM) has no influence on the generation of gene trees and sequence data, which explains why no method can use such data to distinguish between population splits and speciation. We suggest that the PSM is unrealistic as its mechanism for assigning species status assumes instantaneous speciation, contradicting prevailing taxonomic practice. We confirm the suggestion, based on simulation, that in the case of speciation with gene flow, Bayesian model selection as implemented in bpp tends to detect population splits when the amount of data (the number of loci) increases. We discuss the use of a recently proposed empirical genealogical divergence index (gdi) for species delimitation and illustrate that parameter estimates produced by a full likelihood analysis as implemented in bpp provide much more reliable inference under the gdi than the approximate method phrapl. We distinguish between Bayesian model selection and parameter estimation and suggest that the model selection approach is useful for identifying sympatric cryptic species, while the parameter estimation approach may be used to implement empirical criteria for determining species status among allopatric populations.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Especiação Genética , Modelos Biológicos , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador
7.
Mol Ecol ; 27(13): 2884-2895, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742301

RESUMO

Determining the boundaries between species and deciding when to describe new species are challenging practices that are particularly difficult in groups with high levels of geographic variation. The coast horned lizards (Phrynosoma blainvillii, Phrynosoma cerroense and P. coronatum) have an extensive geographic distribution spanning many distinctive ecological regions ranging from northern California to the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico, and populations differ substantially with respect to external morphology across much of this range. The number of taxa recognized in the group has been reevaluated by herpetologists over 20 times during the last 180 years, and typically without the aid of explicit species delimitation methods, resulting in a turbulent taxonomy containing anywhere from one to seven taxa. In this study, we evaluate taxonomic trends through time by ranking 15 of these species delimitation models (SDMs) using coalescent analyses of nuclear loci and SNPs in a Bayesian model comparison framework. Species delimitation models containing more species were generally favoured by Bayesian model selection; however, several three-species models outperformed some four- and five-species SDMs, and the top-ranked model, which contained five species, outperformed all SDMs containing six species. Model performance peaked in the 1950s based on marginal likelihoods estimated from nuclear loci and SNPs. Not surprisingly, SDMs based on genetic data outperformed morphological taxonomies when using genetic data alone to evaluate models. The de novo estimation of population structure favours a three-population model that matches the currently recognized integrative taxonomy containing three species. We discuss why Bayesian model selection might favour models containing more species, and why recognizing more than three species might be warranted.


Assuntos
Classificação , Ecologia , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Lagartos/classificação , México , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 125: 243-254, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555296

RESUMO

Rapid evolutionary radiations are difficult to resolve because divergence events are nearly synchronous and gene flow among nascent species can be high, resulting in a phylogenetic "bush". Large datasets composed of sequence loci from across the genome can potentially help resolve some of these difficult phylogenetic problems. A suitable test case is the Liolaemus fitzingerii species group of lizards, which includes twelve species that are broadly distributed in Argentinean Patagonia. The species in the group have had a complex evolutionary history that has led to high morphological variation and unstable taxonomy. We generated a sequence capture dataset for 28 ingroup individuals of 580 nuclear loci, alongside a mitogenomic dataset, to infer phylogenetic relationships among species in this group. Relationships among species were generally weakly supported with the nuclear data, and along with an inferred age of ∼2.6 million years old, indicate either rapid evolution, hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, non-informative data, or a combination thereof. We inferred a signal of mito-nuclear discordance, indicating potential hybridization between L. melanops and L. martorii, and phylogenetic network analyses provided support for 5 reticulation events among species. Phasing the nuclear loci did not provide additional insight into relationships or suspected patterns of hybridization. Only one clade, composed of L. camarones, L. fitzingerii, and L. xanthoviridis was recovered across all analyses. Genomic datasets provide molecular systematists with new opportunities to resolve difficult phylogenetic problems, yet the lack of phylogenetic resolution in Patagonian Liolaemus is biologically meaningful and indicative of a recent and rapid evolutionary radiation. The phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus fitzingerii group may be best modeled as a reticulated network instead of a bifurcating phylogeny.


