Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 136
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425882

RESUMO

Introduction: Paired cohort investigations assessing the evolution of anthropometric indices are scarce. Here we assessed the 10-year evolution of BMI, total body fat, and lean body mass in 50,019 participants aged 18-90 years at the time of first assessment. Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study using an electronic database that contains anonymized, longitudinal data from Primary Care medical records covering the 2007-2008 and 2017-2018 periods. Total body fat was estimated using the Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator formula, and the Hume formula was applied to estimate lean body mass. Results: The mean BMI of participants <60 years old in the 2007-2008 period increased significantly, from 27.5 to 28.3 kg/m2 (p < 0.001). However, the BMI of older subjects decreased during the next decade, from 28.9 to 28.3 kg/m2 (p < 0.001). The estimated total body fat showed a continuous progressive increase over all ages. Finally, lean body mass showed a progressive increase until the 40s, with a plateau between 40-45 years old and an uninterrupted decrease until older ages. Also, subjects who increased their BMI by 2 kg/m2 during the 10-year period were mainly women and younger at baseline, with a lower initial BMI and total body fat in comparison with those who experienced a BMI decrease of ≥2.0 kg/m2. Conclusion: The evolutions of BMI and the estimated body compositions reported here confirm that the adverse decrease in lean body mass begins in middle age. The proportion of older subjects is important when evaluating overweight and obesity prevalence in cross-sectional studies.

2.
Circulation ; 141(17): 1360-1370, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EXSCEL (Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering) assessed the impact of once-weekly exenatide 2 mg versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, while aiming for glycemic equipoise. Consequently, greater drop-in of open-label glucose-lowering medications occurred in the placebo group. Accordingly, we explored the potential effects of their unbalanced use on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke, and all-cause mortality (ACM), given that some of these agents are cardioprotective. METHODS: Cox hazard models were performed by randomized treatment for drug classes where >5% open-label drop-in glucose-lowering medication occurred, and for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs; 3.0%) using three methodologies: drop-in visit right censoring, inverse probability for treatment weighting (IPTW), and applying drug class risk reductions. RESULTS: Baseline glucose-lowering medications for the 14 752 EXSCEL participants (73.1% with previous cardiovascular disease) did not differ between treatment groups. During median 3.2 years follow-up, open-label drop-in occurred in 33.4% of participants, more frequently with placebo than exenatide (38.1% versus 28.8%), with metformin (6.1% versus 4.9%), sulfonylurea (8.7% versus 6.9%), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (10.6% versus 7.5%), SGLT-2i (10.3% versus 8.1%), GLP-1 RA (3.4% versus 2.4%), and insulin (13.8% versus 9.4%). The MACE effect size was not altered meaningfully by right censoring, but the favorable HR for exenatide became nominally significant in the sulfonylurea and any glucose-lowering medication groups, while the ACM HR and p-values were essentially unchanged. IPTW decreased the MACE HR from 0.91 (P=0.061) to 0.85 (P=0.008) and the ACM HR from 0.86 (P=0.016) to 0.81 (P=0.012). Application of literature-derived risk reductions showed no meaningful changes in MACE or ACM HRs or P values, although simulations of substantially greater use of drop-in cardioprotective glucose-lowering agents demonstrated blunting of signal detection. CONCLUSIONS: EXSCEL-observed HRs for MACE and ACM remained robust after right censoring or application of literature-derived risk reductions, but the exenatide versus placebo MACE effect size and statistical significance were increased by IPTW. Effects of open-label drop-in cardioprotective medications need to be considered carefully when designing, conducting, and analyzing cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering agents under the premise of glycemic equipoise. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01144338.

3.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081378

RESUMO

The high prevalence of obesity in our environment, a chronic disease of complex management and responsible for multiple comorbidities, requires the implementation of coordination strategies in clinical care between primary care and specialist hospital units. In a cross-sectional care model, primary care physicians guide all therapeutic management related to obesity. Together with them, specialists in endocrinology and nutrition and other health staff help to form a functional unit that focuses on obesity. The main goal of this document is to improve the coordination between care levels, to optimize resources, avoid patients' unrealistic expectations and improve patient follow-up after discharge from hospital.

