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1.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pro-inflammatory interleukin 6 (IL6) trans-signalling is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs). Whether this association exists for both sexes is, however, uncertain. Hence, we analysed the risk of CVE associated with IL6 trans-signalling in men and women and investigated if potential interaction between IL6 trans-signalling and sex affects the risk. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 60-year-old men and women without cardiovascular disease (men=2039, women=2193), subjects were followed for 20 years. To assess the IL6 trans-signalling activity, the proportion between the active binary and inactive ternary IL6 complexes, the binary/ternary ratio (B/T ratio), was estimated. CVE (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and ischaemic stroke, n=629) risk was analysed with Cox regression, presented as HRs with 95% CIs. B/T ratio was dichotomised, with levels >median representing IL6 trans-signalling. Interaction was analysed on the additive scale and expressed as the synergy index (S). Analyses were adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: B/T ratio >median was associated with increased CVE risk in men (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.01), but not in women (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.57). There was a significant synergistic interaction (S=1.98; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.42) between the B/T ratio and male sex, the combination increasing the risk by 88%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest differential susceptibility to inflammation mediated by IL6 trans-signalling and subsequent CVE in men and women. The B/T ratio could be considered as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risk in men, but not in women.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

3.
Essays Biochem ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623401

RESUMO

The female sex hormone estrogen has been ascribed potent neuroprotective properties. It signals by binding and activating estrogen receptors that, depending on receptor subtype and upstream or downstream effectors, can mediate gene transcription and rapid non-genomic actions. In this way, estrogen receptors in the brain participate in modulating neural differentiation, proliferation, neuroinflammation, cholesterol metabolism, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. Circulating sex hormones decrease in the course of aging, more rapidly at menopause in women, and slower in men. This review will discuss what this drop entails in terms of modulating neuroprotection and resilience in the aging brain downstream of spatiotemporal estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and beta (ERß) signaling, as well as in terms of the sex differences observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, controversies related to ER expression in the brain will be discussed. Understanding the spatiotemporal signaling of sex hormones in the brain can lead to more personalized prevention strategies or therapies combating neurodegenerative diseases.

4.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(12): 1376-1385, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647588

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to analyse the association of leisure-time physical activity of different intensities at baseline, and cardiovascular disease incidence, cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality in a population-based sample of 60-year-old men and women with and without established metabolic syndrome, for more than 20 years of follow-up. A secondary aim was to study which cardiometabolic factors may mediate the association between physical activity and long-term outcomes. METHODS: A total of 3693 participants (53% women) underwent physical examination and laboratory tests, completed an extensive questionnaire at baseline 1997-1999 and were followed until their death or until 31 December 2017. First-time cardiovascular disease events and death from any cause were ascertained through regular examinations of national registers. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 23.0%. In metabolic syndrome participants, light physical activity attenuated cardiovascular disease incidence (hazard ratio = 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.50-1.00) compared to sedentary (reference) after multi-adjustment. Moderate/high physical activity was inversely associated with both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, but became non-significant after multi-adjustment. Sedentary non-metabolic syndrome participants had lower cardiovascular disease incidence (0.47; 0.31-0.72) but not significantly different cardiovascular disease (0.61; 0.31-1.19) and all-cause mortality (0.92; 0.64-1.34) compared to sedentary metabolic syndrome participants. Both light and moderate/high physical activity were inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in non-metabolic syndrome participants (p<0.05). There were significant variations in several central cardiometabolic risk factors with physical activity level in non-metabolic syndrome participants. Fibrinogen mediated the protective effects of physical activity in non-metabolic syndrome participants. CONCLUSION: Physical activity of different intensities attenuated cardiovascular risk and mortality in 60-year old men and women with metabolic syndrome during a 20-year follow-up.

