Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 310
Filtrar
1.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052598, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a home-based rehabilitation programme for people assessed as being at risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty offers superior outcomes to traditional outpatient physiotherapy. DESIGN: A prospective, single-blind, two-arm randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: 14 National Health Service physiotherapy departments in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 621 participants identified at high risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty using a bespoke screening tool. INTERVENTIONS: A multicomponent home-based rehabilitation programme delivered by rehabilitation assistants with supervision from qualified therapists versus usual care outpatient physiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the Oxford Knee Score (a disease-specific measure of function), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Quality of Life subscale, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, 5 dimension, 5 level version of Euroqol (EQ-5D-5L) and physical function assessed using the Figure of 8 Walk test, 30 s Chair Stand Test and Single Leg Stance. RESULTS: 621 participants were randomised between March 2015 and January 2018. 309 were assigned to CORKA (Community Rehabilitation after Knee Arthroplasty) home-based rehabilitation, receiving a median five treatment sessions (IQR 4-7). 312 were assigned to usual care, receiving a median 4 sessions (IQR 2-6). The primary outcome, LLFDI function total score at 12 months, was collected for 279 participants (89%) in the home-based CORKA group and 287 participants (92%) in the usual care group. No clinically or statistically significant difference was found between the groups (intention-to-treat adjusted difference=0.49 points; 95% CI -0.89 to 1.88; p=0.48). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on any of the patient-reported or physical secondary outcome measures at 6 or 12 months.There were 18 participants in the intervention group reporting a serious adverse event (5.8%), only one directly related to the intervention, all other adverse events recorded throughout the trial related to underlying chronic medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The CORKA intervention was not superior to usual care. The trial detected no significant differences, clinical or statistical, between the two groups on either primary or secondary outcomes. CORKA offers an evaluation of an intervention utilising a different service delivery model for this patient group. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13517704.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Medicina Estatal
2.
Diabet Med ; 38(10): e14656, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate 13 equations that predict clinically plausible risk factor time paths to inform the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Outcomes Model version 2 (UKPDS-OM2). METHODS: Data from 5102 UKPDS participants from the 20-year trial, and the 4031 survivors with 10 years further post-trial follow-up, were used to derive equations for the time paths of 13 clinical risk factors: HbA1c , systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, BMI, micro- or macro-albuminuria, creatinine, heart rate, white blood cell count, haemoglobin, estimated glomerular filter rate, atrial fibrillation and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The incidence of events and death predicted by the UKPDS-OM2 when informed by the new risk factor equations was compared with the observed cumulative rates up to 25 years. RESULTS: The new equations were based on 24 years of follow-up and up to 65,252 person-years of data. Women were associated with higher values of all continuous risk factors except for haemoglobin. Older age and higher BMI at diagnosis were associated with higher rates of PVD (HR 1.06 and 1.02), atrial fibrillation (HR 1.10 and 1.08) and micro- or macro-albuminuria (HR 1.01 and 1.18). Smoking was associated with higher rates of developing PVD (HR 2.38) and micro- and macro-albuminuria (HR 1.39). The UKPDS-OM2, informed by the new risk factor equations, predicted event rates for complications and death consistent with those observed. CONCLUSIONS: The new equations allow risk factor time paths beyond observed data, which should improve modelling of long-term health outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes when using the UKPDS-OM2 or other models.

