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1.
Surg Endosc ; 34(2): 675-685, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incisionless fluorescent cholangiography (IFC) has recently been proven feasible, safe, and efficacious as an intraoperative procedure to help identify extrahepatic bile ducts during laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC). We conducted a pilot survey of 51 surgeons attending an international conference who perform endoscopic cholecystectomies to identify their typical LC practices, and perceptions of IFC. METHODS: An international panel of ten IFC experts, all with > 500 prior IFC procedures and related research publications, convened during the 4th International Congress of Fluorescence-Guided Surgery in Boca Raton, Florida in February 2017. The panel was charged with developing questions about LC practices and experience with IFC, and perceptions regarding its advantages, barriers to use, and indications. These questions then were asked to other congress attendees during one of the didactic sessions using an online polling application. Attendees, who ranged from zero to considerable experience performing IFC, accessed the survey via their portable devices. RESULTS: Of the 51 survey participants, 51% were from North America; 77% identified themselves as general/minimally invasive surgeons, and roughly 60% performed under 50 cholecystectomies/year. Only 12% performed routine intraoperative cholangiography (IOC), while 72.3% routinely performed critical safety reviews. Thirty-five percent estimated that their institution's laparoscopic-to-open surgery conversion rate was > 1% during LC. Roughly 95% of respondents felt that surgeons should have access to a noninvasive method for evaluating extrahepatic biliary structures; 84% felt that the most advantageous characteristic of IFC is the lack of any biliary-tree incision; and 93.3% felt that IFC would have considerable educational value in surgical training programs; and 78% felt that any surgeon who performs LC could benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons who participated in our survey overwhelmingly recommended the routine use of IFC during laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a complimentary imaging technique. Prospective randomized clinical trials remain necessary to determine whether IFC reduces the incidence of bile duct injuries and other LC complications.

2.
Health Psychol ; 39(1): 29-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Over 20% of patients with heart failure (HF) experience clinical depression, which is associated with higher rates of mortality, morbidity, and hospitalization. Support from family members or friends (whom we refer to as care partners [CPs]) can lower the risk of these outcomes. We examined whether HF patients with depression received assistance from CPs living outside of their homes. Further, we examined whether patient depression was associated with support-related strain among out-of-home CPs. METHOD: We analyzed baseline survey data from 348 HF patients with reduced ejection fraction and their CPs. Patients with scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10 (Kohout, Berkman, Evans, & Cornoni-Huntley, 1993) of ≥10 were classified as having clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression). Outcomes included CP-reported hr per week helping with health care and talking with patients via telephone and scores on the Modified Caregiver Strain Index. Negative binomial regression models examined differences in the amount of in-person and telephone support for patients with and without depression, controlling for patients' comorbidities, living alone, CP geographic distance, and CP emotional closeness to the patient. RESULTS: CPs provided more in-person support to HF patients with depression (M = 3.64 hr) compared with those without depression (M = 2.60 hr per week, incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.40, p = .019). CPs provided more telephone support to patients with depression (M = 3.02 hr) compared with those without depression (M = 2.09 hr per week, IRR = 1.42, p < .001). Patient depression had no effect on caregiver burden (IRR = 1.00, p = .843). CONCLUSION: Patients with clinically significant depressive symptoms receive more in-person assistance and telephonic support from CPs. Despite that additional contact, caregiver burden was not greater among the supporters of depressed patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810829

