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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(24)2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36556609

RESUMO

Thin-film thermoelectrics (TEs) with a thickness of a few microns present an attractive opportunity to power the internet of things (IoT). Here, we propose screen printing as an industry-relevant technology to fabricate TE thin films from colloidal PbSe quantum dots (QDs). Monodisperse 13 nm-sized PbSe QDs with spherical morphology were synthesized through a straightforward heating-up method. The cubic-phase PbSe QDs with homogeneous chemical composition allowed the formulation of a novel ink to fabricate 2 µm-thick thin films through robust screen printing followed by rapid annealing. A maximum Seebeck coefficient of 561 µV K-1 was obtained at 143 °C and the highest electrical conductivity of 123 S m-1 was reached at 197 °C. Power factor calculations resulted in a maximum value of 2.47 × 10-5 W m-1 K-2 at 143 °C. To the best of our knowledge, the observed Seebeck coefficient value is the highest reported for TE thin films fabricated by screen printing. Thus, this study highlights that increased Seebeck coefficients can be obtained by using QD building blocks owing to quantum confinement.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(44): 27075-27085, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326039

RESUMO

We have used operando 5D synchrotron total scattering computed tomography (TSCT) to understand the cycling and possible long term deactivation mechanisms of the lithium-ion battery anode bismuth vanadate. This anode material functions via a combined conversion/alloying mechanism in which nanocrystals of lithium-bismuth alloy are protected by an amorphous matrix of lithium vanadate. This composite is formed in situ during the first lithiation of the anode. The operando TSCT data were analyzed and mapped using both pair distribution function and Rietveld methods. We can follow the lithium-bismuth alloying reaction at all stages, gaining real structural insight including variations in nanoparticle sizes, lattice parameters and bond lengths, even when the material is completely amorphous. We also observe for the first time structural changes related to the cycling of lithium ions in the lithium vanadate matrix, which displays no interactions beyond the first shell of V-O bonds. The first 3D operando mapping of the distribution of different materials in an amorphous anode reveals a decline in coverage caused by either agglomeration or partial dissolution of the active material, hinting at the mechanism of long term deactivation. The observations from the operando experiment are backed up by post mortem transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies and theoretical calculations to provide a complete picture of an exceptionally complex cycling mechanism across a range of length scales.

3.
ACS Mater Au ; 2(5): 614-625, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124003

RESUMO

Achieving kinetic control to synthesize metastable compounds is a challenging task, especially in solid-state reactions where the diffusion is slow. Another challenge is the unambiguous crystal structure determination for metastable compounds when high-quality single crystals suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction are inaccessible. In this work, we report an unconventional means of synthesis and an effective strategy to solve the crystal structure of an unprecedented metastable compound LiNi12B8. This compound can only be produced upon heating a metastable layered boride, HT-Li0.4NiB (HT: high temperature), in a sealed niobium container. A conventional heating and annealing of elements do not yield the title compound, which is consistent with the metastable nature of LiNi12B8. The process to crystallize this compound is sensitive to the annealing temperature and dwelling time, a testament to the complex kinetics involved in the formation of the product. The unavailability of crystals suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments prompted solving the crystal structure from high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. This compound crystallizes in a new structure type with space group I4/mmm (a = 10.55673(9) Å, c = 10.00982(8) Å, V = 1115.54(3) Å3, Z = 6). The resulting complex crystal structure of LiNi12B8 is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and solid-state 11B and 7Li NMR spectroscopy analyses. The extended Ni framework with Li/Ni disorder in its crystal structure resulted in the spin-glass or cluster glass type magnetic ordering below 24 K. This report illustrates a "contemporary twist" to traditional methodologies toward synthesizing a metastable compound and provides a recipe for solving structures by combining the complementary characterization techniques in the cases where the traditionally used single-crystal X-ray diffraction method is nonapplicable.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(36): 16433-16446, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047929