Assuntos
Genômica , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Geografia , Hibridização Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 125: 100-115, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574273

RESUMO

The Balkan Peninsula constitutes a biodiversity hotspot with high levels of species richness and endemism. The complex geological history of the Balkans in conjunction with the climate evolution are hypothesized as the main drivers generating this biodiversity. We investigated the phylogeography, historical demography, and population structure of closely related wall-lizard species from the Balkan Peninsula and southeastern Europe to better understand diversification processes of species with limited dispersal ability, from Late Miocene to the Holocene. We used several analytical methods integrating genome-wide SNPs (ddRADseq), microsatellites, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data, as well as species distribution modelling. Phylogenomic analysis resulted in a completely resolved species level phylogeny, population level analyses confirmed the existence of at least two cryptic evolutionary lineages and extensive within species genetic structuring. Divergence time estimations indicated that the Messinian Salinity Crisis played a key role in shaping patterns of species divergence, whereas intraspecific genetic structuring was mainly driven by Pliocene tectonic events and Quaternary climatic oscillations. The present work highlights the effectiveness of utilizing multiple methods and data types coupled with extensive geographic sampling to uncover the evolutionary processes that shaped the species over space and time.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Modelos Biológicos , Filogeografia , Animais , Península Balcânica , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Calibragem , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genômica , Haplótipos/genética , Lagartos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 120: 183-195, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246816

RESUMO

Generally, genotypes and phenotypes are expected to be spatially congruent; however, in widespread species complexes with few barriers to dispersal, multiple contact zones, and limited reproductive isolation, discordance between phenotypes and phylogeographic groups is more probable. Wagtails (Motacilla) are a genus of birds with striking plumage pattern variation across the Old World. Up to 13 subspecies are recognized within a single species, yet previous studies using mitochondrial DNA have supported polyphyletic phylogeographic groups that are inconsistent with subspecies plumage characteristics. In this study, we investigate the link between phenotypes and genotype by taking a phylogenetic approach. We use genome-wide SNPs, nuclear introns, and mitochondrial DNA to estimate population structure, isolation by distance, and species relationships. Together, our genetic sampling includes complete species-level sampling and comprehensive coverage of the three most phenotypically diverse Palearctic species. Our study provides strong evidence for species-level patterns of differentiation, however population-level differentiation is less pronounced. SNPs provide a robust estimate of species-level relationships, which are mostly corroborated by a combined analysis of mtDNA and nuclear introns (the first time-calibrated species tree for the genus). However, the mtDNA tree is strongly incongruent and is considered to misrepresent the species phylogeny. The extant wagtail lineages originated during the Pliocene and the Eurasian lineage underwent rapid diversification during the Pleistocene. Three of four widespread Eurasian species exhibit an east-west divide that contradicts both subspecies taxonomy and phenotypic variation. Indeed, SNPs fail to distinguish between phenotypically distinct subspecies within the M. alba and M. flava complexes, and instead support geographical regions, each of which is home to two or more different looking subspecies. This is a major step towards our understanding of wagtail phylogeny compared to previous analyses of fewer species and considerably less sequence data.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Passeriformes/genética , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genótipo , Passeriformes/classificação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 120: 274-285, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246817