4.
Obes Facts ; 13(1): 29-39, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a close relationship between excess adiposity and cardiovascular disease. Although body mass index (BMI) is the most used approach to estimate excess weight, other anthropometric indices have been developed to measure total body and abdominal adiposity. Here, our objective was to assess the usefulness of these anthropometric indices to detect subclinical atheromatous disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 6,809 middle-aged subjects (mean age, 57 [53-63] years) with low to moderate cardiovascular risk from the ILERVAS project. Measures of total body fat (BMI, Clínica Universidad de Navarra - Body Adiposity Estimator [CUN-BAE], and Deurenberg's formula) and central adiposity (waist and neck circumferences, conicity index, waist-to-height ratio, Bonora's equation, the A body adiposity index, and body roundness index) were performed in all participants. Bilateral carotid and femoral ultrasound vascular studies allowed the identification of subjects with plaque. -Results: All measured indices were significantly higher in males with subclinical carotid or femoral plaques (p ≤ 0.021 for all). Also, a positive and significant correlation between all indices and the number of affected territories was found (p ≤ 0.013 for all). From the ROC analysis, all measurements identified patients with asymptomatic atheromatosis but none of them helped make clinical decisions. Regarding females, the results were less conclusive. CONCLUSION: Obesity indices are related to subclinical atheromatosis, especially in men, in a large cohort of middle-aged subjects. However, the indices could not detect the presence of arterial plaque, so, when used in isolation, are unlikely to be decisive.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736881

RESUMO

Introduction: Many studies on the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on sleep breathing have shown a higher prevalence and severity of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) in those with T2DM. Moreover, an increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system has been described in both pathologies. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess sympathetic activity in patients with T2DM, and to investigate the relationship between sympathetic activity and polysomnographic parameters. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with T2DM without known clinical macrovascular nor pulmonary disease and 11 controls underwent respiratory polygraphy, and their cardiac variability and 24-h urine total metanephrines were measured. Results: SAHS was highly prevalent with a mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in the range of moderate SAHS. In patients with T2DM, the nocturnal concentration of total metanephrines in urine were higher than diurnal levels [247.0 (120.0-1375.0) vs. 210.0 (92.0-670.0), p = 0.039]. The nocturnal total metanephrine concentration was positively and significantly associatedwith the percentage of sleeping time spent with oxygen saturation <90%(CT90). In the entire population and in subjects with T2DM, the multivariate regression analysis showed a direct interaction between the nocturnal concentration of urine metanephrines and the CT90. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the increase in sympathetic activity previously described in patients with T2DM could be mediated through nocturnal breathing disturbances. The diagnosis and treatment of SAHS may influence sympathetic activity disorders and may contribute to an improvement in T2DM and cardiovascular risk.

6.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 154, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediabetes has recently been associated with subclinical atheromatous disease in the middle-aged population. Our aim was to characterize atheromatous plaque burden by the number of affected territories and the total plaque area in the prediabetes stage. METHODS: Atheromatous plaque burden (quantity of plaques and total plaque area) was assessed in 12 territories from the carotid and femoral regions using ultrasonography in 6688 non-diabetic middle-aged subjects without cardiovascular disease. Prediabetes was defined by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 5.7 and 6.4% according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines. RESULTS: Prediabetes was diagnosed in 33.9% (n = 2269) of the ILERVAS participants. Subjects with prediabetes presented a higher prevalence of subclinical atheromatous disease than participants with HbA1c < 5.7% (70.4 vs. 67.5%, p = 0.017). In the population with prediabetes this was observed at the level of the carotid territory (p < 0.001), but not in the femoral arteries. Participants in the prediabetes stage also presented a significantly higher number of affected territories (2 [1;3] vs. 1 [0;3], p = 0.002), with a positive correlation between HbA1c levels and the number of affected territories (r = 0.068, p < 0.001). However, atheromatosis was only significantly (p = 0.016) magnified by prediabetes in those subjects with 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors. The multivariable logistic regression model showed that the well-established cardiovascular risk factors together with HbA1c were independently associated with the presence of atheromatous disease in participants with prediabetes. When males and females were analyzed separately, we found that only men with prediabetes presented both carotid and femoral atherosclerosis, as well as an increase of total plaque area in comparison with non-prediabetic subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The prediabetes stage is accompanied by an increased subclinical atheromatous disease only in the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. Prediabetes modulates the atherogenic effect of cardiovascular risk factors in terms of distribution and total plaque area in a sex-dependent manner. Trial registration NCT03228459 (clinicaltrials.gov).