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic illness often require ongoing support postdischarge. This study evaluated a simple-to-use, mobile health-based program designed to improve postdischarge follow-up via (1) tailored communication to patients using automated calls, (2) structured feedback to informal caregivers, and (3) automated alerts to clinicians about urgent problems. METHODS: A total of 283 patients with common medical diagnoses, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, pneumonia, and diabetes, were recruited from a university hospital, a community hospital, and a US Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. All patients identified an informal caregiver or "care partner" (CP) to participate in their postdischarge support. Patient-CP dyads were randomized to the intervention or usual care. Intervention patients received weekly automated assessment and behavior change calls. CPs received structured e-mail feedback. Outpatient clinicians received fax alerts about serious problems. Primary outcomes were 30-day readmission rate and the combined outcome of readmission/emergency department (ED) use. Information about postdischarge outpatient visits, rehospitalizations, and ED encounters was obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Overall, 11.4% of intervention patients and 17.9% of controls were rehospitalized within 30 days postdischarge (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-1.11; p = 0.102). Compared to intervention patients with other illnesses, those with pulmonary diagnoses generated the most clinical alerts (p = 0.004). Pulmonary patients in the intervention group showed significantly reduced 30-day risk of rehospitalization relative to controls (HR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11-0.87; p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The CP intervention did not improve 30-day readmission rates overall, although post hoc analyses suggested that it may be promising among patients with pulmonary diagnoses.

6.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements using a prototype smartphone tonometer with other tonometers used in clinical practice. METHODS: Patients from an academic glaucoma practice were recruited. The smartphone tonometer uses fixed force applanation and in conjunction with a machine-learning computer algorithm is able to calculate the IOP. IOP was also measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in all subjects. A subset of patients were also measured using ICare, pneumotonometry (upright and supine positions) and Tono-Pen (upright and supine positions) and the results were compared. RESULTS: 92 eyes of 81 subjects were successfully measured. The mean difference (in mm Hg) for IOP measurements of the smartphone tonometer versus other devices was +0.24 mm Hg for GAT, -1.39 mm Hg for ICare, -3.71 mm Hg for pneumotonometry and -1.30 mm Hg for Tono-Pen. The 95% limits of agreement for the smartphone tonometer versus other devices was -4.35 to 4.83 mm Hg for GAT, -6.48 to 3.70 mm Hg for ICare, -7.66 to -0.15 mm Hg for pneumotonometry and -5.72 to 3.12 mm Hg for Tono-Pen. Overall, the smartphone tonometer results correlated best with GAT (R2=0.67, p<0.001). Of the 92 videos, 90 (97.8%) were within ±5 mm Hg of GAT and 58 (63.0%) were within ±2 mm Hg of GAT. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary IOP measurements using a prototype smartphone-based tonometer was grossly equivalent to the reference standard.

8.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is frequently bilateral, and previous reports on 'fellow eyes' have assumed sequential treatment after a period of treatment of the first eye only. The aim of our study was to analyse baseline characteristics and visual acuity (VA) outcomes of fellow eye involvement with nAMD, specifically differentiating between sequential and non-sequential (due to macular scarring in the first eye) antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment and timelines for fellow eye involvement. METHODS: Retrospective, electronic medical record database study of the Moorfields AMD database of 6265 patients/120 286 single entries with data extracted between 21 October 2008 and 9 August 2018. The data set for analysis consisted of 1180 sequential, 807 non-sequential and 3410 unilateral eyes. RESULTS: Mean VA (ETDRS letters±SD) of sequentially treated fellow eyes at baseline was significantly higher (63±13), VA gain over 2 years lower (0.37±14) and proportion of eyes with good VA (≥70 letters) higher (46%) than the respective first eyes (baseline VA 54±16, VA gain at 2 years 5.6±15, percentage of eyes with good VA 39%). Non-sequential fellow eyes showed baseline characteristics and VA outcomes similar to first eyes. Fellow eye involvement rate was 32% at 2 years, and median time interval to fellow eye involvement was 71 (IQR: 27-147) weeks. CONCLUSION: This report shows that sequentially treated nAMD fellow eyes have better baseline and final VA than non-sequentially treated eyes after 2 years of treatment. Sequentially treated eyes also had a greater proportion with good VA after 2 years.

