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Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 928-936, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690919


Toddlers exhibit behaviours that suggest judicious responses to states of uncertainty (for example, turning to adults for help), but little is known about the informational basis of these behaviours. Across two experiments, of which experiment 2 was a preregistered replication, 160 toddlers (aged 25 to 32 months) identified a target from two partially occluded similar (for example, elephant versus bear) or dissimilar (for example, elephant versus broccoli) images. Accuracy was lower for the similar trials than for the dissimilar trials. By fitting drift-diffusion models to response times, we found that toddlers accumulated evidence more slowly but required less evidence for similar trials compared with dissimilar trials. By analysing eye movements, we found that toddlers took longer to settle on the selected image during inaccurate trials and switched their gaze between response options more frequently during inaccurate trials and accurately identified similar items. Exploratory analyses revealed that the evidence-accumulation parameter correlated positively with the use of uncertainty language. Overall, these findings inform theories on the emergence of evidence accumulation under uncertainty.

Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Incerteza , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
Dev Psychobiol ; 62(2): 266-278, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404482


Relational memory processes are responsible for forming representations that bind together the co-occurring elements of an experience. These processes provide a foundation of episodic memory, the capacity to remember specific events about one's past. In the present research, we used a visual comparison paradigm to determine whether toddlers can form memories for the relation between co-occurring items. In Experiment 1, 66 2-year-olds viewed pairs of cartoon faces (AB; CD) and did not show a significant novelty preference for the violated associations (i.e., did not look longer at AD rearranged pair than old AB pair when exposed to AD-AB). However, toddlers looked longest at the individual face (i.e., D) violating a studied pair, which appeared to be supported by visual preference for centrally located stimuli. In Experiment 2, 46 2-year-olds participated in a similar procedure, but faces violating the pair during test were located to the periphery (e.g., AB-AC). Under these conditions, toddlers looked longer at recombined pair AC. Overall, our results show that toddlers show some ability to make item-item associations but may need to overcome preferential looking biases to demonstrate this capacity. Furthermore, looking behaviors beyond overall novelty preference may be informative even when overall novelty preference is not found.

Associação , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
Neuroimage ; 199: 105-113, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121295


Successful memory encoding is supported by medial temporal, retrosplenial, and occipital regions, which show developmental differences in recruitment from childhood to adulthood. However, little is known about the extent to which neural specificity in these brain regions, or the distinctiveness with which sensory information is represented, continues to develop during middle childhood and how it contributes to memory performance. The present study used multivariate pattern analysis to examine the distinctiveness of different scene representations in 169 children and 31 adults, and its relation to memory performance. Most children provided data over up to three measurement occasions between 8 and 15 years (267 total scans), allowing us to examine changes in memory and neural specificity over time. Memory performance was lower in children than in adults, and increased in children over time. Different scenes presented during memory encoding could be reliably decoded from parahippocampal, lateral occipital, and retrosplenial regions in children and adults. Neural specificity in children was similar to adults, and did not change reliably over time. Among children, higher neural specificity in scene-processing regions was associated with better memory concurrently. These results suggest that the distinctiveness with which incoming information is represented is important for memory performance in childhood, but other processes operating on these representations support developmental improvements in memory performance over time.

Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Occipital , Giro Para-Hipocampal/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro Para-Hipocampal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(29): 7582-7587, 2017 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28673976


Metamemory monitoring, or the ability to introspect on the accuracy of one's memories, improves considerably during childhood, but the underlying neural changes and implications for intellectual development are largely unknown. The present study examined whether cortical changes in key brain areas hypothesized to support metacognition contribute to the development of metamemory monitoring from late childhood into early adolescence. Metamemory monitoring was assessed among 7- to 12-y-old children (n = 145) and adults (n = 31). Children returned for up to two additional assessments at 8 to 14 y of age (n = 120) and at 9 to 15 y of age (n = 107) (n = 347 longitudinal scans). Results showed that metamemory monitoring continues to improve from childhood into adolescence. More pronounced cortical thinning in the anterior insula and a greater increase in the thickness of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex over the three assessment points predicted these improvements. Thus, performance benefits are linked to the unique patterns of regional cortical change during development. Metamemory monitoring at the first time point predicted intelligence at the third time point and vice versa, suggesting parallel development of these abilities and their reciprocal influence. Together, these results provide insights into the neuroanatomical correlates supporting the development of the capacity to self-reflect, and highlight the role of this capacity for general intellectual development.

Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Memória , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental , Metacognição