RESUMO

Formic acid is considered as one of the most promising liquid organic hydrogen carriers. Its catalytic dehydrogenation process generally suffers from low activity, low reaction selectivity, low stability of the catalysts, and/or the use of noble-metal-based catalysts. Herein we report a highly selective, efficient, and noble-metal-free photocatalyst for the dehydrogenation of formic acid. This catalyst, UiO-66(COOH)2-Cu, is built by postmetalation of a carboxylic-functionalized Zr-MOF with copper. The visible-light-driven photocatalytic dehydrogenation process through the release of hydrogen and carbon dioxide has been monitored in real-time via operando Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which revealed almost 100% selectivity with high stability (over 3 days) and a conversion yield exceeding 60% (around 5 mmol·gcat-1·h-1) under ambient conditions. These performance indicators make UiO-66(COOH)2-Cu among the top photocatalysts for formic acid dehydrogenation. Interestingly, the as-prepared UiO-66(COOH)2-Cu hetero-nanostructure was found to be moderately active under solar irradiation during an induction phase, whereupon it undergoes an in-situ restructuring process through intraframework cross-linking with the formation of the anhydride analogue structure UiO-66(COO)2-Cu and nanoclustering of highly active and stable copper sites, as evidenced by the operando studies coupled with steady-state isotopic transient kinetic experiments, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, and Density Functional Theory calculations. Beyond revealing outstanding catalytic performance for UiO-66(COO)2-Cu, this work delivers an in-depth understanding of the photocatalytic reaction mechanism, which involves evolutive behavior of the postmetalated copper as well as the MOF framework over the reaction. These key findings pave the way toward the engineering of new and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic dehydrogenation of formic acid.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545871

RESUMO

Oxide perovskites have attracted great interest as materials for energy conversion due to their stability and structural tunability. La-based perovskites of 3d-transition metals have demonstrated excellent activities as electrocatalysts in water oxidation. Herein, we report the synthesis route to La-based perovskites using an environmentally friendly deep eutectic solvent (DES) consisting of choline chloride and malonic acid. The DES route affords phase-pure crystalline materials on a gram scale and results in perovskites with high electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction. A convenient, fast, and scalable synthesis proceeds via assisted metathesis at a lower temperature as compared to traditional solid-state methods. Among LaCoO3, LaMn0.5Ni0.5O3, and LaMnO3 perovskites prepared via the DES route, LaCoO3 was established to be the best-performing electrocatalyst for water oxidation in alkaline medium at 0.25 mg cm-2 mass loading. LaCoO3 exhibits current densities of 10, 50, and 100 mA cm-2 at respective overpotentials of approximately 390, 430, and 470 mV, respectively, and features a Tafel slope of 55.8 mV dec-1. The high activity of LaCoO3 as compared to the other prepared perovskites is attributed to the high concentration of oxygen vacancies in the LaCoO3 lattice, as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. An intrinsically high concentration of O vacancies in the LaCoO3 synthesized via the DES route is ascribed to the reducing atmosphere attained upon thermal decomposition of the DES components. These findings will contribute to the preparation of highly active perovskites for various energy applications.

6.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335179

RESUMO

The intergrowth of stable and metastable AgInS2 polymorphs was synthesized using a microwave-assisted synthesis. The samples were synthesized in water and in a deep eutectic solvent (DES) consisting of choline chloride and thiourea. An increase in the metal precursor concentration improved the crystallinity of the synthesized samples and affected the particle size. AgInS2 cannot be synthesized from crystalline binary Ag2S or In2S3 via this route. The solution synthesis reported here results in the intergrowth of the thermodynamically stable polymorph (space group I4¯2d, chalcopyrite structure) and the high-temperature polymorph (space group Pna21, wurtzite-like structure) that is metastable at room temperature. A scanning transmission microscopy (STEM) study revealed the intergrowth of tetragonal and orthorhombic polymorphs in a single particle and unambiguously established that the long-thought hexagonal wurtzite polymorph has pseudo-hexagonal symmetry and is best described with the orthorhombic unit cell. The solution-synthesized AgInS2 polymorphs intergrowth has slightly lower bandgap values in the range of 1.73 eV-1.91 eV compared to the previously reported values for tetragonal I4¯2d (1.86 eV) and orthorhombic Pna21 (1.98 eV) polymorphs.