10.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(9): e009476, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Detection of early cardiac changes before manifest disease develops is important. We investigated early alterations in cardiac structure and function associated with DM using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Participants from the UK Biobank Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Substudy, a community cohort study, without known cardiovascular disease and left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% were included. Multivariable linear regression models were performed. The investigators were blinded to DM status. RESULTS: A total of 3984 individuals, 45% men, (mean [SD]) age 61.3 (7.5) years, hereof 143 individuals (3.6%) with DM. There was no difference in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (DM versus no DM; coefficient [95% CI]: -0.86% [-1.8 to 0.5]; P=0.065), LV mass (-0.13 g/m2 [-1.6 to 1.3], P=0.86), or right ventricular ejection fraction (-0.23% [-1.2 to 0.8], P=0.65). However, both LV and right ventricular volumes were significantly smaller in DM, (LV end-diastolic volume/m2: -3.46 mL/m2 [-5.8 to -1.2], P=0.003, right ventricular end-diastolic volume/m2: -4.2 mL/m2 [-6.8 to -1.7], P=0.001, LV stroke volume/m2: -3.0 mL/m2 [-4.5 to -1.5], P<0.001; right ventricular stroke volume/m2: -3.8 mL/m2 [-6.5 to -1.1], P=0.005), LV mass/volume: 0.026 (0.01 to 0.04) g/mL, P=0.006. Both left atrial and right atrial emptying fraction were lower in DM (right atrial emptying fraction: -6.2% [-10.2 to -2.1], P=0.003; left atrial emptying fraction:-3.5% [-6.9 to -0.1], P=0.043). LV global circumferential strain was impaired in DM (coefficient [95% CI]: 0.38% [0.01 to 0.7], P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: In a low-risk general population without known cardiovascular disease and with preserved LV ejection fraction, DM is associated with early changes in all 4 cardiac chambers. These findings suggest that diabetic cardiomyopathy is not a regional condition of the LV but affects the heart globally.

11.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 20(12): 1368-1376, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504370

RESUMO

AIMS : The non-invasive assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and filling pressure in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is still an open issue. Pulmonary blood volume index (PBVI) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been proposed as a quantitative biomarker of haemodynamic congestion. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of PBVI for left atrial pressure (LAP) estimation in patients with HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS : We retrospectively identified 69 consecutive HCM outpatients (age 58 ± 11 years; 83% men) who underwent both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and CMR. Guideline-based detection of LV diastolic dysfunction was assessed by TTE, blinded to CMR results. PBVI was calculated as the product of right ventricular stroke volume index and the number of cardiac cycles for a bolus of gadolinium to pass through the pulmonary circulation as assessed by first-pass perfusion imaging. Compared to patients with normal LAP, patients with increased LAP showed significantly larger PBVI (463 ± 127 vs. 310 ± 86 mL/m2, P < 0.001). PBVI increased progressively with worsening New York Heart Association functional class and echocardiographic stages of diastolic dysfunction (P < 0.001 for both). At the best cut-off point of 413 mL/m2, PBVI yielded good diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of LV diastolic dysfunction with increased LAP [C-statistic = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.94]. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, PBVI was an independent predictor of increased LAP (odds ratio per 10% increase: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.06-3.68; P = 0.03). CONCLUSION : PBVI is a promising CMR application for assessment of diastolic function and LAP in patients with HCM and may serve as a quantitative marker for detection, grading, and monitoring of haemodynamic congestion.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220063, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419240

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To benchmark the human and machine performance of spectral-domain (SD) and swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) image segmentation, i.e., pixel-wise classification, for the compartments vitreous, retina, choroid, sclera. METHODS: A convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained on OCT B-scan images annotated by a senior ground truth expert retina specialist to segment the posterior eye compartments. Independent benchmark data sets (30 SDOCT and 30 SSOCT) were manually segmented by three classes of graders with varying levels of ophthalmic proficiencies. Nine graders contributed to benchmark an additional 60 images in three consecutive runs. Inter-human and intra-human class agreement was measured and compared to the CNN results. RESULTS: The CNN training data consisted of a total of 6210 manually segmented images derived from 2070 B-scans (1046 SDOCT and 1024 SSOCT; 630 C-Scans). The CNN segmentation revealed a high agreement with all grader groups. For all compartments and groups, the mean Intersection over Union (IOU) score of CNN compartmentalization versus group graders' compartmentalization was higher than the mean score for intra-grader group comparison. CONCLUSION: The proposed deep learning segmentation algorithm (CNN) for automated eye compartment segmentation in OCT B-scans (SDOCT and SSOCT) is on par with manual segmentations by human graders.