3.
Biomaterials ; 275: 120949, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153784

RESUMO

Electrotaxis is a naturally occurring phenomenon in which ionic gradients dictate the directed migration of cells involved in different biological processes such as wound healing, embryonic development, or cancer metastasis. To investigate these processes, direct current (DC) has been used to generate electric fields capable of eliciting an electrotactic response in cells. However, the need for metallic electrodes to deliver said currents has hindered electrotaxis research and the application of DC stimulation as medical therapy. This study aimed to investigate the capability of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT/PSS) on sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) electrodes to generate stable direct currents. The electrochemical properties of PEDOT/PSS allow ions to be released and reabsorbed depending on the polarity of the current flow. SIROF stabilized PEDOT/PSS electrodes demonstrated exceptional stability in voltage and current controlled DC stimulation for periods of up to 12 hours. These electrodes were capable of directing cell migration of the rat prostate cancer cell line MAT-LyLu in a microfluidic chamber without the need for chemical buffers. This material combination shows excellent promise for accelerating electrotaxis research and facilitating the translation of DC stimulation to medical applications thanks to its biocompatibility, ionic charge injection mechanisms, and recharging capabilities in a biological environment.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Polímeros , Animais , Irídio , Masculino , Ratos
4.
Cardiology ; 146(5): 656-666, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of rapid deployment and sutureless aortic prostheses is increasing. Previous reports have shown promising results on haemodynamic performance and mortality rates. However, the impact of these bioprostheses on left ventricular mass (LVM) regression remains unknown. We decided to study the changes in remodelling and LVM regression in isolated severe aortic stenosis treated with conventional or Perceval® or Intuity® valves. METHOD AND RESULTS: From January 2011 to January 2016, 324 bioprostheses were implanted in our centre. The collected characteristics were divided into 3 groups: conventional valves, Perceval®, and Intuity®, and they were analysed after 12 months. There were 183 conventional valves (56%), 72 Perceval® (22%), and 69 Intuity® (21.2%). The statistical analysis showed significant differences in transprosthetic postoperative peak gradient (23 [18-29] mm Hg vs. 21 [16-29] mm Hg and 18 [14-24] mm Hg, p < 0.001), ventricular mass electrical criteria regression (Sokolow and Cornell products), and 1-year survival (90 vs. 93% and 97%, log rank p value = 0.04) in conventional, Perceval®, and Intuity® groups. CONCLUSIONS: We observed differences in haemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic parameters related to the different types of prosthesis. Patients with the Intuity® prosthesis had the highest reduction in peak aortic gradient and the higher ventricular mass regression. Besides, patients with the Intuity® prosthesis had less risk of mortality during follow-up than the other two groups. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Edwards Intuity valve is a rapid deployment aortic prosthesis that favours less invasive approaches. However, evidence about the clinical behaviour of their smaller sizes is scarce. Herein, we studied haemodynamic behaviours and clinical outcomes of small Intuity prostheses (19-21 mm) in comparison to larger Intuity prostheses (>21 mm). METHODS: This is an observational study including patients implanted with an Edwards Intuity rapid deployment aortic prosthesis. Patients with prosthesis sizes 19-21 and >21 mm were included. Baseline and perioperative variables, as well as adverse events during the follow-up were recorded and compared between groups. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients (37% female, mean age 75 ± 4.5 years) were included, of whom 54 (45%) were implanted with a small prosthesis and 68 (55%) with a prosthesis >21 mm. There were no significant differences between patients with small Intuity prostheses and patients with larger prostheses regarding in-hospital mortality (2% vs 4%, P = 0.43) or mortality during the follow-up (3.41 vs 2.45 per 100 patients-years; P = 0.58). Survival in the small Intuity valve group was 95% at 1 year and 83% at 6 years, whereas in the larger Intuity valve group was 96% at 1 year and 78% at 6 years. The presence of a small prosthesis did not influence mid-term survival (log-rank P-value = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed good clinical performance of Intuity aortic prostheses with appropriate mid-term survival in patients with the small aortic annulus. Thus, the Edwards Intuity rapid deployment aortic prosthesis may be considered as a potential option in patients with the small aortic annulus.

6.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) exon 20 insertion (ex20-ins) mutations are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), resistant to conventional EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Characteristics and outcomes of patients with EGFR ex20-ins have not been fully established; we sought to clarify them using a multinational patient database. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with NSCLC from six Australian institutions with EGFR exon 20 mutations (ex20-mut), excluding T790M, were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics and outcomes with systemic treatments were collected and analyzed using comparative statistics. RESULTS: Among 109 patients with ex20-mut, 61% were females and 75% were Caucasians. More males presented with de novo metastatic disease (84% vs. 51%; P = .002). Central nervous system (48%) and liver (24%) metastases were common within metastatic patients (n = 86). Thirty-nine patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) and achieved a 43% objective response rate (ORR), median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 6.9 months, and median overall survival (mOS) of 31.0 months. Twenty-three of the patients with ex20-ins received conventional TKIs, resulting in an ORR of 13%, mPFS of 3.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91-6.25), and mOS of 31.0 months (95% CI, 15.09-not reached). Nine patients with S786I mutations received TKIs, resulting in an ORR of 50%, mPFS of 18.2 months (2.79-not reached), and mOS of 33.4 months (95% CI, 16.14-not reached). Twenty-three patients received immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy (ICIm), resulting in an ORR of 4%, mPFS of 2.6 months (95% CI, 1.91-4.83), and mOS of 30.8 months (95% CI, 17.62-41.62). CONCLUSION: Although phenotypically similar to patients with common EGFR mutations, patients with EGFR ex20-mut had worse survival, perhaps due to the lack of targeted therapies. Chemotherapy was superior to conventional EGFR TKIs in patients with EGFR ex20-ins, although there was moderate activity of TKIs in S768I mutations. ICIm was ineffective.