8.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554199

RESUMO

Obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease that continues to challenge patients and professional caregivers [...].

9.
Diabetes Care ; 42(10): 1956-1965, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential use of baseline circulating succinate to predict type 2 diabetes remission after bariatric surgery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-five obese patients with diabetes were randomly assigned to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or laparoscopic greater curvature plication. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated, and a complete biochemical analysis including circulating serum succinate concentrations was performed at baseline and 1 year after surgery. The results were externally validated in a second cohort including 88 obese patients with diabetes assigned to RYGB or SG based on clinical criteria. RESULTS: Succinate baseline concentrations were an independent predictor of diabetes remission after bariatric surgery. Patients achieving remission after 1 year had lower levels of baseline succinate (47.8 [37.6-64.6] µmol/L vs. 64.1 [52.5-82.9] µmol/L; P = 0.018). Moreover, succinate concentrations were significantly decreased 1 year after surgery (58.9 [46.4-82.4] µmol/L vs. 46.0 [35.8-65.3] µmol/L, P = 0.005). In multivariate analysis, the best logistic regression model showed that baseline succinate (odds ratio [OR] 11.3, P = 0.031) and the type of surgery (OR 26.4, P = 0.010) were independently associated with remission. The C-statistic for this model was 0.899 (95% CI 0.809-0.989) in the derivation cohort, which significantly improved the prediction of remission compared with current available scores, and 0.729 (95% CI 0.612-0.846) in the validation cohort. Interestingly, patients had a different response to the type of surgery according to baseline succinate, with significant differences in remission rates. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating succinate is reduced after bariatric surgery. Baseline succinate levels have predictive value for diabetes remission independently of previously described presurgical factors and improve upon the current available scores to predict remission.

10.
J Clin Med ; 8(7)2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277226

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this pilot study was to assess genetic predisposition risk scores (GPS) in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients in order to predict the better response to bariatric surgery (BS) in terms of either weight loss or diabetes remission. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A case-control study in which 96 females (47 with type 2 diabetes) underwent Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass were included. The DNA was extracted from saliva samples and SNPs were examined and grouped into 3 GPS. ROC curves were used to calculate sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: A highly sensitive and specific predictive model of response to BS was obtained by combining the GPS in non-diabetic subjects. This combination was different in diabetic subjects and highly predictive of diabetes remission. Additionally, the model was able to predict the weight regain and type 2 diabetes relapse after 5 years' follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic testing is a simple, reliable and useful tool for implementing personalized medicine in type 2 diabetic patients requiring BS.

11.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212934

RESUMO

There is a close relationship between lifestyle behaviors and excess adiposity. Although body mass index (BMI) is the most used approach to estimate excess weight, other anthropometric indices have been developed to measure total body and abdominal adiposity. However, little is known about the impact of physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean diet on these indices. Here we report the results of a cross-sectional study with 6672 middle-aged subjects with low to moderate cardiovascular risk from the Ilerda Vascular (ILERVAS) project. The participants' adherence to physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form) and MedDiet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) was evaluated. Measures of total adiposity (BMI, Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE), and Deurenberg's formula), central adiposity (waist and neck circumferences, conicity index, waist to height ratio, Bonora's equation, A body adiposity index, and body roundness index), and lean body mass (Hume formula) were assessed. Irrespective of sex, lower indices of physical activity were associated with higher values of total body fat and central adiposity. This result was constant regardless of the indices used to estimate adiposity. However, the association between MedDiet and obesity indices was much less marked and more dependent on sex than that observed for physical activity. Lean body mass was influenced by neither physical activity nor MedDiet adherence. No joint effect between physical activity and MedDiet to lower estimated total or central adiposity indices was shown. In conclusion, physical activity is related to lower obesity indices in a large cohort of middle-aged subjects. MedDiet showed a slight impact on estimated anthropometric indices, with no joint effect when considering both lifestyle variables. ClinTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03228459.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/terapia
12.
Obes Surg ; 29(10): 3348-3356, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209830

