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1.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastomas may occur in a predisposition context, including familial adenomatosis polyposis. Medulloblastomas related to APC germline pathogenic variant remain rare and poorly described. Their similarities with sporadic WNT medulloblastomas still require to be described. METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective review of 12 patients treated between 1988 and 2018 for medulloblastoma with identified or highly suspected (personal of familial history) APC germline pathogenic variant. We report personal and familial history, APC gene pathogenic variant whenever available, clinical and histological characteristics of the medulloblastoma, treatments, and long-term outcome including second tumor and late sequelae. RESULTS: Medulloblastomas associated with APC pathogenic variant are mainly classic (11/11 patients, 1 NA), non-metastatic (10/12 patients) medulloblastomas, with nuclear immunoreactivity for ß-catenin (9/9 tested cases). 10/11 assessable patients are disease-free with a median follow-up of 10.7 years [1-28]. Secondary tumors included desmoid tumors in 7 patients (9 tumors), 1 thyroid carcinoma, 2 pilomatricomas, 1 osteoma, 1 vertebral hemangioma, and 1 malignant Triton in the radiation field which caused the only cancer-related death in our series. CONCLUSIONS: Medulloblastomas associated with APC pathogenic variant have an overall favorable outcome, even for metastatic tumors. Yet, long-term survival is clouded by second tumor occurrence; treatment may play some role in some of these second malignancies. Our findings raise the question of applying de-escalation therapeutic protocol to treat patients with APC germline pathogenic variant given the excellent outcome, and reduced intensity of craniospinal irradiation may be further evaluated.

2.
MBio ; 10(5)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481382

RESUMO

In this work, by comparing genomes of closely related individuals of Streptomyces isolated at a spatial microscale (millimeters or centimeters), we investigated the extent and impact of horizontal gene transfer in the diversification of a natural Streptomyces population. We show that despite these conspecific strains sharing a recent common ancestor, all harbored significantly different gene contents, implying massive and rapid gene flux. The accessory genome of the strains was distributed across insertion/deletion events (indels) ranging from one to several hundreds of genes. Indels were preferentially located in the arms of the linear chromosomes (ca. 12 Mb) and appeared to form recombination hot spots. Some of them harbored biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) whose products confer an inhibitory capacity and may constitute public goods that can favor the cohesiveness of the bacterial population. Moreover, a significant proportion of these variable genes were either plasmid borne or harbored signatures of actinomycete integrative and conjugative elements (AICEs). We propose that conjugation is the main driver for the indel flux and diversity in Streptomyces populations.IMPORTANCE Horizontal gene transfer is a rapid and efficient way to diversify bacterial gene pools. Currently, little is known about this gene flux within natural soil populations. Using comparative genomics of Streptomyces strains belonging to the same species and isolated at microscale, we reveal frequent transfer of a significant fraction of the pangenome. We show that it occurs at a time scale enabling the population to diversify and to cope with its changing environment, notably, through the production of public goods.

3.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(10): 1075-1085, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399828

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although some specific genetic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis (NF) have been identified as risk factor of childhood brain tumors (CBT), the potential role of inherited susceptibility in CBT has yet to be elucidated. METHODS: To further investigate this, we conducted a pooled analysis of two nationwide case-control studies ESCALE and ESTELLE. The mothers of 509 CBT cases and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years who resided in France at diagnosis/interview, frequency-matched by age and gender, responded to a telephone interview conducted by trained interviewers. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: CBT was significantly associated with the family history of cancer in relatives (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5). The OR was slightly higher for maternal relatives than for paternal relatives, and when at least two relatives had a history of cancer. CBT was significantly associated with a family history of brain tumor (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.7). This association seemed stronger for first-degree relatives (mother, father, and siblings), for whom, by contrast, no association was seen for cancers other than CBT. No specificity by CBT subtypes or by age of the children were found for any of these findings. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis of a familial susceptibility of CBT, not due to being a known NF carrier.