7.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 53(1): 75-79, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814610

RESUMO

The current practice of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) requires a preoperative priming of the circuit that is frequently performed with crystalloid solutions. Crystalloid priming avoids massive embolism but is unable to eliminate all microbubbles contained in the circuit. In addition, it causes a sudden hemodilution which is correlated with transfusion requirements and an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Several repriming techniques using autologous blood, collectively termed retrograde autologous priming (RAP), have been demonstrated to reduce the hemodilutional impact of CPB. However, the current heterogeneity in the practice of RAP limits its evidence and benefits. Here, we describe hematic antegrade repriming as an easy and reliable method that could be applied with any circuit in the market to decrease transfusion requirements, emboli, and inflammatory responses, reducing costs and the impact of CPB on postoperative recovery.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Transfusão de Sangue , Soluções Cristaloides , Hemodiluição , Humanos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917736

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been recommended for type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. The impact of diet in shaping the gut microbiota is well known, particularly for MD. However, the link between MD and diabetes outcome improvement is not completely clear. This study aims to evaluate the role of microbiota modulation by a nonpharmacological intervention in patients with T2D. In this 12-week single-arm pilot study, nine participants received individual nutritional counseling sessions promoting MD. Gut microbiota, biochemical parameters, body composition, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after the intervention. Adherence to MD [assessed by Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) score] increased after the intervention. Bacterial richness increased after 4 weeks of intervention and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose levels and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Prevotella to Bacteroides ratio also increased after 4 weeks. In contrast, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and HOMA-IR were only decreased at the end of study. Alkaline phosphatase activity was assessed in fecal samples and was negatively correlated with HbA1c and positively correlated with bacterial diversity. The results of this study reinforce that MD adherence results in a better glycemic control in subjects with T2D. Changes in gut bacterial richness caused by MD adherence may be relevant in mediating the metabolic impact of this dietary intervention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Mediterrânea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Idoso , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Bacteroides/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Prevotella/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Zootaxa ; 4951(1): zootaxa.4951.1.1, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903412

RESUMO

This article lists and comments on the primary and secondary types represented in the collection of the Bailey-Matthews National Shell Museum (BMSM), on Sanibel, Florida, USA. The collection includes 464 type specimens, of which 15 are holotypes, representing 149 taxa, of which 145 are species and four subspecies. The BMSM collection is fully catalogued and posted online via the Museum's website, in addition to iDigBio and GBIF. The publication of this annotated list intends to improve on the accessibility and promote this important group of name-bearing specimens, which includes, among other cases, types originating from orphaned collections and material poorly documented in the original descriptions. Eighty-two types were selected for illustration, and the photos of all BMSM types are available as part of the BMSM online collection catalog.


Assuntos
Moluscos/classificação , Museus , Exoesqueleto , Animais , Florida
10.
Int Urogynecol J ; 32(5): 1285-1291, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783552

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Almost 20% of women will suffer from sexual abuse at some point in their lives. This is a known risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain (CPP), which is a major health problem worldwide. We conducted a pilot study in a Gynecology Outpatient Clinic to find the correlation between these two clinical entities and provide better evidence for their diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A semi-structured interview for the evaluation of sexual violence in women (EVS) was used as a screening tool and a complement to routine gynecological examination to identify patients suffering from sexual abuse. Patients included were also assessed for comorbidities, including CPP, and other coexisting mental health problems. RESULTS: Of the 61 patients screened, 33 (54.1%) had pelvic pain. Also, 11 patients (18%) had suffered sexual abuse at some point in their lives, which was only disclosed when the specific interview was performed. Ten patients (90.8%) out of 11 that had been sexually abused also had pelvic pain. This was found to be statistically significant in this sample (p = 0.008) with a more than 11-fold greater risk of having pelvic pain (OR, 11.7; 95% CI, 1.4-98.7). Most patients did not have psychological violence (77%) but those that did (23%) had a seven-fold greater risk of having pelvic pain (OR, 7.4; 95% CI, 1.5-36.9). CONCLUSION: Specific tools should intentionally be used for evaluating sexual abuse and chronic pelvic pain, since a strong correlation exists between these two entities and they are seldom reported by patients.