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: The assessment of the patients' motivation as a predictor of behavioral change via five stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance) and four processes (emotional re-evaluation, weight management actions, environmental restructuring, and weight consequences evaluation) of change. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 542 participants (251 waiting for bariatric surgery (BS), 90 undergoing BS, and 201 controls) completed the Stages (S-Weight) and Processes (P-Weight) of Change in Overweight and Obese People questionnaires in a multicenter cross-sectional study. RESULTS: A higher percentage of subjects seeking BS (31.7%) were in the action stage (16.7% of post-BS patients, p < 0.001; 14.9% of controls, p < 0.001). The referred body mass index (BMI) reduction was higher in subjects in active stages (3.6 ± 4.4 kg/m2 in maintenance versus 1.4 ± 1.4 kg/m2 in contemplation, p < 0.001). In the P-Weight questionnaire, patients looking for BS scored significant higher in the four processes of change than controls. In addition, a positive and significantly correlation between BMI and the four processes was observed. In the stepwise multivariate analysis, BMI and the S-Weight allocation were constantly associated with the four processes of change. CONCLUSION: Obesity is accompanied by a modifying behavioral stage, suggesting that subjects before BS are seriously thinking about overcoming excess weight. To identify subjects on the waiting list for BS who will be more receptive to weight lost interventions remains a challenge.

13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(7): 1133-1140, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the differences in protein oxidation biomarkers in adipose tissue (AT) as an indicator of AT metabolism and bariatric surgery weight-loss success. METHODS: A human model, in which sixty-five individuals with obesity underwent bariatric surgery, and a diet-induced obesity animal model, in which animals were treated for 2 months with normocaloric diets, were analyzed to determine the associations between AT protein oxidation and body weight loss. Protein oxidative biomarkers were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in AT from human volunteers before the surgery, as well as 2 months after a diet treatment in the animal model. RESULTS: The levels of carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) and 2-succinocystein (2SC) in both visceral and subcutaneous AT before the surgery directly correlated with greater weight loss in both human and animal models. 2SC levels in subcutaneous AT greater than 4.7 × 106  µmol/mol lysine (95% CI: 3.4 × 106 to 6.0 × 106 ) may predict greater weight loss after bariatric surgery (receiver operating characteristic curve area = 0.8222; P = 0.0047). Additionally, it was observed that individuals with diabetes presented lower levels of CEL and 2SC in subcutaneous AT (P = 0.0266 and P = 0.0316, respectively) compared with individuals without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: CEL and 2SC in AT are useful biomarkers of AT metabolism and predict the individual's ability to reduce body weight after bariatric surgery.

14.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065845

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity have been associated to lower cardiovascular risk and mortality. Our purpose was to test the modification of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) as one of the underlying mechanisms explaining this relationship. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing the adherence to MedDiet (14-item Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form) in 2646 middle-aged subjects without known cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes from the ILERVAS study. Skin autofluorescence (SAF), a non-invasive assessment of subcutaneous AGEs, was measured. Multivariable logistic regression models were done to study interactions and independent associations with a likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet had lower SAF than those with low adherence (1.8 [IR 1.6; 2.1] vs. 2.0 [IR 1.7; 2.3] arbitrary units, p < 0.001), without differences according to categories of physical activity. There was an independent association between high adherence to MedDiet and the SAF values [OR 0.59 (0.37-0.94), p = 0.026]. When adherence to MedDiet was substituted by its individual food components, high intake of vegetables, fruits and nuts, and low intake of sugar-sweetened soft beverages were independently associated with a decreased SAF (p ≤ 0.045). No interaction between MedDiet and physical activity on SAF values was observed except for nuts consumption (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the MedDiet, but not physical activity, was negatively associated to SAF measurements. This association can be explained by some typical food components of the MedDiet. The present study offers a better understanding of the plausible biological conditions underlying the prevention of cardiovascular disease with MedDiet. ClinTrials.gov identifier: NCT03228459.

15.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(9): 1005-1012, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989377