5.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046040, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate concentration-response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels. SETTING: Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umeå, Sweden. DESIGN: High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990-2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1-5 years (lag1-5) and 6-10 years (lag6-10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort. PARTICIPANTS: During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: Both PM10 (range: 6.3-41.9 µg/m3) and BC (range: 0.2-6.8 µg/m3) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 µg/m3 and 1 µg/m3 of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0-22.4 µg/m3), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 µg/m3, but less precise (95% CI -9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality. CONCLUSION: The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003763, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the association of serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a Swedish cohort study. We also systematically reviewed studies of the association of dairy fat biomarkers (circulating or adipose tissue levels of 15:0, heptadecanoic acid [17:0], and trans-palmitoleic acid [t16:1n-7]) with CVD outcomes or all-cause mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured 15:0 in serum cholesterol esters at baseline in 4,150 Swedish adults (51% female, median age 60.5 years). During a median follow-up of 16.6 years, 578 incident CVD events and 676 deaths were identified using Swedish registers. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher 15:0 was associated with lower incident CVD risk in a linear dose-response manner (hazard ratio 0.75 per interquintile range; 95% confidence interval 0.61, 0.93, P = 0.009) and nonlinearly with all-cause mortality (P for nonlinearity = 0.03), with a nadir of mortality risk around median 15:0. In meta-analyses including our Swedish cohort and 17 cohort, case-cohort, or nested case-control studies, higher 15:0 and 17:0 but not t16:1n-7 were inversely associated with total CVD, with the relative risk of highest versus lowest tertile being 0.88 (0.78, 0.99), 0.86 (0.79, 0.93), and 1.01 (0.91, 1.12), respectively. Dairy fat biomarkers were not associated with all-cause mortality in meta-analyses, although there were ≤3 studies for each biomarker. Study limitations include the inability of the biomarkers to distinguish different types of dairy foods and that most studies in the meta-analyses (including our novel cohort study) only assessed biomarkers at baseline, which may increase the risk of misclassification of exposure levels. CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis of 18 observational studies including our new cohort study, higher levels of 15:0 and 17:0 were associated with lower CVD risk. Our findings support the need for clinical and experimental studies to elucidate the causality of these relationships and relevant biological mechanisms.

8.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(11): 1229-1234, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Death of the spouse in middle and old age is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and total mortality, particularly during the months after the loss. Knowledge regarding the effect of bereavement on prognosis in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is limited. We analysed whether bereavement the year before the AMI is associated with prognosis. METHODS: We studied first AMI patients who participated in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (N = 1732). During or shortly after the hospitalization, patients or their family members completed a questionnaire regarding bereavement, sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle factors; five months after their first infarction, surviving patients attended a clinical examination. Participants were followed for cardiovascular events and mortality for a median of 14 years. RESULTS: Overall bereavement, that is, death of a close friend or family member (including spouse/partner), the year before the first AMI was not associated with the combined outcome of non-fatal recurrent AMI and death due to ischaemic heart diseases. However, exposure to the loss of the spouse/partner was associated with an increased risk of the outcome (adjusted hazard ratio and (95% confidence interval): 1.55 (1.06-2.27)). We found no evidence that psychiatric disorders or blood lipids, glucose, coagulation and inflammatory markers mediated this association. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of spouse/partner the year before the first AMI was associated with an increased risk of the combination of non-fatal recurrent AMI and death due to ischaemic heart disease. If confirmed by others, the findings may be informative for tertiary prevention of AMI.

9.
Resuscitation ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500020
10.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land-use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a mean follow-up of 16.6 years. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23) per 0.5×10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the European Union and US limit values and possibly World Health Organization guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration-response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7866, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846368

RESUMO

The relationship between intake of saturated fats and subclinical atherosclerosis, as well as the possible influence of genetic variants, is poorly understood and investigated. We aimed to investigate this relationship, with a hypothesis that it would be positive, and to explore whether genetics may modulate it, using data from a European cohort including 3,407 participants aged 54-79 at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT), measured at baseline and after 30 months. Logistic regression (OR; 95% CI) was employed to assess the association between high intake of food rich in saturated fat (vs. low) and: (1) the mean and the maximum values of C-IMT in the whole carotid artery (C-IMTmean, C-IMTmax), in the bifurcation (Bif-), the common (CC-) and internal (ICA-) carotid arteries at baseline (binary, cut-point ≥ 75th), and (2) C-IMT progression (binary, cut-point > zero). For the genetic-diet interaction analyses, we considered 100,350 genetic variants. We defined interaction as departure from additivity of effects. After age- and sex-adjustment, high intake of saturated fat was associated with increased C-IMTmean (OR:1.27;1.06-1.47), CC-IMTmean (OR:1.22;1.04-1.44) and ICA-IMTmean (OR:1.26;1.07-1.48). However, in multivariate analysis results were no longer significant. No clear associations were observed between high intake of saturated fat and risk of atherosclerotic progression. There was no evidence of interactions between high intake of saturated fat and any of the genetic variants considered, after multiple testing corrections. High intake of saturated fats was not independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Moreover, we did not identify any significant genetic-dietary fat interactions in relation to risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.