4.
Brain Pathol ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348837

RESUMO

Pediatric diffuse midline gliomas are devastating diseases. Among them, diffuse midline gliomas H3K27M-mutant are associated with worse prognosis. However, recent studies have highlighted significant differences in clinical behavior and biological alterations within this specific subgroup. In this context, simple markers are needed to refine the prognosis of diffuse midline gliomas H3K27M-mutant and guide the clinical management of patients. The aims of this study were (i) to describe the molecular, immunohistochemical and, especially, chromosomal features of a cohort of diffuse midline gliomas and (ii) to focus on H3K27M-mutant tumors to identify new prognostic markers. Patients were retrospectively selected from 2001 to 2017. Tumor samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (including H3K27me3, EGFR, c-MET and p53), next-generation sequencing and comparative genomic hybridization array. Forty-nine patients were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 9 years, and the median overall survival (OS) was 9.4 months. H3F3A or HIST1H3B mutations were identified in 80% of the samples. Within the H3K27M-mutant tumors, PDGFRA amplification, loss of 17p and a complex chromosomal profile were significantly associated with worse survival. Three prognostic markers were identified in diffuse midline gliomas H3K27M-mutant: PDGFRA amplification, loss of 17p and a complex chromosomal profile. These markers are easy to detect in daily practice and should be considered to refine the prognosis of this entity.

5.
Mol Diagn Ther ; 23(4): 537-545, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genomic duplications and fusion involving BRAF and KIAA1549 that create fusion proteins with constitutive B-RAF kinase activity are a hallmark of pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs). The detection of KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcripts is of paramount importance to classify these tumors and to identify patients who could benefit from BRAF inhibitors. In a clinical setting, the available material for molecular analysis from these pediatric tumors is often limited to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. The aim of the present study was to develop a new method to detect the three most frequent KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcripts, 15-9, 16-11, and 16-9, where numbers refer to the exons fused together, using a FFPE-compatible multiplex quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). METHODS: We compared performance of the assay to a reference singleplex method on a collection of 46 FFPE PAs. RESULTS: The results showed that both methods are comparable. The multiplex method had an overall 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to the singleplex method, and agreement between the two techniques was almost perfect (Cohen's kappa: 0.97). There was no evidence of a significant difference between the qRT-PCR efficiencies of the multiplex technique and of the singleplex assay for all fusion transcripts and for GAPDH, the latter used as a reference gene. The multiplex method consumed four times less complementary DNA (cDNA), cost less, and required half the hands-on technical time. CONCLUSION: The results show that it could be beneficial to implement the multiplex method in a clinical setting, where samples presenting low quantity of degraded RNA are not unusual.

6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(7): e27693, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antitumor activity of a four-drug metronomic chemotherapy (MC) regimen in relapsed/progressing pediatric extracranial solid tumors (EST). The primary objective was clinical benefit (complete response /partial response/stable disease [SD]) after two cycles of therapy (four months). METHODS: Patients aged ≥4 to 25 years with progressing EST and adequate organ function were eligible. Treatment consisted of an eight-week cycle of oral celecoxib b.i.d., weekly vinblastine, and oral cyclophosphamide for three weeks alternating with oral methotrexate for three weeks, with a two-week rest. The Kepner-Chang two-stage model was used with 10 patients in the first stage. If primary objective was reached in two or more patients, eight additional patients were included according to four groups: neuroblastoma (NBL), soft-tissue sarcoma (STS), bone sarcoma (BS), and miscellaneous (Misc.). RESULTS: Forty-four patients were evaluable. The NBL cohort could be expanded to 18 patients: 4 of 18 patients stabilized with MC treatment for 6 (n = 1) and 12 (n = 3) months. In STS, two of seven patients (metastatic hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma) had SD for > 2 cycles. One of nine Misc. (metastatic myoepithelial carcinoma) had SD for one year. All patients with BS had progressive disease. One-year progression-free survival of the whole cohort was 6.8% and one-year overall survival was 55.3%. Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 18 patients and grade 4 in 15 patients. The most frequent toxicity was hematologic, predominantly neutropenia. CONCLUSIONS: This MC has no activity in BS and limited though interesting activity in NBL with some patients being stable for > 1 year. It is not possible to conclude activity in STS and Misc.