Assuntos
Ginecologia , Delitos Sexuais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Pélvica , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 1932296821995800, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655766

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This technology report introduces an innovative risk communication tool developed to support providers in communicating diabetes-related risks more intuitively to people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: The development process involved three main steps: (1) selecting the content and format of the risk message; (2) developing a digital interface; and (3) assessing the usability and usefulness of the tool with clinicians through validated questionnaires. RESULTS: The tool calculates personalized risk information based on a validated simulation model (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model 2) and delivers it using more intuitive risk formats, such as "effective heart age" to convey cardiovascular risks. Clinicians reported high scores for the usability and usefulness of the tool, making its adoption in routine care promising. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increased use of risk calculators in clinical care, this is the first time that such a tool has been developed in the diabetes area. Further studies are needed to confirm the benefits of using this tool on behavioral and health outcomes in T2DM populations.

12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(24): 30943-30954, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590399

RESUMO

A theoretical physicochemical and thermodynamic investigation of the adsorption of heavy metals Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+on carbon-based adsorbents was performed with statistical physics fundaments. Particularly, the experimental adsorption isotherms of heavy metal removal, at 30°C and pH 5, using adsorbents obtained from the pyrolysis of three biomasses (cauliflower cores, broccoli stalks, and coconut shell) were modelled and interpreted with a homogeneous statistical physics adsorption model. Calculations indicated that the heavy metal adsorption with these carbon-based materials was a multi-ionic process where several ions interact simultaneously with the same carboxylic functional group on the adsorbent surface. Adsorption capacities for these metal ions and adsorbents were correlated with electronegativity theory, which established that the adsorbate with the highest electronegativity was more readily adsorbed by the carboxylic functional groups available on the adsorbent surfaces. Also, the chemical compositions of biomass precursors explained achieved adsorption capacities for these metallic ions. The best adsorbent for heavy metal removal was obtained from CC biomass pyrolysis. Calculated adsorption energies for heavy metal removal could be associated with physisorption-type forces. Finally, the adsorption mechanism analysis was complemented with the determination of adsorption thermodynamic functions using the statistical physics.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Cádmio , Carbono , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Cinética , Zinco
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 40, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409758

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the main causes of soil degradation, which reduces the capacity for biomass production. Naturally, saline soil is related to climatic, hydrogeological, and edaphic processes. Evaporite rocks are a potential source of gypsum and anhydrite in climates where annual rainfall does not exceed 400 mm. Like any salt, anhydrite contributes to salinity processes that reduce osmotic potential in plants, giving rise to water stress that reduces turgor in plants. In the Zona Media of San Luis Potosí, soil salinity is not homogeneous but rather varies spatially and is associated with soil genesis, agricultural irrigation water quality, and climate. Water sodicity (% Na), toxicity (pH, B3+ y Cl-), and salinity hazards were evaluated by applying agricultural water quality indices. Low sodicity hazard was found at all sample points; chloride and boron did not pose toxicity hazards, but high sulfate concentrations can lead to toxicity and calcium and magnesium deficiency. The salinity hazard was high, identified using OP, EC, TDS, ES, and PS indices. This condition is related to the region's evaporite soils and semi-arid climate.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Qualidade da Água , Irrigação Agrícola , Agricultura , México , Salinidade , Solo
14.
Stroke ; 52(2): 664-673, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has been recommended for the treatment of nonminor ischemic stroke by national and international guidelines, but cost-effectiveness evidence has been generated for only a few countries using heterogeneous evaluation methods. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of MT across 32 European countries. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of MT compared with standard care over a 5-year time horizon. Patients with ischemic stroke eligible for MT were identified from 2017 country-specific incidence data. A societal perspective was adopted, including health, social, and informal care costs, and productivity losses. Model outcomes were expressed as quality-adjusted life years. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of findings. RESULTS: We identified 267 514 ischemic stroke cases that were eligible for MT treatment across 32 European countries. MT was found to be more effective and cheaper than standard care in two-thirds of the countries (21/32) and cost-effective in all but one country (Bulgaria). Across Europe, the intervention was estimated to produce over 101 327 additional quality-adjusted life years (95% uncertainty interval, 65 180-149 085) and cost savings of $981 million (€868 million, 95% uncertainty interval, -1544 to 2564) and of $1.7 billion (€1.5 billion, 95% uncertainty interval, -1.2 to 3.6) in health and social care and societal costs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MT is highly likely to be cost-effective compared with standard care across Europe as a whole and in the vast majority of European countries.