7.
Sci Adv ; 8(12): eabl5671, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319975

RESUMO

Recent observations of novel spin-orbit coupled states have generated interest in 4d/5d transition metal systems. A prime example is the [Formula: see text] state in iridate materials and α-RuCl3 that drives Kitaev interactions. Here, by tuning the competition between spin-orbit interaction (λSOC) and trigonal crystal field (ΔT), we restructure the spin-orbital wave functions into a previously unobserved [Formula: see text] state that drives Ising interactions. This is done via a topochemical reaction that converts Li2RhO3 to Ag3LiRh2O6. Using perturbation theory, we present an explicit expression for the [Formula: see text] state in the limit ΔT ≫ λSOC realized in Ag3LiRh2O6, different from the conventional [Formula: see text] state in the limit λSOC ≫ ΔT realized in Li2RhO3. The change of ground state is followed by a marked change of magnetism from a 6 K spin-glass in Li2RhO3 to a 94 K antiferromagnet in Ag3LiRh2O6.

8.
Nano Lett ; 22(7): 2589-2594, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302763

RESUMO

Two novel properties, unique for semiconductors, a negative electron affinity and a high p-type surface electrical conductivity, were discovered in diamond at the end of the last century. Both properties appear when the diamond surface is hydrogenated. A natural question arises: is the influence of the surface hydrogen on diamond limited only to the electrical properties? Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we observe a transparency peak at 1328 cm-1 in the infrared absorption of hydrogen-terminated pure (undoped) nanodiamonds. This new optical property is ascribed to Fano-type destructive interference between zone-center optical phonons and free carriers (holes) appearing in the near-surface layer of hydrogenated nanodiamond. This work opens the way to explore the physics of electron-phonon coupling in undoped semiconductors and promises the application of H-terminated nanodiamonds as a new optical material with induced transparency in the infrared optical range.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(12): 14120-14128, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35291765

RESUMO

We investigate LaCo2P2 as an electrocatalytic material for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under alkaline and acidic conditions. This layered intermetallic material was prepared via Sn-flux high-temperature annealing. The electrocatalytic ink, prepared with the ball-milled LaCo2P2 catalyst at the mass loading of 0.25 mg/cm2, shows OER activity at pH = 14, reaching current densities of 10, 50, and 100 mA/cm2 under the overpotential of 400, 440, and 460 mV, respectively. Remarkably, the electrocatalytic performance remains constant for at least 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the formation of a catalytically active CoOx shell around the pre-catalyst LaCo2P2 core during the alkaline OER. The core serves as a robust support for the in situ-formed electrocatalytic system. Similar studies under pH = 0 reveal the rapid deterioration of LaCo2P2, with the formation of LaPO4 and amorphous cobalt oxide. This study shows the viability of layered intermetallics as stable OER electrocatalysts, although further developments are required to improve the electrocatalytic performance and increase the stability at lower pH values.

10.
Small ; 18(14): e2107054, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174974

RESUMO

Miniaturized electronics suffer from a lack of energy autonomy. In that context, the fabrication of lithium-ion solid-state microbatteries with high performance is mandatory for powering the next generation of portable electronic devices. Here, the fabrication of a thin film positive electrode for 3D Li-ion microbatteries made by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method and in situ lithiation step is demonstrated. The 3D electrodes based on spinel LiMn2 O4 films operate at high working potential (4.1 V vs Li/Li+ ) and are capable of delivering a remarkable surface capacity (≈180 µAh cm-2 ) at low C-rate while maintaining more than 40 µAh cm-2 at C/2 (time constant = 2 h). Both the thickness of the electrode material and the 3D gain of the template are carefully tuned to maximize the electrode performance. Advanced characterization techniques such as transmission electron and X-ray transmission microscopies are proposed as perfect tools to study the conformality of the deposited films and the interfaces between each layer: no interdiffusion or segregation are observed. This work represents a major issue towards the fabrication of 3D-lithiated electrode by ALD-without any prelithiation step by electrochemical technique-making it an attractive solution for the fabrication of 3D Li-ion solid-state microbatteries with semiconductor processing methods.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(100): 13780-13783, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860234