7.
Mol Microbiol ; 111(5): 1139-1151, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746801

RESUMO

Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most detrimental DNA damage encountered by bacterial cells. DBSs can be repaired by homologous recombination thanks to the availability of an intact DNA template or by Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) when no intact template is available. Bacterial NHEJ is performed by sets of proteins of growing complexity from Bacillus subtilis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Streptomyces and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Here, we discuss the contribution of these models to the understanding of the bacterial NHEJ repair mechanism as well as the involvement of NHEJ partners in other DNA repair pathways. The importance of NHEJ and of its complexity is discussed in the perspective of regulation through the biological cycle of the bacteria and in response to environmental stimuli. Finally, we consider the role of NHEJ in genome evolution, notably in horizontal gene transfer.

8.
Mod Pathol ; 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401946

RESUMO

The prognosis of malignant pediatric adrenocortical tumors is closely related to disease stage, which is used to guide perioperative treatment recommendations. However, current scoring systems are inadequate to distinguish between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Robust microscopic prognostic features that could help determine perioperative therapy are also lacking. The aim of this national study was to review the prognostic value of the Wieneke scoring criteria and Ki67 labeling index in unselected pediatric adrenocortical tumors. Using strict definitions previously defined by expert pathologists, a Wieneke score was re-attributed to each tumor after an independent and centralized review. In addition, Ki67 proliferation index was performed and reviewed for each case. A total of 95 cases were selected; all were treated between 2000 and 2018 and had histopathologic material and sufficient outcome-related information available. Localized disease was found in 88% of patients. Among those with advanced disease, 6% had tumor extension into adjacent organs and 5% had metastases at diagnosis. Median follow-up was 5 years and 3 months. The 5-year PFS was 82%, 95% CI [73%-91%]. Tumor stage significantly correlated with PFS (p < 0.0001). Tumor weight up to 200 g, extra-adrenal extension and initial non-complete surgical resection were statistically associated with worse outcomes. No recurrences nor metastases occurred when the Ki67 index was < 15%. Up to two of the following five factors including tumor necrosis, adrenal capsular invasion, venous invasion, mitotic count > 15/20 high-power fields, and Ki67 index > 15%, significantly correlated with worse outcomes. We propose a pathological scoring system incorporating the Ki67 index as part of a two-step approach after disease staging to guide adjuvant treatment in pediatric adrenocortical tumors, especially after incomplete resection. These results should be validated in an independent cohort.

9.
Arch Dis Child ; 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse parents' and children's understanding of consent information and assess their decision-making process in paediatric oncology. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTINGS: Eleven French paediatric oncology units. PATIENTS: Parents and children who have been asked to give consent for participation in an early phase trial. INTERVENTIONS: Thirty-seven children and 119 parents were questioned using an audio-recorded semistructured interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The participants' understanding of nine elements of the informed consent was assessed by comparing their answers with the informed consent leaflet. Their decision-making process was also evaluated. RESULTS: Most parents and children had an excellent understanding regarding their participation in a clinical trial (respectively 88.2% and 48.6%), the right to withdraw (76.5% and 43.2%) and the prospects of collective benefits (74.8% and 48.6%). By contrast, less than half of the parents and few of the children correctly understood the alternatives (respectively 47.5% and 27%), the risks related to participation (44.5% and 10.8%), the prospects of individual benefits (33.6% and 10.8%) and the purpose of the clinical trial (12.6% and 2.7%). Twenty-six (70.3%) children participated in the decision-making process. Most parents and children felt they had no choice but to participate in the trial to have access to a new anticancer treatment. CONCLUSIONS: What might appear to be a poor understanding of the research protocol may actually correspond to the families' interpretation of the situation as a coping mechanism. All children (except infants) should get age-tailored information in order for them to have a meaningful involvement in research.

10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 7(4)2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279346

RESUMO

Specialized metabolites are of great interest due to their possible industrial and clinical applications. The increasing number of antimicrobial resistant infectious agents is a major health threat and therefore, the discovery of chemical diversity and new antimicrobials is crucial. Extensive genomic data from Streptomyces spp. confirm their production potential and great importance. Genome sequencing of the same species strains indicates that specialized metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster (SMBGC) diversity is not exhausted, and instead, a pool of novel specialized metabolites still exists. Here, we analyze the genome sequence data from six phylogenetically close Streptomyces strains. The results reveal that the closer strains are phylogenetically, the number of shared gene clusters is higher. Eight specialized metabolites comprise the core metabolome, although some strains have only six core gene clusters. The number of conserved gene clusters common between the isolated strains and their closest phylogenetic counterparts varies from nine to 23 SMBGCs. However, the analysis of these phylogenetic relationships is not affected by the acquisition of gene clusters, probably by horizontal gene transfer events, as each strain also harbors strain-specific SMBGCs. Between one and 15 strain-specific gene clusters were identified, of which up to six gene clusters in a single strain are unknown and have no identifiable orthologs in other species, attesting to the existing SMBGC novelty at the strain level.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 00950, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319400