15.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(5): 1084-1091, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377255

RESUMO

AIM: To externally validate the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model version 2 (UKPDS-OM2) by comparing the predicted and observed outcomes in two European population-based cohorts of people with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from the Casale Monferrato Survey (CMS; n = 1931) and a subgroup of the Hoorn Diabetes Care System (DCS) cohort (n = 5188). The following outcomes were analysed: all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and congestive heart failure (CHF). Model performance was assessed by comparing predictions with observed cumulative incidences in each cohort during follow-up. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was overestimated by the UKPDS-OM2 in both the cohorts, with a bias of 0.05 in the CMS and 0.12 in the DCS at 10 years of follow-up. For MI, predictions were consistently higher than observed incidence over the entire follow-up in both cohorts (10 years bias 0.07 for CMS and 0.10 for DCS). The model performed well for stroke and IHD outcomes in both cohorts. CHF incidence was predicted well for the DCS (5 years bias -0.001), but underestimated for the CMS cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The UKPDS-OM2 consistently overpredicted the risk of mortality and MI in both cohorts during follow-up. Period effects may partially explain the differences. Results indicate that transferability is not satisfactory for all outcomes, and new or adjusted risk equations may be needed before applying the model to the Italian or Dutch settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(65): 1-116, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 100,000 primary knee arthroplasty operations are undertaken annually in the UK. Around 15-30% of patients do not report a good outcome. Better rehabilitation strategies may improve patient-reported outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcomes from a traditional outpatient physiotherapy model with those from a home-based rehabilitation programme for people assessed as being at risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: An individually randomised, two-arm controlled trial with a blinded outcome assessment, a parallel health economic evaluation and a nested qualitative study. SETTING: The trial took place in 14 NHS physiotherapy departments. PARTICIPANTS: People identified as being at high risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty. INTERVENTIONS: A multicomponent home-based rehabilitation package delivered by rehabilitation assistants with supervision from qualified therapists compared with usual-care outpatient physiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the Oxford Knee Score (a disease-specific measure of function); Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; Quality of Life subscale; Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly; EuroQol-5 Dimensions, five-level version; and physical function assessed using the Figure-of-8 Walk Test, 30-Second Chair Stand Test and Single Leg Stance. Data on the use of health-care services, time off work and informal care were collected using participant diaries. RESULTS: In total, 621 participants were randomised. A total of 309 participants were assigned to the COmmunity based Rehabilitation after Knee Arthroplasty (CORKA) home-based rehabilitation programme, receiving a median of five treatment sessions (interquartile range 4-7 sessions). A total of 312 participants were assigned to usual care, receiving a median of four sessions (interquartile range 2-6 sessions). The primary outcome, Late Life Function and Disability Instrument function total score at 12 months, was collected for 279 participants (89%) in the home-based CORKA group and 287 participants (92%) in the usual-care group. No clinically or statistically significant difference was found between the groups (intention-to-treat adjusted difference 0.49 points, 95% confidence interval -0.89 to 1.88 points; p = 0.48). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the patient-reported or physical secondary outcome measures at 6 or 12 months post randomisation. The health economic analysis found that the CORKA intervention was cheaper to provide than usual care (£66 less per participant). Total societal costs (combining health-care costs and other costs) were lower for the CORKA intervention than usual care (£316 less per participant). Adopting a societal perspective, CORKA had a 75% probability of being cost-effective at a threshold of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Adopting the narrower health and social care perspective, CORKA had a 43% probability of being cost-effective at the same threshold. LIMITATIONS: The interventions were of short duration and were set within current commissioning guidance for UK physiotherapy. Participants and treating therapists could not be blinded. CONCLUSIONS: This randomised controlled trial found no important differences in outcomes when post-arthroplasty rehabilitation was delivered using a home-based, rehabilitation assistant-delivered rehabilitation package or a traditional outpatient model. However, the health economic evaluation found that when adopting a societal perspective, the CORKA home-based intervention was cost-saving and more effective than, and thus dominant over, usual care, owing to reduced time away from paid employment for this group. Further research could look at identifying the risk of poor outcome and further evaluation of a cost-effective treatment, including the workforce model to deliver it. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13517704. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 65. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