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes have been considered a susceptible group for pulmonary dysfunction. Our aim was to assess pulmonary function on the prediabetes stage. METHODS: Pulmonary function was assessed in 4,459 non-diabetic subjects, aged between 45 and 70 years, without cardiovascular disease or chronic pulmonary obstructive disease from the ongoing study ILERVAS. A "restrictive spirometric pattern", an "abnormal FEV1" and an "obstructive ventilatory defect" were assessed. Prediabetes was defined by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 5.7 and 6.4% according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS: Population was composed of 52.1% women, aged 57 [53;63] years, a BMI of 28.6 [25.8;31.8] kg/m2, and with a prevalence of prediabetes of 29.9% (n = 1392). Subjects with prediabetes had lower forced vital capacity (FVC: 93 [82;105] vs. 96 [84;106], p < 0.001) and lower forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1: 94 [82;107] vs. 96 [84;108], p = 0.011), as well as a higher percentage of the restrictive spirometric pattern (16.5% vs. 13.6%, p = 0.015) and FEV1 < 80% (20.3% vs. 17.2%, p = 0.017) compared to non-prediabetes group. In the prediabetes group, HbA1c was negatively correlated with both pulmonary parameters (FVC: r = - 0.113, p < 0.001; FEV1: r = - 0.079, p = 0.003). The multivariable logistic regression model in the whole population showed that there was a significant and independent association between HbA1c with both restrictive spirometric pattern [OR = 1.42 (1.10-1.83), p = 0.008] and FEV1 < 80% [OR = 1.50 (1.19-1.90), p = 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: The deleterious effect of type 2 diabetes on pulmonary function appears to be initiated in prediabetes, and it is related to metabolic control. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT03228459.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/complicações , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital
16.
Chronobiol Int ; 36(5): 672-680, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843440

RESUMO

Seasonal variations have been described in humans in several variables such as sleep, mood, appetite, food preferences, or body weight. We hypothesized that these variations could also influence the decrease in body weight rate in patients submitted to body weight loss interventions. Thus, here we tested the variations of weight loss according to the time of the year the surgery took place in a group patients (n = 1322) submitted to bariatric surgery in the Hospital Universitari de la Vall d'Hebron in Barcelona (geographical coordinates: 41°25'41″N 2°8'32″E). For the analysis, the percentage of total body weight loss (%TWL), excess body weight loss (%EWL) and percentage of body mass index loss (%BMIL) were calculated at 3 (n = 1255), 6 (n = 1172), 9 (n = 1002), and 12 months (n = 1076) after surgery. For %EWL and %BMIL a statistically significant seasonal variation was detected when the variables were calculated at 3 months, but not at the other times, with more weight loss in summer-fall. However, seasonal variations were not detected for %TWL (p = 0.09). The mean amplitude of the seasonal rhythm for %EWL was of 1.8%, while for the rhythm of %BMIL was 0.7%. Moreover, a second peak was detected in January-February modulating the seasonal rhythm of the two variables. Results confirm seasonal variations in humans and indicate that short term responses to weight loss can be modulated by the time of year.

17.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 26(10): 879-889, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842389

RESUMO

AIM: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been involved in the atherogenic process in the high-risk population. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that AGEs are related to subclinical atheromatous disease in subjects with low to moderate vascular risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in which 2,568 non-diabetic subjects of both sexes without cardiovascular disease were included. Subcutaneous content of AGEs was assessed by skin autofluorescence (SAF) and subclinical atheromatous disease was measured by assessing the atheromatous plaque burden in carotid and femoral regions using ultrasonography. In addition, serum pentosidine, carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and AGE receptors (RAGE) were assessed in a nested case-control study with 41 subjects without plaque and 41 individuals subjects with generalized disease. RESULTS: Patients with atheromatous plaque had a higher SAF than those with no plaque (1.9 [1.7 to 2.3] vs. 1.8 [1.6 to 2.1] arbitrary units (AU), p<0.001). The SAF correlated with the total number of affected regions (r= 0.171, p<0.001), increasing progressively from 1.8 [1.6 to 2.1] AU in those without atheromatous disease to 2.3 [1.9 to 2.7] AU in patients with ≥ 8 plaques (p<0.001). A correlation was also observed between SAF and the total plaque area (r=0.113, p<0.001). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.65 (0.61 to 0.68) for identifying male subjects with atheromatous disease. The multivariable logistic regression model showed a significant and independent association between SAF and the presence of atheromatous disease. However, no significant differences in serum pentosidine, CML, and RAGE were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Increased subcutaneous content of AGEs is associated with augmented atheromatous plaque burden. Our results suggest that SAF may provide clinically relevant information to the current strategies for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk, especially among the male population.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico , Pele/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluorescência , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Óptica , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
18.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717453