RESUMO

Background: Metronomic chemotherapy (MC) is defined as the frequent administration of chemotherapy at doses below the maximal tolerated dose and with no prolonged drug-free break. MC has shown its efficacy in adult tumor types such as breast and ovarian cancer and has to some extent been studied in pediatrics. Objective: To assess the anti-tumor activity and toxicity of a four-drug metronomic regimen in relapsing/refractory pediatric brain tumors (BT) with progression-free survival (PFS) after two cycles as primary endpoint. Methods: Patients ≥4 to 25 years of age were included with progressing BT. Treatment consisted of an 8-week cycle of celecoxib, vinblastine, and cyclophosphamide alternating with methotrexate. Kepner and Chang two-steps model was used with 10 patients in the first stage. If stabilization was observed in ≥2 patients, 8 additional patients were recruited. Assessment was according WHO criteria with central radiology review. Results: Twenty-nine patients (27 evaluable) were included in two groups: ependymoma (group 1, N = 8), and miscellaneous BT (group 2): 3 medulloblastoma (MB), 5 high grade glioma (HGG), 11 low grade glioma (LGG), 2 other BT. After first stage, recruitment for ependymoma was closed [one patient had stable disease (SD) for 4 months]. Cohort 2 was opened for second stage since 1 HGG and 3 LGG patients had SD after two cycles. Recruitment was limited to LGG for the second stage and 2 partial responses (PR), 6 SD and 2 progressive disease (PD) were observed after two cycles. Of these patients with LGG, median age was 10 years, nine patients received vinblastine previously. Median number of cycles was 6.8 (range: 1-12). Treatment was interrupted in five patients for grade 3/4 toxicity. Conclusion: This regimen is active in patients with LGG, even if patients had previously received vinblastine. Toxicity is acceptable. Trial Registration: This study was registered under clinicaltrials.gov - NCT01285817; EUDRACT nr: 2010-021792-81.

12.
Bioconjug Chem ; 29(7): 2370-2381, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878753

RESUMO

The severe side effects associated with the use of anthracycline anticancer agents continues to limit their use. Herein we describe the synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of three enzymatically activatable doxorubicin-oligosaccharide prodrugs. The synthetic protocol allows late stage variation of the carbohydrate and is compatible with the use of disaccharides such as lactose as well as more complex oligosaccharides such as xyloglucan oligomers. The enzymatic release of doxorubicin from the prodrugs by both protease (plasmin) and human carboxylesterases (hCE1 and 2) was demonstrated in vitro and the cytotoxic effect of the prodrugs was assayed on MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5272, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588483

RESUMO

The linear chromosome of the bacterium Streptomyces exhibits a remarkable genetic organization with grossly a central conserved region flanked by variable chromosomal arms. The terminal diversity co-locates with an intense DNA plasticity including the occurrence of large deletions associated to circularization and chromosomal arm exchange. These observations prompted us to assess the role of double strand break (DSB) repair in chromosome plasticity following. For that purpose, DSBs were induced along the chromosome using the meganuclease I-SceI. DSB repair in the central region of the chromosome was mutagenic at the healing site but kept intact the whole genome structure. In contrast, DSB repair in the chromosomal arms was mostly associated to the loss of the targeted chromosomal arm and extensive deletions beyond the cleavage sites. While homologous recombination occurring between copies of DNA sequences accounted for the most part of the chromosome rescue events, Non Homologous End Joining was involved in mutagenic repair as well as in huge genome rearrangements (i.e. circularization). Further, NHEJ repair was concomitant with the integration of genetic material at the healing site. We postulate that DSB repair drives genome plasticity and evolution in Streptomyces and that NHEJ may foster horizontal transfer in the environment.