13.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 41, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the biventricular geometry of the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) have been difficult to assess, due to subtle and complex shape changes. We sought to quantify reference RV morphology as well as biventricular variations associated with common cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: A biventricular shape atlas was automatically constructed using contours and landmarks from 4329 UK Biobank cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies. A subdivision surface geometric mesh was customized to the contours using a diffeomorphic registration algorithm, with automatic correction of slice shifts due to differences in breath-hold position. A reference sub-cohort was identified consisting of 630 participants with no CVD risk factors. Morphometric scores were computed using linear regression to quantify shape variations associated with four risk factors (high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity and smoking) and three disease factors (diabetes, previous myocardial infarction and angina). RESULTS: The atlas construction led to an accurate representation of 3D shapes at end-diastole and end-systole, with acceptable fitting errors between surfaces and contours (average error less than 1.5 mm). Atlas shape features had stronger associations than traditional mass and volume measures for all factors (p < 0.005 for each). High blood pressure was associated with outward displacement of the LV free walls, but inward displacement of the RV free wall and thickening of the septum. Smoking was associated with a rounder RV with inward displacement of the RV free wall and increased relative wall thickness. CONCLUSION: Morphometric relationships between biventricular shape and cardiovascular risk factors in a large cohort show complex interactions between RV and LV morphology. These can be quantified by z-scores, which can be used to study the morphological correlates of disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
J Ophthalmol ; 2019: 6710754, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281669

RESUMO

Purpose: CAPTCHA (completely automated public turing test to tell computers and humans apart) was designed as a spam prevention test. In patients with visual impairment, completion of this task has been assumed to be difficult; but to date, no study has proven this to be true. As visual function is not well measured by Snellen visual acuity (VA) alone, we theorized that CAPTCHA performance may provide additional information on macular disease-related visual dysfunction. Methods: This was designed as a pilot study. Active disease was defined as the presence of either intraretinal fluid (IRF) or subretinal fluid (SRF) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. CAPTCHA performance was tested using 10 prompts. In addition, near and distance VA, contrast sensitivity, and reading speed were measured. Visual acuity matched pseudophakic patients were used as controls. Primary outcome measures were average edit distance and percent of correct responses. Results: 70 patients were recruited: 33 with active macular disease and 37 control subjects. Contrast sensitivity was found to be significantly different in both the IRF (p < 0.01) and SRF groups (p < 0.01). No significant difference was found comparing the odds ratio of average edit distance of active disease (IRF, SRF) vs. control (OR 1.09 (0.62, 1.90), 1.10 (0.58, 2.05), p=0.77, 0.77) or percent correct responses of active disease vs. control (OR 0.98 (0.96, 1.01), 1.09 (0.58, 2.05), p=0.22, 0.51) in CAPTCHA testing. The goodness of fit using logistic regression analysis for the dependent variables of either IRF or SRF did not improve accounting for average edit distance (p=0.49, p=0.27) or percent correct (p=0.89, p=0.61). Conclusions: Distance VA and contrast sensitivity are positively correlated with the presence of IRF and SRF in active macular disease. CAPTCHA performance did not appear to be a significant predictor of either IRF or SRF in our pilot study.

15.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; 97(2): 113-119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nonrechargeable deep brain stimulation implantable pulse generators (IPGs) for movement disorders require surgical replacement every few years due to battery depletion. Rechargeable IPGs reduce frequency of replacement surgeries and inherent risks of complications but require frequent recharging. Here, we evaluate patient experience with rechargeable IPGs and define predictive characteristics for higher satisfaction. METHODS: We contacted all patients implanted with rechargeable IPGs at a single center in a survey-based study. We analyzed patient satisfaction with respect to age, diagnosis, target, charging duration, and body mass index. We tabulated hardware-related adverse events. RESULTS: Dystonia patients had significantly higher satisfaction than Parkinson's disease patients in recharging, display, programmer, and training domains. Common positive responses were "fewer surgeries" and "small size." Common negative responses were "difficulty finding the right position to recharge" and "need to recharge every day." Hardware-related adverse events occurred in 21 of 59 participants. CONCLUSION: Patient experience with rechargeable IPGs was largely positive; however, frustrations with recharging and adverse events were common. Dystonia diagnosis was most predictive of high satisfaction across multiple categories, potentially related to expected long disease duration with need for numerous IPG replacements.

