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1.
Cytokine ; 127: 154938, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785499

RESUMO

Children with Down syndrome (DS) develop more infections, have an increased mortality from sepsis and an increased incidence of chronic inflammatory conditions. Cytokine dysregulation may underpin these clinical sequelae and raised pro-inflammatory biomarkers are a feature in adults with DS. The importance of the anti-inflammatory mediators IL-1ra and IL-10, as well as cytokines Epo and VEGF, which could impact on the pathogenesis and outcomes in congenital heart disease (CHD) which is more prevalent in DS, are less well known. We examined a comprehensive array of pro-(IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IFN-γ), and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and IL-1ra) mediators, cytokines involved in inflammation in response to hypoxia (EPO), propagating angiogenesis (VEGF), and myelopoiesis (GM-CSF), by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as well as discussing the potential impact of significant CHD and Lipopolysaccharide endotoxin on these mediators. 114 children with DS and 60 age and sex matched controls were recruited. Children with Down syndrome exhibit significantly greater levels of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines; IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, as well as increased Epo, VEGF and GM-CSF at baseline. CHD does not seem to have an impact on circulating cytokines beyond the acute surgical phase. Both cohorts had similar responses to LPS stimulation. These differences may contribute to varied clinical outcomes, acutely like in sepsis, and over time in autoimmunity.

2.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 4068734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611734

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the key in initiating innate immune responses. TLR2 is crucial in recognising lipopeptides from gram-positive bacteria and is implicated in chronic inflammation. Children with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to infections from these pathogens and have an increased risk of autoimmunity. Sparstolonin B (SsnB) is a TLR antagonist which attenuates cytokine production and improves outcomes in sepsis. We hypothesised that TLR signalling may be abnormal in children with DS and contribute to their clinical phenotype. We evaluated TLR pathways in 3 ways: determining the expression of TLR2 on the surface of neutrophils and monocytes by flow cytometry, examining the gene expression of key regulatory proteins involved in TLR signal propagation, MyD88, IRAK4, and TRIF, by quantitative PCR, and lastly determining the cytokine production by ELISA following immunomodulation with proinflammatory stimuli (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam3Csk4) and the anti-inflammatory agent SsnB. We report TLR2 expression being significantly increased on neutrophils, total monocytes, and intermediate and nonclassical monocytes in children with DS (n = 20, mean age 8.8 ± SD 5.3 years, female n = 11) compared to controls (n = 15, mean age 6.2 ± 4.2 years, female n = 5). At baseline, the expression of MyD88 was significantly lower, and TRIF significantly raised in children with DS. The TLR antagonist SsnB was effective in reducing TLR2 and CD11b expression and abrogating cytokine production in both cohorts. We conclude that TLR signalling and the TLR2 pathway are dysregulated in DS, and this disparate innate immunity may contribute to chronic inflammation in DS. SsnB attenuates proinflammatory mediators and may be of therapeutic benefit.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 297, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941118

RESUMO

Non-canonical NF-κB-pathway signaling is integral in immunoregulation. Heterozygous mutations in NFKB2 have recently been established as a molecular cause of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and DAVID-syndrome, a rare condition combining deficiency of anterior pituitary hormone with CVID. Here, we investigate 15 previously unreported patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) from eleven unrelated families with heterozygous NFKB2-mutations including eight patients with the common p.Arg853* nonsense mutation and five patients harboring unique novel C-terminal truncating mutations. In addition, we describe the clinical phenotype of two patients with proximal truncating mutations. Cohort analysis extended to all 35 previously published NFKB2-cases revealed occurrence of early-onset PID in 46/50 patients (mean age of onset 5.9 years, median 4.0 years). ACTH-deficiency occurred in 44%. Three mutation carriers have deceased, four developed malignancies. Only two mutation carriers were clinically asymptomatic. In contrast to typical CVID, most patients suffered from early-onset and severe disease manifestations, including clinical signs of T cell dysfunction e.g., chronic-viral or opportunistic infections. In addition, 80% of patients suffered from (predominately T cell mediated) autoimmune (AI) phenomena (alopecia > various lymphocytic organ-infiltration > diarrhea > arthritis > AI-cytopenia). Unlike in other forms of CVID, auto-antibodies or lymphoproliferation were not common hallmarks of disease. Immunophenotyping showed largely normal or even increased quantities of naïve and memory CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells and normal T-cell proliferation. NK-cell number and function were also normal. In contrast, impaired B-cell differentiation and hypogammaglobinemia were consistent features of NFKB2-associated disease. In addition, an array of lymphocyte subpopulations, such as regulatory T cell, Th17-, cTFH-, NKT-, and MAIT-cell numbers were decreased. We conclude that heterozygous damaging mutations in NFKB2 represent a distinct PID entity exceeding the usual clinical spectrum of CVID. Impairment of the non-canonical NF-κB pathways affects function and differentiation of numerous lymphocyte-subpopulations and thus causes a heterogeneous, more severe form of PID phenotype with early-onset. Further characteristic features are multifaceted, primarily T cell-mediated autoimmunity, such as alopecia, lymphocytic organ infiltration, and in addition frequently ACTH-deficiency.