14.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 76(1): 81-95, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386148

RESUMO

A total of 125 Streptomyces strains were isolated from an Algerian wetland (Fetzara Lake) and characterized by growth on different culture media. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out by 16S rRNA sequence comparison after PCR amplification using universal primers. Antibacterial bioassays performed by the agar diffusion method enabled us to retain 33 Streptomyces isolates for their activity against two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and one Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Among them, six isolates inhibited all three indicator strains. Antibacterial compounds were then extracted from the solid culture media with ethanol and ethyl acetate as organic solvents. The minimal inhibitory concentration (% v/v) of the extracts was evaluated by a standardized broth dilution method against different clinical-resistant bacterial isolates and Candida albicans. The most active crude extracts were selected for further characterization by chromatographic analysis (RP-HPLC).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Antibiose , Lagos/microbiologia , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Argélia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibiose/genética , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Candida albicans , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Streptomyces/classificação , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Int J Cancer ; 142(3): 489-497, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949017

RESUMO

Some previous epidemiological studies have suggested that pesticide exposure during pregnancy may have a possible role in the development of childhood brain tumors (CBT). We pooled data from two French national population-based, case-control studies to investigate the association between maternal residential use of pesticides during pregnancy and the risk of CBT. The mothers of 437 CBT cases and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years who resided in France at diagnosis/interview, frequency-matched by age and gender, answered a structured telephone interview conducted by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). CBT was significantly associated with the maternal home use of pesticides during pregnancy (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.8) and, more specifically, with insecticide (OR 1.4, 1.2-1.8). We could not draw any conclusions about herbicides and/or fungicides because few women used them during pregnancy and most of these mothers also used insecticides. Although potential recall bias cannot be excluded, our findings of this pooled analysis support the hypothesis that residential maternal use of pesticides during pregnancy and particularly insecticides may increase the risk of CBT. Future investigations to verify these findings and to explore for CBT subtypes and dose-response are necessary to have a better understanding of the possible role of pesticides in etiology of CBT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 52: 1-9, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated whether early infections and factors potentially related to early immune stimulation might be involved in the aetiology of childhood brain tumours (CBT). In this study, we investigated the associations between CBT with early day-care attendance, history of early common infections, atopic conditions (asthma/wheezing, eczema, allergic rhinitis), early farm residence/visits and contact with animals. METHODS: We pooled data from two nationwide French case-control studies, the ESCALE and ESTELLE studies. Children with a CBT diagnosed between 1 and 14 years of age were identified directly from the French National Registry of Childhood Cancers, while population controls were recruited from telephone subscribers. Odds-ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The analyses included 469 cases and 2719 controls. We found no association between attending a day-care centre (OR: 0.9, 95%CI: 0.7-1.2) or having had repeated common infections (OR: 0.9, 95%CI: 0.7-1.2) in the first year of life and the risk of CBT. There was also no association with a history of asthma/wheezing (OR: 0.8, 95%CI: 0.56-1.1). Farm visits (OR: 0.6, 95%CI: 0.5-0.8) as well as contact with pets (OR: 0.8, 95%CI: 0.6-1.0) in the first year of life were inversely associated with CBT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a protective effect of early farm visits and contact with pets, but not with other markers of early immune stimulation. This might be related to immune stimulation but needs further investigation.

17.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 61(9): 1076-1086, 2017 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136413

RESUMO

Waste sorting activities are source of occupational bioaerosol exposures that are associated with several health disorders. New analytical tools, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, provide powerful methods to assess the microbial composition of bioaerosols. The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the feasibility and the repeatability of NGS-based biodiversity measurements and (ii) to study the microbial biodiversity using NGS in bioaerosols emitted in a waste sorting plant (WSP). Three stationary parallel samples were collected in a sorting cabin using closed-face cassettes equipped with polycarbonate membranes. Bacterial and fungal diversity was assessed by sequencing 16S and 18S rDNA genes using either Illumina sequencing or 454 pyrosequencing methods. At sampling point, airborne bacteria were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria with prevailing genera assigned to unclassified Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus. Airborne fungi were dominated by Ascomycota with prevailing genera assigned to Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Wallemia, and Hemicarpenteles. The NGS biodiversity measurements revealed a higher biodiversity bioaerosols that previously reported for WSP in studies carried out using culture methods followed by identification of microorganisms. These results provide the first survey about taxonomic biodiversity in bioaerosols from WSPs using high-throughput sequencing.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 28(7): 719-732, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28477209