16.
Med Image Anal ; 56: 26-42, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154149

RESUMO

Population imaging studies generate data for developing and implementing personalised health strategies to prevent, or more effectively treat disease. Large prospective epidemiological studies acquire imaging for pre-symptomatic populations. These studies enable the early discovery of alterations due to impending disease, and enable early identification of individuals at risk. Such studies pose new challenges requiring automatic image analysis. To date, few large-scale population-level cardiac imaging studies have been conducted. One such study stands out for its sheer size, careful implementation, and availability of top quality expert annotation; the UK Biobank (UKB). The resulting massive imaging datasets (targeting ca. 100,000 subjects) has put published approaches for cardiac image quantification to the test. In this paper, we present and evaluate a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) image analysis pipeline that properly scales up and can provide a fully automatic analysis of the UKB CMR study. Without manual user interactions, our pipeline performs end-to-end image analytics from multi-view cine CMR images all the way to anatomical and functional bi-ventricular quantification. All this, while maintaining relevant quality controls of the CMR input images, and resulting image segmentations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published attempt to fully automate the extraction of global and regional reference ranges of all key functional cardiovascular indexes, from both left and right cardiac ventricles, for a population of 20,000 subjects imaged at 50 time frames per subject, for a total of one million CMR volumes. In addition, our pipeline provides 3D anatomical bi-ventricular models of the heart. These models enable the extraction of detailed information of the morphodynamics of the two ventricles for subsequent association to genetic, omics, lifestyle habits, exposure information, and other information provided in population imaging studies. We validated our proposed CMR analytics pipeline against manual expert readings on a reference cohort of 4620 subjects with contour delineations and corresponding clinical indexes. Our results show broad significant agreement between the manually obtained reference indexes, and those automatically computed via our framework. 80.67% of subjects were processed with mean contour distance of less than 1 pixel, and 17.50% with mean contour distance between 1 and 2 pixels. Finally, we compare our pipeline with a recently published approach reporting on UKB data, and based on deep learning. Our comparison shows similar performance in terms of segmentation accuracy with respect to human experts.

17.
J Comp Neurol ; 527(18): 3034-3045, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173365

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that the human amygdala undergoes extensive growth through adolescence, coinciding with the acquisition of complex socioemotional learning. Our objective was to longitudinally map volumetric growth of the nonhuman primate amygdala in a controlled, naturalistic social environment from birth to adulthood. Magnetic resonance images were collected at five time-points in 24 male and female rhesus macaques from 6 months to adulthood at 5 years. We then compared amygdala growth to other brain regions, including newly collected isocortical gray and white matter volumes, and previously published data on the same cohort. We found that amygdala volume increases by nearly 50% from age 6 months to 5 years. This dramatic growth is in contrast to overall brain and hippocampal volume, which peak near 3 years, white matter, which slows from 3 to 5 years, and isocortical gray, which has a net decrease. Similar to isocortical gray and hippocampal volumes, amygdala volume is ~8% larger in males than females. Rate of growth does not differ by sex. Although the underlying neurobiological substrate for protracted amygdala growth into adulthood is unclear, we propose it may be due in part to the unique cellular development of immature neurons in paralaminar nucleus that mature in size and connectivity with age. Prolonged amygdala maturation raises the possibility that environmental and genetic perturbations that disrupt this trajectory may contribute to the emergence of psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and autism; all in which the amygdala is strongly implicated.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9143, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235810