RESUMO

The first arsenic-based clathrate exhibiting superstructural ordering due to optimization of Au-As, As-As, and Ba-Au bonding is reported. Ba8Au16As30 crystallizes in a unique P21/c monoclinic clathrate structure. The synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and transport properties are discussed.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 60(21): 16273-16285, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643373

RESUMO

S-based semiconductors are attracting attention as environmentally friendly materials for energy-conversion applications because of their structural complexity and chemical flexibility. Here, we show that the delicate interplay between the chemical composition and cationic order/disorder allows one to stabilize a new sphalerite derivative phase of cubic symmetry in the Cu-Sn-S diagram: Cu22Sn10S32. Interestingly, its crystal structure is characterized by a semiordered cationic distribution, with the Cu-Sn disorder being localized on one crystallographic site in a long-range-ordered matrix. The origin of the partial disorder and its influence on the electronic and thermal transport properties are addressed in detail using a combination of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, theoretical modeling, and transport property measurements. These measurements evidence that this compound behaves as a pseudogap, degenerate p-type material with very low lattice thermal conductivity (0.5 W m-1 K-1 at 700 K). We show that localized disorder is very effective in lowering κL without compromising the integrity of the conductive framework. Substituting pentavalent Sb for tetravalent Sn is exploited to lower the hole concentration and doubles the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT to 0.55 at 700 K with respect to the pristine compound. The discovery of this semiordered cubic sphalerite derivative Cu22Sn10S32 furthers the understanding of the structure-property relationships in the Cu-Sn-S system and more generally in ternary and quaternary Cu-based systems.

13.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 125(23): 12650-12662, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276865

RESUMO

The study provides deep insight into the origin of photocatalytic deactivation of Nb2O5 after modification with ceria. Of particular interest was to fully understand the role of ceria species in diminishing the photocatalytic performance of CeO2/Nb2O5 heterostructures. For this purpose, ceria was loaded on niobia surfaces by wet impregnation. The as-prepared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence measurements. Photocatalytic activity of parent metal oxides (i.e., Nb2O5 and CeO2) and as-prepared CeO2/Nb2O5 heterostructures with different ceria loadings were tested in methanol photooxidation, a model gas-phase reaction. Deep insight into the photocatalytic process provided by operando-IR techniques combined with results of photoluminescence studies revealed that deactivation of CeO2/Nb2O5 heterostructures resulted from increased recombination of photo-excited electrons and holes. The main factor contributing to more efficient recombination of the charge carriers in the heterostructures was the ultrafine size of the ceria species. The presence of such highly dispersed ceria species on the niobia surface provided a strong interface between these two semiconductors, enabling efficient charge transfer from Nb2O5 to CeO2. However, the ceria species supported on niobia exhibited a high defect site concentration, which acted as highly active recombination centers for the photo-induced charge carriers.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 60(10): 7217-7227, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956446

RESUMO

The effect of crystallizing solution chemistry on the chemistry of subsequently as-grown materials was investigated for Mo-substituted iron oxides prepared by thermally activated co-precipitation. In the presence of Mo ions, we find that varying the oxidation state of the iron precursor from Fe(II) to Fe(III) causes a progressive loss of atomic long-range order with the stabilization of 2-4 nm particles for the sample prepared with Fe(III). The oxidation state of the Fe precursor also affects the distribution of Fe and Mo cations within the spinel structure. Increasing the Fe precursor oxidation state gives decreased Fe-ion occupation and increased Mo-ion occupation of tetrahedral sites, as revealed by the extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The stabilization of Mo within tetrahedral sites appears to be unexpected, considering the octahedral preferred coordination number of Mo(VI). The analysis of the atomic structure of the sample prepared with Fe(III) indicates a local ordering of vacancies and that the occupation of tetrahedral sites by Mo induces a contraction of the interatomic distances within the polyhedra as compared to Fe atoms. Moreover, the occupancy of Mo into the thermodynamic site preference of a Mo dopant in Fe2O3 assessed by density functional theory calculations points to a stronger preference for Mo substitution at octahedral sites. Hence, we suggest that the synthetized compound is thermodynamically metastable, that is, kinetically trapped. Such a state is suggested to be a consequence of the tetrahedral site occupation by Mo ions. The population of these sites, known to be reactive sites enabling particle growth, is concomitant with the stabilization of very small particles. We confirmed our hypothesis by using a blank experiment without Mo ions, further supporting the impact of tetrahedral Mo ions on the growth of iron oxide nanoparticles. Our findings provide new insights into the relationships between the Fe-chemistry of the crystallizing solution and the structural features of the as-grown Mo-substituted Fe-oxide materials.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(13): 15761-15773, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765380