13.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2329, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888689

RESUMO

The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. Over a median of 16 years of follow-up, 15,720 deaths occurred among 42,466 individuals. We found that, after multivariable adjustment for relevant risk factors, risk for death from all causes was significantly lower (by 15-18%, at least p < 0.003) in the highest vs the lowest quintile for circulating long chain (20-22 carbon) omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids). Similar relationships were seen for death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes. No associations were seen with the 18-carbon omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid. These findings suggest that higher circulating levels of marine n-3 PUFA are associated with a lower risk of premature death.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Mortalidade Prematura , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5796, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707555

RESUMO

Drug-drug interactions have been shown to affect the risk of fall injuries when opioids are used concomitantly with drugs inhibiting the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme in a previous pharmacoepidemiological study. The aim of this study was to determine whether CYP2D6-inhibiting drugs reinforce the risk of fall injuries when used concomitantly with antidepressants or antipsychotics. We identified all 252,704 adults with a first fall injury leading to hospitalisation from the National Patient Register in Sweden 2006-2013. Data on dispensed drugs was linked from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. We applied a case-crossover design to analyse newly dispensed (28 days preceding the fall injury, preceded by a 12-week washout period) antidepressants and antipsychotics, respectively, in relation to risk of a fall injury and according to concomitant use of CYP2D6-inhibiting drugs. Newly dispensed drugs were assessed correspondingly in a control period of equal length, 28 days prior to the 12-week washout period. Overall, the risk of fall injury was increased after newly initiated antidepressant and antipsychotic treatment. For antidepressants, concomitant CYP2D6 inhibitor use further elevated the risk estimates compared to non-use, most pronounced for the groups selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline excluded) [OR = 1.47 (95% CI 1.19-1.80) vs. OR = 1.19 (95% CI 1.13-1.26)], and tricyclic antidepressants [OR = 1.71 (95% CI 1.17-2.51) vs. 1.27 (95% CI 1.11-1.47)] as well as for sertraline [OR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.05-2.38) vs. 1.12 (95% CI 1.00-1.26)]. For antipsychotics, the risk of fall injury was not altered by concomitant use of CYP2D6-inhibiting drugs. In conclusion, concomitant use of CYP2D6 inhibiting drugs tends to further increase the risk of fall injury in newly initiated antidepressant treatment, but not in antipsychotic treatment.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(5): e019592, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619974