RESUMO

Frogs in the genus Amnirana (family Ranidae) are widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa and present a model system for exploring the relationship between diversification and geography across the continent. Using multiple loci from the mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear genomes (DISP2, FICD, KIAA2013, REV3L), we generated a strongly supported species-level phylogeny that provides insights into the continental biogeography of African species of Amnirana, which form a monophyletic group within the genus. Species delimitation analyses suggest that there may be as many as seven additional species of Amnirana in Africa. The biogeographic history of Amnirana is marked by several dispersal and vicariance events, including dispersal from the Lower Guinean Forest into the Congo Basin. In addition, phylogeographic patterns within two widespread species, A. albolabris and A. galamensis, reveal undescribed cryptic diversity. Populations assigned to A. albolabris in western Africa are more closely related to A. fonensis and require recognition as a distinct species. Our analyses reveal that the Lower and Upper Guinean Forest regions served as important centers of interspecific and intraspecific diversifications for Amnirana.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Biodiversidade , Filogenia , África ao Sul do Saara , Proteínas de Anfíbios/classificação , Proteínas de Anfíbios/genética , Proteínas de Anfíbios/metabolismo , Animais , Anuros/genética , DNA/classificação , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Membrana/classificação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
PeerJ ; 5: e3941, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085750

RESUMO

The genus Liolaemus is one of the most ecologically diverse and species-rich genera of lizards worldwide. It currently includes more than 250 recognized species, which have been subject to many ecological and evolutionary studies. Nevertheless, Liolaemus lizards have a complex taxonomic history, mainly due to the incongruence between morphological and genetic data, incomplete taxon sampling, incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization. In addition, as many species have restricted and remote distributions, this has hampered their examination and inclusion in molecular systematic studies. The aims of this study are to infer a robust phylogeny for a subsample of lizards representing the Chilean clade (subgenus Liolaemus sensu stricto), and to test the monophyly of several of the major species groups. We use a phylogenomic approach, targeting 541 ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) and 44 protein-coding genes for 16 taxa. We conduct a comparison of phylogenetic analyses using maximum-likelihood and several species tree inference methods. The UCEs provide stronger support for phylogenetic relationships compared to the protein-coding genes; however, the UCEs outnumber the protein-coding genes by 10-fold. On average, the protein-coding genes contain over twice the number of informative sites. Based on our phylogenomic analyses, all the groups sampled are polyphyletic. Liolaemus tenuis tenuis is difficult to place in the phylogeny, because only a few loci (nine) were recovered for this species. Topologies or support values did not change dramatically upon exclusion of L. t. tenuis from analyses, suggesting that missing data did not had a significant impact on phylogenetic inference in this data set. The phylogenomic analyses provide strong support for sister group relationships between L. fuscus, L. monticola, L. nigroviridis and L. nitidus, and L. platei and L. velosoi. Despite our limited taxon sampling, we have provided a reliable starting hypothesis for the relationships among many major groups of the Chilean clade of Liolaemus that will help future work aimed at resolving the Liolaemus phylogeny.

13.
Mol Ecol ; 26(19): 5245-5263, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748565

RESUMO

The accumulation of biodiversity in tropical forests can occur through multiple allopatric and parapatric models of diversification, including forest refugia, riverine barriers and ecological gradients. Considerable debate surrounds the major diversification process, particularly in the West African Lower Guinea forests, which contain a complex geographic arrangement of topographic features and historical refugia. We used genomic data to investigate alternative mechanisms of diversification in the Gaboon forest frog, Scotobleps gabonicus, by first identifying population structure and then performing demographic model selection and spatially explicit analyses. We found that a majority of population divergences are best explained by allopatric models consistent with the forest refugia hypothesis and involve divergence in isolation with subsequent expansion and gene flow. These population divergences occurred simultaneously and conform to predictions based on climatically stable regions inferred through ecological niche modelling. Although forest refugia played a prominent role in the intraspecific diversification of S. gabonicus, we also find evidence for potential interactions between landscape features and historical refugia, including major rivers and elevational barriers such as the Cameroonian Volcanic Line. We outline the advantages of using genomewide variation in a model-testing framework to distinguish between alternative allopatric hypotheses, and the pitfalls of limited geographic and molecular sampling. Although phylogeographic patterns are often species-specific and related to life-history traits, additional comparative studies incorporating genomic data are necessary for separating shared historical processes from idiosyncratic responses to environmental, climatic and geological influences on diversification.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Animais , Camarões , Congo , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Guiné Equatorial , Florestas , Gabão , Fluxo Gênico , Modelos Biológicos , Nigéria , Filogeografia , Clima Tropical
14.
Mol Ecol ; 26(14): 3618-3635, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28370723