4.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

8.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(12): 2109-2120, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28930861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where many genetic loci have been shown to be involved in complex disease etiology, early-onset IBD (eoIBD) and associated syndromes can sometimes present as monogenic conditions. As a result, the clinical phenotype and ideal disease management in these patients often differ from those in adult-onset IBD. However, due to high costs and the complexity of data analysis, high-throughput screening for genetic causes has not yet become a standard part of the diagnostic work-up of eoIBD patients. METHODS: We selected 28 genes of interest associated with monogenic IBD and performed targeted panel sequencing in 71 patients diagnosed with eoIBD or early-onset chronic diarrhea to detect causative variants. We compared these results to whole-exome sequencing (WES) data available for 25 of these patients. RESULTS: Target coverage was significantly higher in the targeted gene panel approach compared with WES, whereas the cost of the panel was considerably lower (approximately 25% of WES). Disease-causing variants affecting protein function were identified in 5 patients (7%), located in genes of the IL10 signaling pathway (3), WAS (1), and DKC1 (1). The functional effects of 8 candidate variants in 5 additional patients (7%) are under further investigation. WES did not identify additional causative mutations in 25 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted gene panel sequencing is a fast and effective screening method for monogenic causes of eoIBD that should be routinely established in national referral centers.


Assuntos
Diarreia/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(6): 1660-1670.e16, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thymus transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of athymic complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS). METHODS: Twelve patients with cDGS underwent transplantation with allogeneic cultured thymus. OBJECTIVE: We sought to confirm and extend the results previously obtained in a single center. RESULTS: Two patients died of pre-existing viral infections without having thymopoiesis, and 1 late death occurred from autoimmune thrombocytopenia. One infant had septic shock shortly after transplantation, resulting in graft loss and the need for a second transplant. Evidence of thymopoiesis developed from 5 to 6 months after transplantation in 10 patients. Median circulating naive CD4 counts were 44 × 106/L (range, 11-440 × 106/L) and 200 × 106/L (range, 5-310 × 106/L) at 12 and 24 months after transplantation and T-cell receptor excision circles were 2,238/106 T cells (range, 320-8,807/106 T cells) and 4,184/106 T cells (range, 1,582-24,596/106 T cells). Counts did not usually reach normal levels for age, but patients were able to clear pre-existing infections and those acquired later. At a median of 49 months (range, 22-80 months), 8 have ceased prophylactic antimicrobials, and 5 have ceased immunoglobulin replacement. Histologic confirmation of thymopoiesis was seen in 7 of 11 patients undergoing biopsy of transplanted tissue, including 5 showing full maturation through to the terminal stage of Hassall body formation. Autoimmune regulator expression was also demonstrated. Autoimmune complications were seen in 7 of 12 patients. In 2 patients early transient autoimmune hemolysis settled after treatment and did not recur. The other 5 experienced ongoing autoimmune problems, including thyroiditis (3), hemolysis (1), thrombocytopenia (4), and neutropenia (1). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the previous reports that thymus transplantation can reconstitute T cells in patients with cDGS but with frequent autoimmune complications in survivors.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/terapia , Transplante de Órgãos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/transplante , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de DiGeorge/imunologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Reconstituição Imune , Lactente , Masculino , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 35(11): e326-e338, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27434830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease severity in viral bronchiolitis is often difficult to predict at onset, and may be related to the host immune response. Recognizing the particular immunologic features of infants who develop severe disease might offer an opportunity for developing diagnostic tools to facilitate early intervention and improve outcomes. METHODS: We compared cytokine gene expression (by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction), cytokine concentrations (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and the activation status of lymphocytes (by flow cytometry) in the peripheral blood of children hospitalized with moderate and severe viral bronchiolitis and a group of age-matched controls. RESULTS: Analysis was undertaken on 57 children with viral bronchiolitis and 33 controls. Interleukin-7 mRNA expression at enrollment in peripheral blood mononuclear cells differed significantly between those with moderate and severe bronchiolitis, and correlated with both the subsequent length of hospital stay and need for supplemental oxygen therapy. Serum interleukin-10 concentration also distinguished moderate from severe disease. Participants with viral bronchiolitis demonstrated a more activated γδ-T cell phenotype (Vδ1+), but a more naive TCR αß-T cell compartment compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Viral bronchiolitis is characterized by a distinct pattern of cytokine expression and lymphocyte activation. These changes suggest an inadequate innate response in severe disease, and may offer potential as markers of disease severity.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Viral/genética , Citocinas/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Bronquiolite Viral/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Eur Respir J ; 47(1): 212-22, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26541527

RESUMO

Disease severity in viral bronchiolitis in infancy is difficult to predict and has been linked to host innate immunity. The study aimed to investigate the innate cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) as a marker of disease severity.A prospective single-centre observational study was conducted in a university-affiliated paediatric teaching hospital, comparing children (0-18 months) hospitalised for viral bronchiolitis, those admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with severe disease and healthy age-matched controls. IL-15-related parameters were compared between groups. PCR and microRNA (miRNA) sequencing was undertaken on natural killer (NK) cells collected from study participants.Samples from 88 children with viral bronchiolitis and 43 controls enrolled between 2009 and 2012 were analysed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) IL-15 mRNA expression was significantly higher in those with moderate severity bronchiolitis compared with controls and those with severe disease. Serum IL-15 levels correlated with disease severity. The relative frequency of NK cells in peripheral blood was significantly reduced in participants with bronchiolitis. The NK cell miRNA transcriptome in bronchiolitis was distinct. Targets of de-regulated miRNA were differentially expressed in bronchiolitis, including JAK3, STAT5A and NFKB1 on the IL-15 signalling pathway.IL-15 is associated with disease severity in children hospitalised with viral bronchiolitis.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Viral/imunologia , Interleucina-15/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Bronquiolite Viral/genética , Bronquiolite Viral/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Interleucina-15/genética , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/genética , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 7(307): 307ra154, 2015 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26424569

RESUMO

Type I interferon (IFN-α/ß) is a fundamental antiviral defense mechanism. Mouse models have been pivotal to understanding the role of IFN-α/ß in immunity, although validation of these findings in humans has been limited. We investigated a previously healthy child with fatal encephalitis after inoculation of the live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. By targeted resequencing, we identified a homozygous mutation in the high-affinity IFN-α/ß receptor (IFNAR2) in the proband, as well as a newborn sibling, that rendered cells unresponsive to IFN-α/ß. Reconstitution of the proband's cells with wild-type IFNAR2 restored IFN-α/ß responsiveness and control of IFN-attenuated viruses. Despite the severe outcome of systemic live vaccine challenge, the proband had previously shown no evidence of heightened susceptibility to respiratory viral pathogens. The phenotype of IFNAR2 deficiency, together with similar findings in STAT2-deficient patients, supports an essential but narrow role for IFN-α/ß in human antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Antivirais/metabolismo , Imunidade , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/deficiência , Evolução Fatal , Genes Recessivos , Teste de Complementação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Interferons/metabolismo , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 60(10): 1656-61, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23682005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against influenza is an important strategy in preventing severe infection among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Successful vaccination depends on both vaccine and host-related factors. We conducted a study on factors predicting the immunogenicity of the monovalent pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza A vaccine in children with ALL. METHODS: Children with ALL in our hospital were recruited and received two doses of the inactivated split-virion AS03-adjuvanted vaccine. The serological response was measured before each vaccine dose (Day 0 and 28) and 3 months after the second dose. Antibody titres were measured using a hemagglutination-inhibition assay. Seroconversion was defined as a ≥fourfold increase in antibody titre and a post-vaccination titre ≥1:40. RESULTS: Pre and post-vaccination titres were available from 45 children with ALL after one dose of the vaccine and 39 children after two doses. The seroconversion rate was 11.1% after one dose and 25.6% after the second dose. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significantly higher (P = 0.01) seroconversion rate among children who received the adult dose (0.5 ml) of the vaccine and a trend towards increased seroconversion (P = 0.07) by multivariate analysis. Factors including age, gender, lymphocyte count, treatment phase and regimen did not significantly affect the seroconversion rate. Children who received the adult dose demonstrated a significantly greater magnitude of serological response after both one dose (P = 0.04) and two doses (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the immunogenicity of the pH1N1 vaccine among children with ALL is improved by repeated and adult doses of the vaccine.


Assuntos
Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Imunização Secundária , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Masculino
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 27(4): 362-3, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18316987

RESUMO

Neurologic complications can occur with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, usually after vesicular exanthem. We report the case of a previously healthy 14-year-old boy with aseptic meningitis as a result of reactivated-VZV infection without exanthem. Diagnosis was made by detection of VZV-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. VZV should be considered in cases of aseptic meningitis, even without a history of exanthem or immune compromise.


Assuntos
Encefalite por Varicela Zoster/virologia , Exantema , Herpesvirus Humano 3/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , DNA Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Masculino
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