RESUMO

LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is a promising 5V-class electrode for Li-ion batteries but suffers from manganese dissolution and electrolyte decomposition owing to the high working potential. An attractive solution to stabilize the surface chemistry consists in mastering the interface between the LNMO electrode and the liquid electrolyte with a surface protective layer made from the powerful surface deposition method. Here, we show that a 7400 nm thick sputtered LNMO film coated with a nanometer-thick lithium-ion-conductive Li3PO4 layer was deposited by the atomic layer deposition method. We demonstrate that this "material model system" can deliver a remarkable surface capacity (∼0.4 mAh cm-2 at 1C) and exhibits improved cycling lifetime (×650%) compared to the nonprotected electrode. Nevertheless, we observe that mechanical failure occurs within the LNMO and Li3PO4 films when long-term cycling is performed. This in-depth study gives new insights regarding the mechanical degradation of LNMO electrodes upon charge/discharge cycling and reveals for the first time that the surface protective layer made from the ALD method is not sufficient for long-term stability applications.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(37): 44520-44530, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516100

RESUMO

The adverse effects of NOx (NO + NO2) gases on the environment and human health have triggered the development of sustainable photocatalysts for their efficient removal (De-NOx). In this regard, the present work focuses on supported Co3O4-based nanomaterials fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD), assessed for the first time as photocatalysts for sunlight-activated NO oxidation. A proof-of-principle investigation on the possibility of tailoring material performances by heterostructure formation is explored through deposition of SnO2 or Fe2O3 onto Co3O4 by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. A comprehensive characterization by complementary analytical tools evidences the formation of high-purity columnar Co3O4 arrays with faceted pyramidal tips, conformally covered by very thin SnO2 and Fe2O3 overlayers. Photocatalytic functional tests highlight an appreciable activity for bare Co3O4 systems, accompanied by a high selectivity in NOx conversion to harmless nitrate species. A preliminary evaluation of De-NOx performances for functionalized systems revealed a direct dependence of the system behavior on the chemical composition, SnO2/Fe2O3 overlayer morphology, and charge transfer events between the single oxide constituents. Taken together, the present results can provide valuable guidelines for the eventual implementation of improved photocatalysts for air purification.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(1): 415-423, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936983

RESUMO

The compositional screening of K-Zn-Sb ternary system aided by machine learning, rapid exploratory synthesis using KH salt-like precursor and in situ powder X-ray diffraction yielded a novel clathrate type XI K58 Zn122 Sb207 . This clathrate consists of a 3D Zn-Sb framework hosting K+ ions inside polyhedral cages, some of which are reminiscent of known clathrate types while others are unique to this structure type. The complex non-centrosymmetric structure in the tetragonal space group I 4 ‾ 2 m was solved by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction as a 6-component twin due to pseudocubic symmetry and further confirmed by high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and state-of-the-art scanning transmission electron microscopy. The electron-precise composition of this clathrate yields narrow-gap p-type semiconductor with extraordinarily low thermal conductivity due to displacement or "rattling" of K cations inside oversized cages and as well as to twinning, stacking faults and antiphase boundary defects.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6902, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327708