RESUMO

A few studies showed that both adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity practice have a positive impact on pulmonary function in subjects with lung disease. These associations are not well studied in subjects free from lung disease. In a cross-sectional study conducted in 3020 middle-aged subjects free of lung disease, adherence to the MedDiet using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, and physical activity practice using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form were recorded. Respiratory function was assessed using forced spirometry and the results were evaluated according to the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between adherence to the MedDiet and physical activity practice with the presence of ventilatory defects. Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet, in comparison to those with low adherence, had both higher forced vital capacity (FVC; 100 (87⁻109) vs. 94 (82⁻105) % of predicted, p = 0.003) and forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1; 100 (89⁻112) vs. 93 (80⁻107) % of predicted, p < 0.001). According to their degree of physical activity, those subjects with a high adherence also had both higher FVC (100 (88⁻107) vs. 94 (83⁻105) % of predicted, p = 0.027) and FEV1 (100 (89⁻110) vs. 95 (84⁻108) % of predicted, p = 0.047) in comparison with those with low adherence. The multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between both low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice, and the presence of altered pulmonary patterns, with differences between men and women. However, no joint effect between adherence to MedDiet and physical activity practice on respiratory function values was observed. Low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice were independently associated with pulmonary impairment. Therefore, the lung mechanics seem to benefit from heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Pulmão/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211742, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721271

RESUMO

Subjects with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) show an increased carotid intima-media thickness. However, no data exist about earlier markers of atheromatous disease, such as the proliferation and expansion of the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) to the avascular intima in this setting. Our aim was to assess carotid VV density and its relationship with sleep parameters in a cohort of obese patients without prior vascular events. A total of 55 subjects evaluated for bariatric surgery were prospectively recruited. A non-attended respiratory polygraphy was performed. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the cumulative percentage of time spent with oxygen saturation below 90% (CT90) were assessed. Serum concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, P-selectin, lipocalin-2 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) were measured. Contrast-enhanced carotid ultrasound was used to assess the VV density. Patients with SAHS (80%) showed a higher adventitial VV density (0.801±0.125 vs. 0.697±0.082, p = 0.005) and higher levels of sVCAM-1 (745.2±137.8 vs. 643.3±122.7 ng/ml, p = 0.035) than subjects with an AHI lower than 10 events/hour. In addition, a positive association exist between mean VV density and AHI (r = 0.445, p = 0.001) and CT90 (r = 0.399, p = 0.005). Finally, in the multiple linear regression analysis, female sex, fasting plasma glucose and AHI (but not CT90) were the only variables independently associated with the mean adventitial VV density (R2 = 0.327). In conclusion, a high VV density is present in obese subjects with SAHS, and chronic intermittent hypoxia is pointed as an independent risk factor for the development of this early step of atheromatous disease.


Assuntos
Túnica Adventícia/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Vasa Vasorum/diagnóstico por imagem , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Diabetes Care ; 42(4): 617-624, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes exerts a deleterious effect on lung function. However, it is unknown whether an improvement in glycemic control ameliorates pulmonary function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective interventional study with 60 patients with type 2 diabetes and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≤90% of predicted. Spirometric maneuvers were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-month period in which antidiabetic therapy was intensified. Those with an HbA1c reduction of ≥0.5% were considered to be good responders (n = 35). RESULTS: Good responders exhibited a significant improvement in spirometric values between baseline and the end of the study (forced vital capacity [FVC]: 78.5 ± 12.6% vs. 83.3 ± 14.7%, P = 0.029]; FEV1: 75.6 ± 15.3% vs. 80.9 ± 15.4%, P = 0.010; and peak expiratory flow [PEF]: 80.4 ± 21.6% vs. 89.2 ± 21.0%, P = 0.007). However, no changes were observed in the group of nonresponders when the same parameters were evaluated (P = 0.586, P = 0.987, and P = 0.413, respectively). Similarly, the initial percentage of patients with a nonobstructive ventilatory defect and with an abnormal FEV1 decreased significantly only among good responders. In addition, the absolute change in HbA1c inversely correlated to increases in FEV1 (r = -0.370, P = 0.029) and PEF (r = -0.471, P = 0.004) in the responders group. Finally, stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that the absolute change in HbA1c independently predicted increased FEV1 (R 2 = 0.175) and PEF (R 2 = 0.323). In contrast, the known duration of type 2 diabetes, but not the amelioration of HbA1c, was related to changes in forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC. CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetes, spirometric measurements reflecting central airway obstruction and explosive muscle strength exhibit significant amelioration after a short improvement in glycemic control.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA