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2.
Ecohealth ; 15(1): 209-227, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330676

RESUMO

Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis. The top two biotic health issues addressed in these studies were rabies and malaria; the top abiotic health issue was air pollution. Most studies described collaborations between human and animal (n = 42), or human and environmental disciplines (n = 41); commonly reported interventions included vector control and animal vaccination. Monetary outcomes were commonly expressed as cost-benefit or cost-utility ratios; non-monetary outcomes were described using disease frequency or disease burden measurements. The majority of the studies reported positive or partially positive outcomes. This paper illustrates the variety of health challenges that can be addressed using a One Health approach, and provides tangible quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate future implementations of the One Health approach.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Saúde Única , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Relações Interprofissionais , Pesquisa/normas
3.
Meat Sci ; 135: 74-78, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938106

RESUMO

Water buffaloes and cattle differ considerably with respect to the anatomy of the head. As a result, captive bolt stunners often fail to reliably produce adequate loss of consciousness in water buffaloes and, thus, do not fulfill animal welfare requirements. The goal of the present study was to assess and validate a new stunning device for water buffaloes meeting animal welfare and occupational safety requirements. The newly designed bullet casing gun uses .357Mag/10.2g hollow point bullets and has additional safety features. Its effectiveness and usability were assessed under practical conditions in an abattoir as based on widely accepted criteria. Stunning resulted in deep unconsciousness in 19 out of 20 water buffaloes. One 9-year old male did not immediately collapse. Except for very old bulls, the device presented herewith provides a means to stun water buffaloes of both sexes effectively and reliably while keeping occupational hazards to a minimum.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Feminino , Armas de Fogo , Masculino , Suíça
4.
Prev Vet Med ; 146: 121-129, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992916

RESUMO

Since its first occurrence in August 2011 in Germany and the Netherlands, the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) spread rapidly across Europe, where it caused production losses and abortions in ruminants as well as congenital malformations in the offspring of affected animals. Several studies have investigated the impact of SBV on fertility and production parameters in dairy cows at herd level. However, the impact of clinical disease at the animal level remained undetermined. This study aimed at estimating the impact of clinical disease during and after an infection with SBV on production and fertility parameters in individual Swiss dairy cows. Sixty-seven case and twenty-four control herds were selected according to whether cows had been showing clinical signs indicative of SBV during the epidemic from July to December 2012 in Switzerland. Of these 91 farms, production and fertility data from 388 cows with clinical signs from case herds were collected over a time period of four years, and compared to data from 932 cows without clinical signs originating from case or control herds. Milk yield, somatic cell count, number of inseminations and non-return at day 56 were analysed by means of hierarchical multivariable regression analysis. A significant drop in milk yield was observed in all groups during the SBV epidemic compared to the time before the infection, which amounted to 1.9kg per test day for clinical animals, 1.1kg for non-clinical animals from case herds and 0.6kg for non-clinical animals from control herds. A prolonged effect on milk yield was observed in clinical cows for about one year, suggesting that animals with clinical disease might not return to their previous milk production level in the current lactation after an acute infection with SBV. Clinical animals showed a significantly higher somatic cell count during the epidemic compared to the time before the infection. The number of inseminations per cow and production cycle was higher for clinical animals during the epidemic compared to the time periods before and after, but not significantly higher than for non-clinical animals from case and control herds. No difference regarding non-return at day 56 was found. Although the overall impact of the SBV epidemic in Switzerland was limited, the consequences could be substantial in farms with a high prevalence of clinical disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Animais , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/complicações , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Fertilidade , Inseminação Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite , Análise Multivariada , Orthobunyavirus , Gravidez , Soroconversão , Suíça
5.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177616, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520773

RESUMO

In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research. A 32-item questionnaire to assess the "highly sensitive dog score" (HSD-s) was developed based on the "highly sensitive person" (HSP) questionnaire. A large-scale, international online survey was conducted, including the HSD questionnaire, as well as questions on fearfulness, neuroticism, "demographic" (e.g. dog sex, age, weight; age at adoption, etc.) and "human" factors (e.g. owner age, sex, profession, communication style, etc.), and the HSP questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models with forward stepwise selection to test prediction of HSD-s by the above-mentioned factors, with country of residence and dog breed treated as random effects. A total of 3647 questionnaires were fully completed. HSD-, fearfulness, neuroticism and HSP-scores showed good internal consistencies, and HSD-s only moderately correlated with fearfulness and neuroticism scores, paralleling previous findings in humans. Intra- (N = 447) and inter-rater (N = 120) reliabilities were good. Demographic and human factors, including HSP score, explained only a small amount of the variance of HSD-s. A PCA analysis identified three subtraits of SPS, comparable to human findings. Overall, the measured personality dimension in dogs showed good internal consistency, partial independence from fearfulness and neuroticism, and good intra- and inter-rater reliability, indicating good construct validity of the HSD questionnaire. Human and demographic factors only marginally affected the HSD-s suggesting that, as hypothesized for human SPS, a genetic basis may underlie this dimension within the dog species.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Sensação , Animais , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Neuroticismo , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Meat Sci ; 113: 35-40, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26610289

RESUMO

Owing to the demand for genuine mozzarella, some 330 water buffaloes are being slaughtered every year in Switzerland albeit a stunning procedure meeting animal welfare and occupational safety requirements remains to be established. To provide a basis for improvements, we sized anatomical specifics in water buffaloes and cattle and we assessed brain lesions after stunning with captive bolts or handguns by diagnostic imaging. In water buffaloes and cattle, the median distance from the frontal skin surface to the inner bone table was 74.0mm (56.0-100.0mm) vs 36.6mm (29.3-44.3mm) and from skin to the thalamus 144.8mm (117.1-172.0mm) vs 102.0 (101.0-121.0mm), respectively. Consequently, customary captive bolt stunners may be inadequate. Free bullets are potentially suitable for stunning buffaloes but involve occupational safety hazards. The results of the present study shall be used to develop a device allowing effective and safe stunning of water buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Bovinos , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Saúde do Trabalhador
7.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0119060, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25747151

RESUMO

Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/transmissão , Animais , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/patologia , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Suíça
8.
Br J Nutr ; 105(4): 634-44, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21144130

RESUMO

Particle passage from the reticulorumen (RR) depends on particle density and size. Forage particle density and size are related and change over time in the RR. Particle density mainly influences sorting in the reticulum, whereas particle size influences particle retention in the fibre mat of stratified rumen contents ('filter-bed' effect). We investigated these effects independently, by inserting plastic particles of different sizes (1, 10 and 20 mm) and densities (1·03, 1·20 and 1·44 mg/ml) in the RR of cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus) as a pilot study, and of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus; n 4) and moose (Alces alces; n 2) both fed two diets (browse and grass). Faeces were analysed for plastic residues for 13 d after dosing to calculate mean retention times (MRT). The results confirmed previous findings of differences in absolute MRT between species. Comparing muskoxen with moose, there was no difference in the effect of particle density on the MRT between species but particle size had a more pronounced effect on the MRT in muskoxen than in moose. This indicated a stronger 'filter-bed effect' in muskoxen, in accord with the reports of stratified RR contents in this species v. the absence of RR content stratification in moose. Low-density particles were retained longer in both species fed on grass diets, indicating a contribution of forage type to the 'filter-bed effect'. The results indicate that retention based on particle size may differ between ruminant species, depending on the presence of a fibre mat in the RR, whereas the density-dependent mechanism of sedimentation in the RR is rather constant across species.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Ciências da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Plásticos , Rúmen/química , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19896552

RESUMO

Ruminant species differ in the degree that their rumen contents are stratified but are similar insofar that only very fine particles are passed from the forestomach to the lower digestive tract. We investigated the passage kinetics of fluid and particle markers (2, 10 and 20 mm) in fistulated cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces) on different diets. The distribution of dry matter in the rumen and the viscosity of rumen fluids suggested that the rumen contents were more stratified in muskoxen than moose. Correspondingly, as in previous studies, the species differed in the ratio of mean retention times of small particles to fluids in the reticulorumen, which was highest in cattle (2.03) and muskoxen (1.97-1.98), intermediate in reindeer (1.70) and lowest in moose (0.98-1.29). However, the ratio of large to small particle retention did not differ between the species, indicating similarity in the efficiency of the particle sorting mechanism. Passage kinetics of the two largest particle classes did not differ, indicating that particle retention is not a continuous function of particle size but rather threshold-dependent. Overall, the results suggest that fluid flow through the forestomach differs between ruminant species. A lower relative fluid passage, such as in moose, might limit species to a browse-based dietary niche, whereas a higher relative fluid passage broadens the dietary niche options and facilitates the inclusion of, or specialization on, grass. The function of fluid flow in the ruminant forestomach should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Tamanho da Partícula , Rúmen/fisiologia , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Fístula do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Masculino , Poaceae , Rena , Rúmen/anatomia & histologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19497382

RESUMO

In young ruminants, the reticular groove ensures that ingested milk is channelled past the forestomach to avoid malfermentation. It has been speculated that some adult wild ruminants, in particular browsing species, maintain a functional oesophageal (reticular) groove, that soluble nutrients can thus bypass the rumen, and that thus the energetic gain from the diet can be increased. We inserted a fluid marker (Co-EDTA) via cannula into the rumen and simultaneously fed a diet that contained a second fluid marker (Sm-EDTA), and analysed the faecal marker excretion patterns, in muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus, n=4 in two experiments each), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, n=4 in a total of six experiments) and moose (Alces alces, n=1 in one experiment). In no case was the orally fed marker excreted distinctively earlier than the marker inserted into the rumen, which indicates that substantial bypass did not occur in these animals. However, differences between the three species in the excretion of the two markers from the rumen are consistent with hypothetical differences in the stratification of rumen contents. We suggest that effects previously ascribed to a "rumen bypass" in wild ruminants most likely reflect differences in the passage from the rumen.


Assuntos
Rúmen/anatomia & histologia , Ruminantes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Fístula do Sistema Digestório , Ácido Edético , Feminino , Masculino , Rena/anatomia & histologia
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