RESUMO

Genomic responses to habitat conversion can be rapid, providing wildlife managers with time-limited opportunities to enact recovery efforts that use population connectivity information that reflects predisturbance landscapes. Despite near-complete biome conversion, such opportunities may still exist for the endemic fauna and flora of California's San Joaquin Desert, but comprehensive genetic data sets are lacking for nearly all species in the region. To fill this knowledge gap, we studied the rangewide population structure of the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard Gambelia sila, a San Joaquin Desert endemic, using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD), microsatellite and mtDNA data to test whether admixture patterns and estimates of effective migration surfaces (EEMS) can identify land areas with high population connectivity prior to the conversion of native xeric habitats. Clustering and phylogenetic analyses indicate a recent shared history between numerous isolated populations and EEMS reveals latent signals of corridors and barriers to gene flow over areas now replaced by agriculture and urbanization. Conflicting histories between the mtDNA and nuclear genomes are consistent with hybridization with the sister species G. wislizenii, raising important questions about where legal protection should end at the southern range limit of G. sila. Comparative analysis of different data sets also adds to a growing list of advantages in using RAD loci for genetic studies of rare species. We demonstrate how the results of this work can serve as an evolutionary guidance tool for managing endemic, arid-adapted taxa in one of the world's most compromised landscapes.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Genética Populacional , Lagartos/genética , Animais , California , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia
15.
Mol Ecol ; 26(8): 2306-2316, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28133829

RESUMO

Moving hybrid zones provide compelling examples of evolution in action, yet long-term studies that test the assumptions of hybrid zone stability are rare. Using replicated transect samples collected over a 10-year interval from 2002 to 2012, we find evidence for concerted movement of genetic clines in a plateau fence lizard hybrid zone (Sceloporus tristichus) in Arizona. Cline-fitting analyses of SNP and mtDNA data both provide evidence that the hybrid zone shifted northward by approximately 2 km during the 10-year interval. For each sampling period, the mtDNA cline centre is displaced from the SNP cline centre and maintaining an introgression distance of approximately 3 km. The northward expansion of juniper trees into the Little Colorado River Basin in the early 1900s provides a plausible mechanism for hybrid zone formation and movement, and a broadscale quantification of recent land cover change provides support for increased woody species encroachment at the southern end of the hybrid zone. However, population processes can also contribute to hybrid zone movement, and the current stability of the ecotone habitats in the centre of the hybrid zone suggests that movement could decelerate in the future.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hibridização Genética , Lagartos/genética , Animais , Arizona , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 106: 241-253, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27720785