RESUMO

Background Studies on intact abdominal aortic aneurysms mainly focus on treated patients, and data on untreated patients are sparse. The objective was to investigate sex differences among untreated patients regarding rupture and mortality rates and to determine predictors for these events. Sex-specific causes of death were evaluated. Methods and Results All patients ≥40 years diagnosed from 2001 to 2015 (n=32 393) with intact abdominal aortic aneurysms were identified in national registries; 60% (n=19 569) were untreated. Comorbid loads, crude rupture, and mortality rates were assessed. Predictors of 5-year rupture and mortality were analyzed in Cox models (sex, age, comorbidities, income, and marital status). The proportion of men and women with multiple comorbidities was similar. Within 5 years, 798 ruptures occurred (9.7% women versus 6.9% men, P<0.001). Ruptures were independently predicted by female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42; P=0.004), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15-1.62; P<0.001), age (HR, 11.49; 95% CI, 5.68-23.25 for ≥80 years; P<0.001), and income (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.75 for highest tertile; P<0.001). After 5 years, 56.5% women and 50.4% men were deceased. Mortality was not independently predicted by female sex. Rupture was the third most common cause of death (11.9% women versus 8.7% men; P<0.001). The median time-to-events was 2.8 years. Conclusions A considerable proportion of patients with intact abdominal aortic aneurysms in surveillance remain untreated. Despite surveillance algorithms, the healthcare system fails to prevent a high number of ruptures, especially among women. The time-to-event data highlight the urgency to develop more individualized surveillance.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/epidemiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suécia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
17.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(7): 1050-1057, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoproteins are associated with acquired aortic valve stenosis (AS). This study investigated whether an elevated apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA-1 ratio was associated with an increased risk of AS and if this association was influenced by a history of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) defined as stroke, myocardial infarction or revascularisation. METHODS: A study was undertaken of 131,816 individuals, aged ≥30 years, from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) cohort, with measurements of apolipoproteins B and A-1 at health examinations during 1985-1996. RESULTS: There were fewer women and the average age was 4 years older in the highest apoB/apoA-1 quintile compared with the lowest. Being overweight, having reduced renal function and diabetes mellitus were more frequent. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and apolipoprotein B levels were higher in the top apoB/apoA-1 quintile. During follow-up through 2011, non-rheumatic aortic valve disease was diagnosed in 2,999 individuals (2.3%). Using ICD-10 codes from 1997, AS was identified in 1,887 patients. An elevated apoB/apoA-1 ratio was associated with an increased incidence of aortic valve disease after multivariable adjustment [hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for the fifth vs first quintile of 1.28 (1.09-1.50)]. Restricting the analyses to incident AS during 1997-2011 yielded an HR of 1.41 (1.15-1.72). This increased incidence was primarily seen in women and individuals aged ≥65 years. History of MACE did not influence these associations. CONCLUSIONS: An elevated apoB/apoA-1 ratio was associated with an increased incidence of AS, particularly in women and individuals aged ≥65 years, regardless of previous MACE.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Apolipoproteínas B , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Apolipoproteína A-I , Apolipoproteínas , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Environ Res ; 193: 110568, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). RESULTS: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m3 PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(1): 123-134, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The association between alcohol consumption and subclinical atherosclerosis is still unclear. Using data from a European multicentre study, we assess subclinical atherosclerosis and its 30-month progression by carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) measurements, and correlate this information with self-reported data on alcohol consumption. METHODS: Between 2002-2004, 1772 men and 1931 women aged 54-79 years with at least three risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) were recruited in Italy, France, Netherlands, Sweden, and Finland. Self-reported alcohol consumption, assessed at baseline, was categorized as follows: none (0 g/d), very-low (0 - 5 g/d), low (> 5 to ≤ 10 g/d), moderate (> 10 to ≤ 20 g/d for women, > 10 to ≤ 30 g/d for men) and high (> 20 g/d for women, > 30 g/d for men). C-IMT was measured in millimeters at baseline and after 30 months. Measurements consisted of the mean and maximum values of the common carotids (CC), internal carotid artery (ICA), and bifurcations (Bif) and whole carotid tree. We used quantile regression to describe the associations between C-IMT measures and alcohol consumption categories, adjusting for sex, age, physical activity, education, smoking, diet, and latitude. RESULTS: Adjusted differences between median C-IMT values in different levels of alcohol consumption (vs. very-low) showed that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower C-IMTmax[- 0.17(95%CI - 0.32; - 0.02)], and Bif-IMTmean[- 0.07(95%CI - 0.13; - 0.01)] at baseline and decreasing C-IMTmean[- 0.006 (95%CI - 0.011; - 0.000)], Bif-IMTmean[- 0.016(95%CI - 0.027; - 0.005)], ICA-IMTmean[- 0.009(95% - 0.016; - 0.002)] and ICA-IMTmax[- 0.016(95%: - 0.032; - 0.000)] after 30 months. There was no evidence of departure from linearity in the association between alcohol consumption and C-IMT. CONCLUSION: In this European population at high risk of CVD, findings show an inverse relation between moderate alcohol consumption and carotid subclinical atherosclerosis and its 30-month progression, independently of several potential confounders.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Feminino , Finlândia , França , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Países Baixos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
20.
Environ Int ; 146: 106249, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ambient air pollution has been associated with lung cancer, but the shape of the exposure-response function - especially at low exposure levels - is not well described. The aim of this study was to address the relationship between long-term low-level air pollution exposure and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: The "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration pools seven cohorts from across Europe. We developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) to assign exposure to cohort participants' residential addresses in 100 m by 100 m grids. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). We fitted linear models, linear models in subsets, Shape-Constrained Health Impact Functions (SCHIF), and natural cubic spline models to assess the shape of the association between air pollution and lung cancer at concentrations below existing standards and guidelines. RESULTS: The analyses included 307,550 cohort participants. During a mean follow-up of 18.1 years, 3956 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Median (Q1, Q3) annual (2010) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O3 (warm season) were 24.2 µg/m3 (19.5, 29.7), 15.4 µg/m3 (12.8, 17.3), 1.6 10-5m-1 (1.3, 1.8), and 86.6 µg/m3 (78.5, 92.9), respectively. We observed a higher risk for lung cancer with higher exposure to PM2.5 (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.23 per 5 µg/m3). This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants. The SCHIF, spline and subset analyses suggested a linear or supra-linear association with no evidence of a threshold. In subset analyses, risk estimates were clearly elevated for the subset of subjects with exposure below the EU limit value of 25 µg/m3. We did not observe associations between NO2, BC or O3 and lung cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with lung cancer incidence even at concentrations below current EU limit values and possibly WHO Air Quality Guidelines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
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