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether parental smoking around the time of pregnancy or maternal consumption of beverages (alcohol, coffee, or tea) during pregnancy were associated with the risk of CBT. METHODS: We pooled data from two French national population-based case-control studies with similar designs conducted in 2003-2004 and 2010-2011. The mothers of 510 CBT cases (directly recruited from the national childhood cancer register) and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years, frequency matched by age and gender, were interviewed through telephone, which included questions about prenatal parental smoking and maternal consumption of alcohol, coffee and tea. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex and study of origin. RESULTS: No association was seen between CBT and the mother smoking or drinking alcohol, coffee, or tea during the index pregnancy. The OR between CBT and paternal smoking in the year before birth (as reported by the mother) was 1.25 (95% CI 1.03, 1.52) with an OR of 1.09 (0.99, 1.19) for every 10 cigarettes per day (CPD) smoked. The association between paternal smoking and CBT appeared to be stronger in children diagnosed before the age of five years (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14, 2.02) and for astrocytoma (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.26, 2.74). CONCLUSION: We found some evidence of a weak association between paternal smoking in the year before the child's birth and CBT, especially astrocytomas. These findings need to be replicated in other samples, using similar classifications of tumour subtypes.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Pai , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Café , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Chá
19.
Int J Cancer ; 140(8): 1757-1769, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28054353

RESUMO

Little is known of the causes of childhood brain tumors (CBT). The aims of this study were to investigate whether extremes of birth weight were associated with increased risk of CBT and whether maternal preconceptional folic acid supplementation or breastfeeding reduced the risk. In addition, other maternal characteristics and birth related factors were also investigated. We pooled data from two French national population-based case-control studies with similar designs conducted in 2003-2004 and 2010-2011. The mothers of 510 CBT cases (directly recruited from the national childhood cancer register) and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years, frequency matched by age and gender did a telephone interview, which focussed on demographic and perinatal characteristics, and maternal life style habits and reproductive history. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, study of origin and relevant confounders. No association was found between CBT and birth weight or fetal growth. The use of preconceptional folic acid supplementation was rare (5.3% in cases and 7.8% in controls) and the OR was 0.8 (95% CI 0.5, 1.4). There was no association with breastfeeding, even prolonged (six months or more; OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8, 1.4). Neither was there any association between CBT and other investigated factors (maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, congenital abnormality, maternal reproductive history or use of fertility treatments. Although large, this study was underpowered for subtype analyses. Pooling data with other population-based studies may provide further insight into findings by CBT subtypes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , França , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Neurooncol ; 132(2): 255-266, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110411

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare and deadly childhood malignancy. After 40 years of mostly single-center, often non-randomized trials with variable patient inclusions, there has been no improvement in survival. It is therefore time for international collaboration in DIPG research, to provide new hope for children, parents and medical professionals fighting DIPG. In a first step towards collaboration, in 2011, a network of biologists and clinicians working in the field of DIPG was established within the European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) Brain Tumour Group: the SIOPE DIPG Network. By bringing together biomedical professionals and parents as patient representatives, several collaborative DIPG-related projects have been realized. With help from experts in the fields of information technology, and legal advisors, an international, web-based comprehensive database was developed, The SIOPE DIPG Registry and Imaging Repository, to centrally collect data of DIPG patients. As for April 2016, clinical data as well as MR-scans of 694 patients have been entered into the SIOPE DIPG Registry/Imaging Repository. The median progression free survival is 6.0 months (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5.6-6.4 months) and the median overall survival is 11.0 months (95% CI 10.5-11.5 months). At two and five years post-diagnosis, 10 and 2% of patients are alive, respectively. The establishment of the SIOPE DIPG Network and SIOPE DIPG Registry means a paradigm shift towards collaborative research into DIPG. This is seen as an essential first step towards understanding the disease, improving care and (ultimately) cure for children with DIPG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviços de Informação , Cooperação Internacional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Sistema de Registros , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Ponte/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
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