RESUMO

In this paper we present a facile method for the synthesis of aminated graphene derivative through simultaneous reduction and amination of graphene oxide via two-step liquid phase treatment with hydrobromic acid and ammonia solution in mild conditions. The amination degree of the obtained aminated reduced graphene oxide is of about 4 at.%, whereas C/O ratio is up to 8.8 as determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical reactivity of the introduced amine groups is further verified by successful test covalent bonding of the obtained aminated graphene with 3-Chlorobenzoyl chloride. The morphological features and electronic properties, namely conductivity, valence band structure and work function are studied as well, illustrating the influence of amine groups on graphene structure and physical properties. Particularly, the increase of the electrical conductivity, reduction of the work function value and tendency to form wrinkled and corrugated graphene layers are observed in the aminated graphene derivative compared to the pristine reduced graphene oxide. As obtained aminated graphene could be used for photovoltaic, biosensing and catalysis application as well as a starting material for further chemical modifications.

19.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(8): 085803, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703233

RESUMO

Here we report synthesis, structure, microstructure and magnetic properties of La2-x Bi x MnNiO6 (x = 0 and 1) double perovskites. Ricciardo et al (2009 Mater. Res. Bull. 44 239) have attempted to synthesize LaBiMnNiO6 (x = 1), but no further characterization was done due to large impurity content in the sample. We have been able to synthesize LaBiMnNiO6 phase at ambient pressure with traces of impurity at 750 °C using sol-gel method. This achievement leads us to compare the structural and magnetic properties of LaBiMnNiO6 with parent phase La2MnNiO6 to highlight the effect of Bi-doping in double perovskite. In contrast to the biphasic rhombohedral (R-3c) and monoclinic (P21/n) crystal structures of La2MnNiO6, LaBiMnNiO6 crystallized in single monoclinic (P21/n) phase. The EDX mapping confirmed the chemical homogeneity of the samples. The electron diffraction confirms the ordered structure of the sample. The microstructure analysis from HAADF-STEM revealed random distribution of misfit dislocations in the structure. Such defects are created to relax the strain due to unusual replacement of Mn/Ni atoms by La/Bi. We observed a decrease in TC with a large increase in magnetic moment of LaBiMnNiO6 compare to La2MnNiO6. There is also large suppression of low-temperature magnetic anomaly in Bi-substituted sample. The lowering of TC can be rationalized to the local structural distortion associated with the stereoactive 6s2-lone pair electron of Bi3+. On the other hand, the increase in magnetic moment and suppression of low-temperature magnetic anomaly for LaBiMnNiO6 can be ascribed to the suppression of antisite disorder in Bi-substituted sample.

20.
Chem Sci ; 11(37): 10255-10264, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34094291

RESUMO

The unconventional clathrates, Cs8Zn18Sb28 and Cs8Cd18Sb28, were synthesized and reinvestigated. These clathrates exhibit unique and extensive superstructural ordering of the clathrate-I structure that was not initially reported. Cs8Cd18Sb28 orders in the Ia3̄d space group (no. 230) with 8 times larger volume of the unit cell in which most framework atoms segregate into distinct Cd and Sb sites. The structure of Cs8Zn18Sb28 is much more complicated, with an 18-fold increase of unit cell volume accompanied by significant reduction of symmetry down to P2 (no. 3) monoclinic space group. This structure was revealed by a combination of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. A full solid solution, Cs8Zn18-x Cd x Sb28, was also synthesized and characterized. These compounds follow Vegard's law in regard to their primitive unit cell sizes and melting points. Variable temperature in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction was used to study the formation and melting of Cs8Zn18Sb28. Due to the heavy elements comprising clathrate framework and the complex structural ordering, the synthesized clathrates exhibit ultralow thermal conductivities, all under 0.8 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature. Cs8Zn9Cd9Sb28 and Cs8Zn4.5Cd13.5Sb28 both have total thermal conductivities of 0.49 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature, among the lowest reported for any clathrate. Cs8Zn18Sb28 has typical p-type semiconducting charge transport properties, while the remaining clathrates show unusual n-p transitions or sharp increases of thermopower at low temperatures. Estimations of the bandgaps as activation energy for resistivity dependences show an anomalous widening and then shrinking of the bandgap with increasing Cd-content.

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