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1.
Metab Eng Commun ; 14: e00194, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35242556

RESUMO

Plants are a rich source of bioactive compounds, many of which have been exploited for cosmetic, nutritional, and medicinal purposes. Through the characterization of metabolic pathways, as well as the mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of secondary metabolites, researchers have been able to increase the production of bioactive compounds in different plant species for research and commercial applications. The intent of the current review is to describe the metabolic engineering methods that have been used to transform in vitro or field-grown medicinal plants over the last decade and to identify the most effective approaches to increase the production of alkaloids. The articles summarized were categorized into six groups: endogenous enzyme overexpression, foreign enzyme overexpression, transcription factor overexpression, gene silencing, genome editing, and co-overexpression. We conclude that, because of the complex and multi-step nature of biosynthetic pathways, the approach that has been most commonly used to increase the biosynthesis of alkaloids, and the most effective in terms of fold increase, is the co-overexpression of two or more rate-limiting enzymes followed by the manipulation of regulatory genes.

2.
Anim Reprod ; 18(4): e20210072, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925559

RESUMO

Bovine oocytes and blastocysts produced in vitro are frequently of lower quality and less cryotolerant than those produced in vivo, and greater accumulation of lipids in the cytoplasm has been pointed out as one of the reasons. In human adipocytes cGMP signaling through the activation of PKG appears to be involved in lipid metabolism, and components of this pathway have been detected in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of this pathway on the lipid content in oocytes and expression of PLIN2 (a lipid metabolism-related gene) in cumulus cells. COCs were matured in vitro for 24 h with different stimulators of cGMP synthesis. The activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) by Protoporphyrin IX reduced lipid content (22.7 FI) compared to control oocytes (36.45 FI; P <0.05). Stimulation of membrane guanylyl cyclase (mGC) with natriuretic peptides precursors A and C (NPPA and NPPC) had no effect (36.5 FI; P>0.05). When the PKG inhibitor KT5823 was associated with Protoporphyrin IX, its effect was reversed and lipid contents increased (52.71 FI; P<0.05). None of the stimulators of cGMP synthesis affected the expression of PLIN2 in cumulus cells. In conclusion, stimulation of sGC for cGMP synthesis promotes lipolytic activities in bovine oocytes matured in vitro and such effect is mediated by PKG. However, such effect may vary depending on the stimulus received and/or which synthesis enzyme was activated, as stimulation of mGC had no effects.

3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(supl.1): 81-101, out.-dez. 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360473

RESUMO

Abstract This article presents the first history of Colombian zoos and one of the few contributions to the history of these institutions in Latin America. It proposes that in this region's zoos native animals tended to predominate, signaling the increasing transformation of forests and other native ecosystems into croplands and pasturelands, as well as the growing distance between people and natural environments. Colombian zoos additionally underscore the limitations of the State in its period of most rapid expansion. They reveal how private interests overshadowed the State by providing public amenities, but also how they offered unconventional solutions to certain hurdles of State formation.


Resumo Este artigo apresenta a primeira história dos zoológicos colombianos e é uma das poucas contribuições à história dessas instituições na América Latina. Nele, propõe-se que nos zoológicos dessa região predominavam animais nativos, indício da crescente transformação de florestas e outros ecossistemas nativos em terrenos agrícolas e pastos, assim como do gradativo distanciamento entre pessoas e natureza. Os zoológicos colombianos também evidenciam as limitações do Estado no período de sua mais rápida expansão. Eles revelam como os interesses privados eclipsaram o Estado fornecendo comodidades públicas, mas também como ofereceram soluções não convencionais a algumas das dificuldades na formação do Estado.