17.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(5): 2173-2177, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209638
18.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 154, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obtaining reliable estimates of the health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) of people with predementia Alzheimer's disease [AD] (preclinical or prodromal AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia is essential for economic evaluations of related health interventions. AIMS: To provide an overview of which quality of life instruments are being used to assess HR-QoL in people with predementia AD, MCI or dementia; and, to summarise their reported HR-QoL levels at each stage of the disease and by type of respondent. METHODS: We systematically searched for and reviewed eligible studies published between January 1990 and the end of April 2017 which reported HR-QoL for people with predementia AD, MCI or dementia. We only included instruments which are preference-based, allowing index scores/utility values to be attached to each health state they describe based on preferences obtained from population surveys. Summary results were presented by respondent type (self or proxy), type of instrument, geographical location and, where possible, stage of disease. Health state utility values derived using the EuroQoL 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) were meta-analysed by pooling reported results across all studies by disease severity (MCI, mild, mild to moderate, moderate, severe dementia, not specified) and by respondent (person with dementia, carer, general public, not specified), using a fixed-effects approach. RESULTS: We identified 61 studies which reported HR-QoL for people with MCI or dementia using preference-based instruments, of which 48 used the EQ-5D. Thirty-six studies reported HR-QoL for mild and/or moderate disease severities, and 12 studies reported utility values for MCI. We found systematic differences between self-rated and proxy-rated HR-QoL, with proxy-rated utility valued being significantly lower in more severe disease states. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial literature now exists quantifying the impact of dementia on HR-QoL using preference-based measures, giving researchers and modellers a firmer basis on which to select appropriate utility values when estimating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions in this area. Further research is required on HR-QoL of people with preclinical and prodromal AD and MCI, possible differences by type of dementia, the effects of comorbidities, study setting and the informal caregiver's own HR-QoL, including any effect of that on their proxy-ratings.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Cuidadores , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the costs of primary hip and knee replacement in individuals with osteoarthritis up to 2 years post-surgery, compare costs before and after the surgery, and identify predictors of hospital costs. METHODS: Patients aged 18 years or over with primary planned hip or knee replacements and osteoarthritis in England between 2008 and 2016 were identified from the National Joint Registry and linked with Hospital Episode Statistics data containing inpatient episodes. Primary care data linked with hospital outpatient records were also used to identify patients aged 18 years or over with primary hip or knee replacements between 2008 and 2016. All healthcare resource use was valued using 2016/17 costs and non-parametric censoring methods were used to estimate total 1-year and 2-year costs. RESULTS: We identified 854,866 individuals undergoing hip or knee replacement. The mean censor-adjusted 1-year hospitalisation costs for hip and knee replacement were £7,827 (95% CI £7,813 to £7,842) and £7,805 (95% CI £7,790 to £7,818), respectively. Complications and revisions were associated with up to a three-fold increase in 1-year hospitalisation costs. The censor-adjusted 2-year costs were £9,258 (95 % CI £9,233 to £9,280) and £9,452 (95%CI £9,430 to £9,475) for hip and knee replacement. Adding primary and outpatient care, the mean total hip and knee replacement 2-year costs were £11,987 and £12,578, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant costs following joint replacement. Revisions and complications accounted for considerable costs and there is a significant incentive to identify best approaches to reduce these.

20.
Caries Res ; 54(5-6): 502-508, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075775

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of fluoride (F) dentifrice with different F concentrations on root dentine de-/remineralization. Ten healthy volunteers took part in this randomized, double-blinded, cross-over, and split-mouth in situ experimental study. During 4 phases of 7 days, they wore a palatal appliance containing 4 bovine dentine blocks (2 sound and 2 with caries) of 4 × 4 × 2 mm. Treatments were performed with silica-based dentifrices containing 0, 700, 1,300, and 5,000 µg F/g (F as NaF). To provide a cariogenic challenge, a 20% sucrose solution was dripped 3 and 8 times daily on the carious-like and sound blocks, respectively. After each experimental phase, the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) or recovery (%SHR) was calculated and the fluoride concentration in the biofilm was determined. The statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and the Tukey post hoc test with p at 5%. The relationship between variables was analyzed by linear regression. The results showed a lower %SHL when 5,000 µg F/g dentifrice was used but without a statistically significant difference from the conventional one (1,300 µg F/g). Regarding remineralization and F in biofilms, the high-fluoride dentifrice was expressively superior in mineral replacement on the surface and in the F concentration in the biofilms, respectively, compared to the other 3 products (p < 0.05). Also, a significant linear fit between mineral loss/gain, F in biofilms, and fluoride concentration in the dentifrices could be observed. In conclusion, a dose-response F effect was observed, and the high-fluoride dentifrice was effective in enhancing root dentine remineralization in this short-term in situ study.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios , Desmineralização do Dente , Animais , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Dentina , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Humanos , Desmineralização do Dente/tratamento farmacológico , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Remineralização Dentária
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...