RESUMO

Arterial stiffness index (ASI) is a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness using infra-red finger sensors (photoplethysmography). It is a well-suited measure for large populations as it is relatively inexpensive to perform, and data can be acquired within seconds. These features raise interest in using ASI as a tool to estimate cardiovascular disease risk as prior work demonstrates increased arterial stiffness is associated with elevated systolic blood pressure, and ASI is predictive of cardiovascular disease and mortality. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for ASI in 127,121 UK Biobank participants of European-ancestry. Our primary analyses identified variants at four loci reaching genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8): TEX41 (rs1006923; P = 5.3 × 10-12), FOXO1 (rs7331212; P = 2.2 × 10-11), C1orf21 (rs1930290, P = 1.1 × 10-8) and MRVI1 (rs10840457, P = 3.4 × 10-8). Gene-based testing revealed three significant genes, the most significant gene was COL4A2 (P = 1.41 × 10-8) encoding type IV collagen. Other candidate genes at associated loci were also involved in smooth muscle tone regulation. Our findings provide new information for understanding the development of arterial stiffness.

19.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e027441, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse treatment outcomes and share clinical data from a large, single-centre, well-curated database (8174 eyes/6664 patients with 120 756 single entries) of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). By making our depersonalised raw data openly available, we aim to stimulate further research in AMD, as well as set a precedent for future work in this area. SETTING: Retrospective, comparative, non-randomised electronic medical record (EMR) database cohort study of the UK Moorfields AMD database with data extracted between 2008 and 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Including one eye per patient, 3357 eyes/patients (61% female). Extraction criteria were ≥1 ranibizumab or aflibercept injection, entry of 'AMD' in the diagnosis field of the EMR and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. Exclusion criteria were unknown date of first injection and treatment outside of routine clinical care at Moorfields before the first recorded injection in the database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measure was change in VA at 1 and 2 years from baseline as measured in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters. Secondary outcomes were the number of injections and predictive factors for VA gain. RESULTS: Mean VA gain at 1 year and 2 years were +5.5 (95% CI 5.0 to 6.0) and +4.9 (95% CI 4.2 to 5.6) letters, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of eyes gained ≥5 letters at 2 years, 63% had stable VA (±≤14 letters), 44% of eyes maintained good VA (≥70 letters). Patients received a mean of 7.7 (95% CI 7.6 to 7.8) injections during year 1 and 13.0 (95% CI 12.8 to 13.2) injections over 2 years. Younger age, lower baseline VA and more injections were associated with higher VA gain at 2 years. CONCLUSION: This study benchmarks high quality EMR study results of real life AMD treatment and promotes open science in clinical AMD research by making the underlying data publicly available.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214875, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if deep learning networks could be trained to forecast future 24-2 Humphrey Visual Fields (HVFs). METHODS: All data points from consecutive 24-2 HVFs from 1998 to 2018 were extracted from a university database. Ten-fold cross validation with a held out test set was used to develop the three main phases of model development: model architecture selection, dataset combination selection, and time-interval model training with transfer learning, to train a deep learning artificial neural network capable of generating a point-wise visual field prediction. The point-wise mean absolute error (PMAE) and difference in Mean Deviation (MD) between predicted and actual future HVF were calculated. RESULTS: More than 1.7 million perimetry points were extracted to the hundredth decibel from 32,443 24-2 HVFs. The best performing model with 20 million trainable parameters, CascadeNet-5, was selected. The overall point-wise PMAE for the test set was 2.47 dB (95% CI: 2.45 dB to 2.48 dB), and deep learning showed a statistically significant improvement over linear models. The 100 fully trained models successfully predicted future HVFs in glaucomatous eyes up to 5.5 years in the future with a correlation of 0.92 between the MD of predicted and actual future HVF and an average difference of 0.41 dB. CONCLUSIONS: Using unfiltered real-world datasets, deep learning networks show the ability to not only learn spatio-temporal HVF changes but also to generate predictions for future HVFs up to 5.5 years, given only a single HVF.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Testes de Campo Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Previsões , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Testes de Campo Visual/métodos , Campos Visuais
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