4.
FASEB J ; 35(12): e22000, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731497

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in various biological fluids and particularly in reproductive fluids, have gained considerable attention for their possible role in cell- to- cell communication. Among, the different bioactive molecules cargos of EVs, MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as promising diagnostic biomarkers with high clinical potential. Aiming to understand the roles of EVs in bovine reproductive tract, we intended to characterize and profile the EVs of oviduct and uterine fluids (OF-EVs, UF-EVs) and their miRNA across the estrous cycle. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the existence of small EV population in OF and UF at all stages, (size between 30 and 200 nm; concentration: 3.4 × 1010  EVs/ml and 6.0 × 1010  EVs/ml for OF and UF, respectively, regardless of stage). The identification of EV markers (CD9, HSP70, and ALIX proteins) was confirmed by western blot. The miRNA analysis revealed the abundance of 310 and 351 miRNAs in OF-EVs and UF-EVs, respectively. Nine miRNAs were differentially abundant in OF-EVs between stages of the cycle, eight of them displayed a progressive increase from S1 to S4 (p < .05). In UF-EVs, a total of 14 miRNAs were differentially abundant between stages. Greater differences were observed between stage 1 (S1) and stage 3 (S3), with 11 miRNAs enriched in S3 compared to S1. Functional enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of these miRNAs in relevant pathways such as cell signaling, intercellular junctions, and reproductive functions that may be implicated in oviduct and uterus modulation across the cycle, but also in their preparation for embryo/conceptus presence and development.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Ciclo Estral/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Oviductos/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Ciclo Estral/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fagocitose
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11796, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083641

RESUMO

In vitro culture can alter the development and quality of bovine embryos. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether nobiletin supplementation during EGA improves embryonic development and blastocyst quality and if it affects PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In vitro zygotes were cultured in SOF + 5% FCS (Control) or supplemented with 5, 10 or 25 µM nobiletin (Nob5, Nob10, Nob25) or with 0.03% dimethyl-sulfoxide (CDMSO) during minor (2 to 8-cell stage; MNEGA) or major (8 to 16-cell stage; MJEGA) EGA phase. Blastocyst yield on Day 8 was higher in Nob5 (42.7 ± 1.0%) and Nob10 (44.4 ± 1.3%) for MNEGA phase and in Nob10 (61.0 ± 0.8%) for MJEGA phase compared to other groups. Mitochondrial activity was higher and lipid content was reduced in blastocysts produced with nobiletin, irrespective of EGA phase. The mRNA abundance of CDK2, H3-3B, H3-3A, GPX1, NFE2L2 and PPARα transcripts was increased in 8-cells, 16-cells and blastocysts from nobiletin groups. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed immunoreactive proteins for p-AKT forms (Thr308 and Ser473) in bovine blastocysts produced with nobiletin. In conclusion, nobiletin supplementation during EGA has a positive effect on preimplantation bovine embryonic development in vitro and corroborates on the quality improvement of the produced blastocysts which could be modulated by the activation of AKT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Flavonas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Bovinos , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mol Cell ; 81(7): 1367-1369, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798413

RESUMO

Mutations in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase lead to cerebellar neurodegeneration. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Lee et al. (2021) revealed how transcription-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA-RNA hybrids activate PARP enzymes, generating the nucleic acid poly-ADP-ribose, which promotes the accumulation of protein aggregates in A-T-like disorders.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia , Ácidos Nucleicos , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1 , Poli ADP Ribosilação , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , Proteostase , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
7.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e3677, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the interventions proposed in the literature aimed at preventing elder abuse among community-residing elders. METHOD: This was a mixed-methods systematic review that followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols checklist. The protocol of this systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. We included studies published between January 2004 and December 2019 in the databases: LILACS, IBECS, CUMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE and SciELO. The methodological quality of each study included was performed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. RESULTS: Seven studies formed the final sample. Two groups emerged after the analyses: the primary level intervention group, which used health education and coexisting elder abuse groups; and the secondary intervention level, focused mostly on the mental health care of victims of elder abuse. CONCLUSION: There is still a shortage of intervention studies to prevent elder abuse. All the studies selected had a positive outcome, and all interventions can be implemented in nursing care practice.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Idoso , Abuso de Idosos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 476-482, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756353

RESUMO

Agave plants are natives of Mexico and have an important role in the functional food industry. Agave salmiana grows in dry and desert soils, which are high in salt content; however, little is known about its response to saline conditions. In this study, A. salmiana plants grown in vitro were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM of salt elicitors, including AlCl3, NaCl, and CoCl2, and saponin synthesis and morphological characteristics were examined. Saponins were identified and quantified in ethanolic extracts using HPLC-ELSD. Root length and number, leaf length and number, and plant fresh weight were evaluated to determine the phenological condition of the plant. The presence of salts at various concentrations did not affect the physiological characteristics of the plant. Moreover, 0.5 mM NaCl induced a higher production of total saponin. Chlorogenin glycoside 1 (CG1) and hecogenin glycoside 1 (HG1) content remained unchanged across treatments. By contrast, CG2 and HG2 concentrations tended to decrease in response to increased concentrations of AlCl3, NaCl, or CoCl2. In vitro salt elicitors could be a feasible tool in the synthesis of specific saponins, without compromising on plant biomass. Our findings can be used in further generation of low saponin agave plants in field for the improvement of fermentation yield.


Assuntos
Agave , Saponinas , México , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2273: 219-238, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604857

RESUMO

Intercellular communication can be carried out by circulating systemic and/or locally released extracellular vesicles (EVs), produced by nearly every cell type and tissue, and are involved in physiological and pathological processes. In recent years, EVs have been identified in reproductive tissues, such as oviduct and uterus, and have been shown to be related to several events important for reproductive success. The understanding of their functions in reproduction has important implications for assisted reproductive technologies, for the treatment of infertility in humans and improvement of reproduction efficiency in animals. To study such EVs, it is necessary to isolate and concentrate them from fluid samples, which in the case of reproductive tissues, are usually of limited volume. Several methods for EV isolation are available such as chromatography, ultracentrifugation, polymer-based precipitation, and immunoaffinity.Outcomes can be variable in terms of the amount and quality of isolated EVs, due to the type of isolation method. The choice of method, or a different combination of methods, may depend on the type of sample and scientific question to be addressed in a given study. In this chapter, we describe a method for isolation of EVs from bovine oviductal and uterine fluids for use in functional studies. The method combines size exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation. We also describe the different protocols for characterization of isolated EVs (transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and western blot), as well as the isolation of RNA content in EVs, and their miRNAs profiling for functional studies.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Western Blotting/métodos , Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , MicroRNAs/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Transcriptoma , Ultracentrifugação/métodos , Útero/metabolismo
10.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(suppl 1): 81-101, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137861

RESUMO

This article presents the first history of Colombian zoos and one of the few contributions to the history of these institutions in Latin America. It proposes that in this region's zoos native animals tended to predominate, signaling the increasing transformation of forests and other native ecosystems into croplands and pasturelands, as well as the growing distance between people and natural environments. Colombian zoos additionally underscore the limitations of the State in its period of most rapid expansion. They reveal how private interests overshadowed the State by providing public amenities, but also how they offered unconventional solutions to certain hurdles of State formation.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Ecossistema , Animais , Colômbia , Florestas , Humanos
11.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 55: e3677, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1287948

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the interventions proposed in the literature aimed at preventing elder abuse among community-residing elders. Method: This was a mixed-methods systematic review that followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols checklist. The protocol of this systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. We included studies published between January 2004 and December 2019 in the databases: LILACS, IBECS, CUMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE and SciELO. The methodological quality of each study included was performed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results: Seven studies formed the final sample. Two groups emerged after the analyses: the primary level intervention group, which used health education and coexisting elder abuse groups; and the secondary intervention level, focused mostly on the mental health care of victims of elder abuse. Conclusion: There is still a shortage of intervention studies to prevent elder abuse. All the studies selected had a positive outcome, and all interventions can be implemented in nursing care practice.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar na literatura as intervenções propostas para prevenir maus-tratos a idosos residentes na comunidade. Método: Revisão sistemática mista conduzida de acordo com a recomendação PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis). O protocolo desta revisão sistemática foi registrado no International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Foram incluídos estudos publicados entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2019 nas bases de dados: LILACS, IBECS, CUMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE e SciELO. Para avaliar a qualidade metodológica de cada estudo incluído, foi utilizada a Ferramenta para Análise de Métodos Mistos. Resultados: Sete estudos formaram a amostra final. Após as análises, emergiram dois grupos, o grupo de intervenção de nível primário, onde foi utilizada educação em saúde e grupos de abuso de idosos coexistentes; e o grupo de intervenção de nível secundário, focado principalmente na atenção à saúde mental dos idosos vítimas de abuso. Conclusão: Estudos de intervenção para prevenir o abuso de idosos ainda são escassos. Todos os estudos selecionados tiveram resultado positivo, e todas as intervenções podem ser implementadas na prática assistencial de enfermagem.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar las intervenciones propuestas en la literatura dirigidas a prevenir el maltrato a personas mayores residentes en la comunidad. Método: Revisión sistemática de métodos mixtos realizada de acuerdo con la recomendación PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis). El protocolo para esta revisión sistemática se registró en el International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Se incluyeron los estudios publicados entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2019 en las bases de datos: LILACS, IBECS, CUMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE y SciELO. Para evaluar la calidad metodológica de cada estudio incluido, se utilizó la Herramienta de Análisis de Métodos Mixtos. Resultados: Siete estudios formaron la muestra final. Después del análisis, surgieron dos grupos, el grupo de intervención de nivel primario, donde se utilizó educación para la salud y grupos de abuso de las personas mayores coexistentes; y el grupo de intervención de nivel secundario, enfocado principalmente en la atención de salud mental de personas mayores víctimas de abuso. Conclusión: Los estudios de intervención para prevenir el maltrato a las personas mayores aún son escasos. Todos los estudios seleccionados tuvieron resultados positivos y todas las intervenciones se pueden implementar en la práctica del cuidado de enfermería.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Violência , Revisão Sistemática
12.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25(supl.1): e200363, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286897

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente artigo foi analisar os rebatimentos do distanciamento social em tempos de Covid-19 em torno da violência doméstica. Trata-se de um estudo documental com abordagem qualitativa feito por meio do conteúdo de notícias disponíveis em quatro jornais on-line de circulação nacional. Foram incluídas notícias publicadas entre 20 de março e 25 de abril de 2020 com as temáticas distanciamento social e violência doméstica, analisadas pelo software Interface de R pourles Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires (Iramuteq) associado à análise de conteúdo de Bardin. A análise lexicográfica e de conteúdo do corpus textual de 102 notícias produziu quatro categorias temáticas com foco na rede de proteção, ambiente doméstico, elevação dos casos de violência doméstica e contexto de pandemia como potencializador do fenômeno. O distanciamento social decorrente da pandemia de Covid-19 potencializou as situações de violência doméstica, demonstrando necessidade de medidas de intervenção e fortalecimento da rede de proteção. (AU)


This study analyzed the effects of social distancing in times of Covid-19 on domestic violence. We conducted a documentary study of news content in four online national newspapers. The study included news published between 20 March and 25 April 2020 addressing social distancing and domestic violence. A content analysis was conducted using the software IRAMUTEQ adopting the approach proposed by Bardin. The lexicographic and content analysis of the corpus of 102 news items produced four thematic categories: protection networks, the home environment, the increase in cases of domestic violence, and the pandemic as a driver of the phenomenon. Social distancing imposed during the Covid-19 pandemic exacerbated domestic violence, demonstrating the need for interventions and the strengthening of the protection network. (AU)


Analizar las implicaciones del distanciamiento social en tiempos de Covid-19 alrededor de la violencia doméstica. Estudio documental con abordaje cualitativo, por medio del contenido de noticias disponibles en cuatro periódicos online de circulación nacional. Se incluyeron noticias publicadas entre el 20 de marzo y el 25 de abril de 2020 con estas temáticas: distanciamiento social y violencia doméstica, analizadas por el software IRAMUTEQ, asociado al análisis de contenido de Bardin. El análisis lexicográfico y de contenido del corpus textual de 102 noticas produjo cuatro categorías temáticas enfocadas en la red de protección, ambiente doméstico, elevación de los casos de violencia doméstica y el contexto de pandemia como potenciador del fenómeno. El distanciamiento social proveniente de la pandemia de Covid-19 potenció las situaciones de violencia doméstica, demostrando la necesidad de medidas de intervenciones y fortalecimiento de la red de protección. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência Doméstica , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19 , Notícias , Abuso de Idosos , Violência contra a Mulher , Mídias Sociais/instrumentação
13.
Mol Cell ; 80(5): 862-875.e6, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275888

RESUMO

The anti-tumor potency of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPis) has been linked to trapping of PARP1 on damaged chromatin. However, little is known about their impact on PARP2, an isoform with overlapping functions at DNA lesions. Whether the release of PARP1/2 from DNA lesions is actively catalyzed by molecular machines is also not known. We found that PARPis robustly trap PARP2 and that the helicase ALC1 (CHD1L) is strictly required for PARP2 release. Catalytic inactivation of ALC1 quantitatively traps PARP2 but not PARP1. ALC1 manipulation impacts the response to single-strand DNA breaks through PARP2 trapping, potentiates PARPi-induced cancer cell killing, and mediates synthetic lethality upon BRCA deficiency. The chromatin remodeler ALC1 actively drives PARP2 turnover from DNA lesions, and PARP2 contributes to the cellular responses of PARPi. This suggests that disrupting the ATP-fueled remodeling forces of ALC1 might enable therapies that selectively target the DNA repair functions of PARPs in cancer.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Simples , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 579243, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329120

RESUMO

Criminal responsibility assessment is undertaken by psychologists or psychiatrists to assess offenders' legal capacities, which vary among countries or regional legislations. There are two psychometric tools (i.e., checklists) validated for criminal responsibility assessment: the Roger Criminal Responsibility Scale, and the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders. Despite the existence of psychometric tools structured in clinical vignettes for evaluating legal capacities, none serve the purpose of assessing criminal responsibility. This study aims to validate a novel psychometric tool structured in vignettes for the assessment of criminal responsibility called the "Criminal Responsibility Scale." We applied the tool to 88 defendants referred for criminal responsibility assessment in a forensic medical institute in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December 2017 to December 2018. The validity of the Criminal Responsibility Scale and subscales were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The two-factor solution proved satisfactory and met the needs for practical application of the tool (Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin = 0.82; p < 0.001). Moreover, the inter-rater reliability was evaluated by comparing the tool's final score with that of the expert's conclusion in each case and was found to be satisfactory (k = 0.667-1.0), with a resulting cutoff point of 30.50 (±2) and a Youden index of 0.509. Hence, the Criminal Responsibility Scale is an effective psychometric tool for assessments of criminal responsibility that may encourage future research in assessments of legal capacity with clinical vignette-based psychometric instruments.

15.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 69(3): 197-200, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134964

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The current article describes the case of a man who claimed amnesia in relation to a sexual crime he had allegedly committed. Psychiatric examination concluded that the individual was feigning amnesia. Claimed amnesia of a criminal offense is one of the most commonly feigned symptoms in the forensic medical setting. It is thus necessary to rule out organic or psychogenic causes of amnesia and always consider feigned amnesia in the presence of psychopathological alterations that do not reflect classically known syndromes.


RESUMO O presente artigo descreve o caso de um homem que alegou amnésia ao fato da denúncia de crime sexual que lhe foi imputada. A perícia psiquiátrica concluiu tratar-se de simulação. A alegação de amnésia da ofensa criminosa é um dos sintomas mais comumente simulados no ambiente pericial. Portanto, devem-se excluir as causas de amnésia orgânica ou psicogênica e sempre considerar a amnésia simulada na presença de alterações psicopatológicas que não configuram quadros sindrômicos classicamente conhecidos.

16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 449-456, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126143

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: evaluate the relationship between visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods: A case series study was conducted with 146 male and female adult outpatients at a hospital in Northeast Brazil. VAT and SAT were quantified using computed tomography and GFR was estimated using the formula proposed by the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration. The conceptual model also considered socio-demographic, clinical, anthropometric and lifestyle variables. Results: Females accounted for 71.9% of the sample and mean age was 52.5±13.2 years. Mean body mass index indicated obesity in both sexes (men:30.4±5.9 kg/m2; women: 31.6±6.1 kg/m2). For the same mean age and BMI, men had more VAT and a higher VAT/SAT ratio. Mean GFR was similar between sexes and within the normal range. Simple linear regression analysis revealed that 21.8% of the reduction in GFR in males could be explained by the VAT/SAT ratio (p=0.002). Among females, both VAT alone and the VAT/SAT ratio were predictors of GFR reduction (r2=4.8%, p=0.025 and r2=5.3%, p=0.019, respectively). Conclusion: Mean VAT and VAT/SAT ratio were compatible with abdominal obesity in both sexes and were related to a reduction in GFR.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el tejido adiposo visceral (TAV) y subcutáneo (TAS) con la tasa de filtración glomerular. Métodos: Estudio tipo serie de casos, en 146 pacientes adultos de ambos sexos, atendidos en un ambulatorio de un hospital de referencia en el Nordeste brasileño. El TAV y el TAS se cuantificaron por tomografía computadorizada y la tasa de filtración glomerular (TFG) estimada por la fórmula del grupo Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI). El modelo conceptual también consideró variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, antropométricas y de estilo de vida. Resultados: Pacientes con edad promedio de 52,5 ± 13,2 años y el 71,9% de sexo femenino. El promedio del IMC en ambos sexos se encuentra en el rango de obesidad (hombres= 30,4 ± 5,9 kg/m2 vs mujeres= 31,6 ± 6,1 kg/m2). Para un mismo promedio de edad e IMC, los hombres presentaron mayor TAV y mayor razón TAV/TAS que las mujeres. El promedio de la TFG fue similar entre los sexos y se encuentra en el rango normal. A través de regresión lineal simple, se evidenció que, en el sexo masculino, la disminución de la TFG puede explicarse en el 21,8% por la razón TAV/TAS (p=0,002). En el sexo femenino, tanto el TAV aislado como la razón TAV/TAS fueron predictores de disminución de la TFG (r2= 4,8%; p=0,025 e r2= 5,3%; p=0,019), respectivamente. Conclusión: Se evidenciaron valores muy elevados de los parámetros antropométricos de obesidad abdominal y promedio de TAV y de la razón TAV/TAS compatible con obesidad visceral en ambos sexos, siendo que estos dos últimos parámetros estuvieron relacionados al descenso de la TFG.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Brasil , Índice de Massa Corporal , Modelos Lineares , Antropometria , Adiposidade , Obesidade Abdominal , Estilo de Vida
18.
Behav Brain Res ; 379: 112358, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733314

RESUMO

Physical exercise has proven to be beneficial to mitigate several deleterious effects associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Here, we investigated the role of long-term exercise as a preventive and therapeutic tool against AD cognitive and behavioral impairments using a sporadic AD-like rat model, established through the administration of streptozotocin (STZ) inside both cerebral ventricles (icv). Six-weeks-old Wistar male rats (56) were divided into groups (either saline or STZ): sedentary (Sed), voluntary physical activity (VPA), VPA + endurance treadmill training (VPA + ET) and VPA + ET only after the injection (VPA + ET-post). Surgeries occurred at 16wks and the animals were sacrificed at 28 wks. VPA, VPA + ET, and VPA + ET-post had continuous access to the running wheels during the entire experimental protocol. VPA + ET (entire protocol) and VPA + ET-post (only after surgical procedure) ran 60 min/d, 25 m/min, 5d/wk in a treadmill. Both ET regimens led to significant improvements in the compromised spatial learning and long-term memory of STZ-infused animals that were not observed neither in the saline Sed nor in VPA STZ groups. General activity patterns and exploration habits were also ameliorated with chronic-exercise in STZ treated animals, while freezing patterns were decreased in these groups. these results were further. Positive alterations were seen in mitochondrial oxygen consumption endpoints (synaptosomal and non-synaptosomal brain mitochondria) that might underlie the neurobehavioral improvements observed. Data suggest that VPA alone was not able to counteract the AD-related deleterious consequences, although when accompanied by endurance training (either lifelong or later-life) may be able to prevent and reverse cognitive and phenotypic impairments associated with AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Sintomas Comportamentais/terapia , Cérebro , Treino Aeróbico , Memória de Longo Prazo , Atividade Motora , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Aprendizagem Espacial , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Animais , Sintomas Comportamentais/etiologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/prevenção & controle , Cérebro/metabolismo , Cérebro/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Neurotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Estreptozocina/administração & dosagem
20.
Zygote ; 27(3): 180-186, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171044

RESUMO

SummaryHeat shock may disrupt oocyte function by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We evaluated the capacity of the antioxidant melatonin to protect oocytes using two models of oxidative stress - heat shock and the pro-oxidant menadione. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were exposed in the presence or absence of 1 µM melatonin to the following treatments during maturation: 38.5°C, 41°C and 38.5°C+5 µM menadione. In the first experiment, COC were matured for 3 h with 5 µM CellROX® and analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy to quantify production of ROS. The intensity of ROS was greater for oocytes exposed to heat shock and menadione than for control oocytes. Melatonin reduced ROS intensity for heat-shocked oocytes and oocytes exposed to menadione, but not for control oocytes. In the second experiment, COC were matured for 22 h. After maturation, oocytes were fertilized and the embryos cultured for 7.5 days. The proportion of oocytes that cleaved after fertilization was lower for oocytes exposed to heat shock and menadione than for control oocytes. Melatonin increased cleavage for heat-shocked oocytes and oocytes exposed to menadione, but not for control oocytes. Melatonin tended to increase the developmental competence of embryos from heat-shocked oocytes but not for embryos from oocytes exposed to menadione or from control oocytes. In conclusion, melatonin reduced production of ROS of maturing oocytes and protected oocytes from deleterious effects of both stresses on competence of the oocyte to cleave after coincubation with sperm. These results suggest that excessive production of ROS compromises oocyte function.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Melatonina/farmacologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo
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