RESUMO

Middle American knob-scaled lizards of the genus Xenosaurus are a unique radiation of viviparous species that are generally characterized by a flattened body shape and a crevice-dwelling ecology. Only eight species of Xenosaurus, one of them with five subspecies (X. grandis), have been formally described. However, species limits within Xenosaurus have never been examined using molecular data, and no complete phylogeny of the genus has been published. Here, we used ddRADseq data from all of the described and potentially undescribed taxa of Xenosaurus to investigate species limits, and to obtain a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus. We analyzed the data using a variety of phylogenetic models, and were able to reconstruct a well-resolved and generally well-supported phylogeny for this group. We found Xenosaurus to be composed of four major, allopatric clades concordant with geography. The first and second clades that branch off the tree are distributed on the Atlantic slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental and are composed of X. mendozai, X. platyceps, and X. newmanorum, and X. tzacualtipantecus and an undescribed species from Puebla, respectively. The third clade is distributed from the Atlantic slopes of the Mexican Transvolcanic Belt in west-central Veracruz south to the Pacific slopes of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero and Oaxaca, and is composed of X. g. grandis, X. rectocollaris, X. phalaroanthereon, X. g. agrenon, X. penai, and four undescribed species from Oaxaca. The last clade is composed of the four taxa that are geographically closest to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (X. g. arboreus, X. g. rackhami, X. g. sanmartinensis, and an undescribed species from Oaxaca). We also utilized a variety of molecular species delimitation approaches, including analyses with GMYC, PTP, BPP, and BFD∗, which suggested that species diversity in Xenosaurus is at least 30% higher than currently estimated.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , Lagartos/genética , México , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
BMC Evol Biol ; 16: 63, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resolving the short phylogenetic branches that result from rapid evolutionary diversification often requires large numbers of loci. We collected targeted sequence capture data from 585 nuclear loci (541 ultraconserved elements and 44 protein-coding genes) to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among iguanian lizards in the North American genus Sceloporus. We tested for diversification rate shifts to determine if rapid radiation in the genus is correlated with chromosomal evolution. RESULTS: The phylogenomic trees that we obtained for Sceloporus using concatenation and coalescent-based species tree inference provide strong support for the monophyly and interrelationships among nearly all major groups. The diversification analysis supported one rate shift on the Sceloporus phylogeny approximately 20-25 million years ago that is associated with the doubling of the speciation rate from 0.06 species/million years (Ma) to 0.15 species/Ma. The posterior probability for this rate shift occurring on the branch leading to the Sceloporus species groups exhibiting increased chromosomal diversity is high (posterior probability = 0.997). CONCLUSIONS: Despite high levels of gene tree discordance, we were able to estimate a phylogenomic tree for Sceloporus that solves some of the taxonomic problems caused by previous analyses of fewer loci. The taxonomic changes that we propose using this new phylogenomic tree help clarify the number and composition of the major species groups in the genus. Our study provides new evidence for a putative link between chromosomal evolution and the rapid divergence and radiation of Sceloporus across North America.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cromossomos , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Animais , América do Norte , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Ecol Evol ; 6(6): 1834-53, 2016 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26933489

RESUMO

Climate change, fisheries' pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonization and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes in demographic rates (e.g., reproduction and survival) or migration among suitable patches of habitat. Here, we describe the population structure of a colonial seabird breeding across a large latitudinal range in the Southern Ocean. Using multilocus microsatellite genotype data from 510 Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) individuals from 14 colonies along the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula, together with mitochondrial DNA data, we find strong genetic differentiation between colonies north and south of the Polar Front, that coincides geographically with the taxonomic boundary separating the subspecies P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthii. Using a discrete Bayesian phylogeographic approach, we show that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long-distance dispersal. Our findings show that this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry, though persistent oceanographic features serve as barriers to movement.

20.
Syst Biol ; 65(3): 465-77, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26738927

RESUMO

The anomaly zone, defined by the presence of gene tree topologies that are more probable than the true species tree, presents a major challenge to the accurate resolution of many parts of the Tree of Life. This discrepancy can result from consecutive rapid speciation events in the species tree. Similar to the problem of long-branch attraction, including more data via loci concatenation will only reinforce the support for the incorrect species tree. Empirical phylogenetic studies often employ coalescent-based species tree methods to avoid the anomaly zone, but to this point these studies have not had a method for providing any direct evidence that the species tree is actually in the anomaly zone. In this study, we use 16 species of lizards in the family Scincidae to investigate whether nodes that are difficult to resolve place the species tree within the anomaly zone. We analyze new phylogenomic data (429 loci), using both concatenation and coalescent-based species tree estimation, to locate conflicting topological signal. We then use the unifying principle of the anomaly zone, together with estimates of ancestral population sizes and species persistence times, to determine whether the observed phylogenetic conflict is a result of the anomaly zone. We identify at least three regions of the Scincidae phylogeny that provide demographic signatures consistent with the anomaly zone, and this new information helps reconcile the phylogenetic conflict in previously published studies on these lizards. The anomaly zone presents a real problem in phylogenetics, and our new framework for identifying anomalous relationships will help empiricists leverage their resources appropriately for investigating and overcoming this challenge.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Animais , Genoma/genética
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