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1.
Blood Adv ; 4(5): 969, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150614
2.
Thromb Res ; 188: 106-114, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the clinical course and treatment decisions in patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond the initial treatment period of 3 to 6 months. This information is important for clinicians and patients to inform their decisions regarding duration of anticoagulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed health records from consecutive patients referred to our institution for cancer-associated VTE management between 2013 and 2015 to describe their clinical course and outcomes from 6 to 24 months following their index VTE. Details on patient and cancer characteristics, objectively documented recurrent venous thromboembolism (rVTE), clinically relevant bleeding (CRB) and overall mortality were captured. RESULTS: 524 patients met eligibility criteria and 322 were alive at 6 months after the index VTE. At 6 months, anticoagulation was continued in 222 patients (68.9%). During follow-up, there were 33 rVTE events in 30 patients (1-year cumulative incidence of 8.2%; 95% CI: 5.5%-11.6%), and 16 CRB events in 15 patients (1-year cumulative incidence of 4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3%-6.7%); 20 (60.6%) rVTE events and 13 (81.3%) CRB events occurred while on anticoagulation. One-year survival beyond 6 months was 73.7% (95% CI: 68.5%-78.2%). A higher proportion of patients with advanced cancer and receiving cancer treatment was found among those who continued anticoagulation beyond 6 months compared to those who stopped anticoagulation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cancer-associated VTE who are alive at 6 months after VTE diagnosis remain at high risk of rVTE, CRB and death.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 496-520, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide updated recommendations about prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs published from August 1, 2014, through December 4, 2018. ASCO convened an Expert Panel to review the evidence and revise previous recommendations as needed. RESULTS: The systematic review included 35 publications on VTE prophylaxis and treatment and 18 publications on VTE risk assessment. Two RCTs of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of VTE in patients with cancer reported that edoxaban and rivaroxaban are effective but are linked with a higher risk of bleeding compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients with GI and potentially genitourinary cancers. Two additional RCTs reported on DOACs for thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with cancer at increased risk of VTE. RECOMMENDATIONS: Changes to previous recommendations: Clinicians may offer thromboprophylaxis with apixaban, rivaroxaban, or LMWH to selected high-risk outpatients with cancer; rivaroxaban and edoxaban have been added as options for VTE treatment; patients with brain metastases are now addressed in the VTE treatment section; and the recommendation regarding long-term postoperative LMWH has been expanded. Re-affirmed recommendations: Most hospitalized patients with cancer and an acute medical condition require thromboprophylaxis throughout hospitalization. Thromboprophylaxis is not routinely recommended for all outpatients with cancer. Patients undergoing major cancer surgery should receive prophylaxis starting before surgery and continuing for at least 7 to 10 days. Patients with cancer should be periodically assessed for VTE risk, and oncology professionals should provide patient education about the signs and symptoms of VTE.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines.

4.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2019(1): 167-174, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808866

RESUMO

Malignancy is associated with a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and treatment with anticoagulant therapy is associated with a high risk of bleeding. Thus, accurate and timely VTE diagnosis in cancer patients is essential for identifying individuals who would benefit from anticoagulant therapy and for avoiding unnecessary treatment that can cause anticoagulant-related bleeding. The approach to the diagnosis of VTE in non-cancer patients involves a stepwise process beginning with an assessment of the pretest probability (PTP) of VTE using a validated clinical prediction rule (CPR) followed by D-dimer testing and/or diagnostic imaging. In patients with a low PTP and a negative D-dimer result, VTE can be excluded without additional imaging. However, published data suggest that CPRs and D-dimer testing may not be as accurate or as useful in patients with cancer. Studies have shown that the combination of a low PTP and negative D-dimer result is not efficient for exclusion of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) in the cancer patient population because the vast majority of patients still require radiologic imaging. We propose that cancer patients with suspected VTE should proceed directly to radiologic imaging to confirm or exclude a diagnosis of DVT or PE.

5.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380891

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who use a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) and request elective surgery or procedure present a common clinical situation yet perioperative management is uncertain. Objective: To investigate the safety of a standardized perioperative DOAC management strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Perioperative Anticoagulation Use for Surgery Evaluation (PAUSE) cohort study conducted at 23 clinical centers in Canada, the United States, and Europe enrolled and screened patients from August 1, 2014, through July 31, 2018. Participants (n = 3007) had AF; were 18 years of age or older; were long-term users of apixaban, dabigatran etexilate, or rivaroxaban; were scheduled for an elective surgery or procedure; and could adhere to the DOAC therapy interruption protocol. Interventions: A simple standardized perioperative DOAC therapy interruption and resumption strategy based on DOAC pharmacokinetic properties, procedure-associated bleeding risk, and creatinine clearance levels. The DOAC regimens were omitted for 1 day before a low-bleeding-risk procedure and 2 days before a high-bleeding-risk procedure. The DOAC regimens were resumed 1 day after a low-bleeding-risk procedure and 2 to 3 days after a high-bleeding-risk procedure. Follow-up of patients occurred for 30 days after the operation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Major bleeding and arterial thromboembolism (ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, and transient ischemic attack) and the proportion of patients with an undetectable or minimal residual anticoagulant level (<50 ng/mL) at the time of the procedure. Results: The 3007 patients with AF (mean [SD] age of 72.5 [9.39] years; 1988 men [66.1%]) comprised 1257 (41.8%) in the apixaban cohort, 668 (22.2%) in the dabigatran cohort, and 1082 (36.0%) in the rivaroxaban cohort; 1007 patients (33.5%) had a high-bleeding-risk procedure. The 30-day postoperative rate of major bleeding was 1.35% (95% CI, 0%-2.00%) in the apixaban cohort, 0.90% (95% CI, 0%-1.73%) in the dabigatran cohort, and 1.85% (95% CI, 0%-2.65%) in the rivaroxaban cohort. The rate of arterial thromboembolism was 0.16% (95% CI, 0%-0.48%) in the apixaban cohort, 0.60% (95% CI, 0%-1.33%) in the dabigatran cohort, and 0.37% (95% CI, 0%-0.82%) in the rivaroxaban cohort. In patients with a high-bleeding-risk procedure, the rates of major bleeding were 2.96% (95% CI, 0%-4.68%) in the apixaban cohort and 2.95% (95% CI, 0%-4.76%) in the rivaroxaban cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, patients with AF who had DOAC therapy interruption for elective surgery or procedure, a perioperative management strategy without heparin bridging or coagulation function testing was associated with low rates of major bleeding and arterial thromboembolism.

6.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 45(6): 638-647, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382307

RESUMO

Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) is a common occurrence in the journey of a cancer patient and its management poses significant challenges. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is the standard of care but the high cost and the inconvenience of daily injections have led to low persistence with therapy. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are effective and safe for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy in noncancer patients, and emerging data comparing their use with LMWH in CAT are rapidly changing clinical practice. Recent randomized controlled trials also reported that specific DOACs are effective for primary prevention of CAT in patients undergoing systemic cancer therapy, but this benefit might be offset by an increased risk of bleeding. Undoubtedly, the option of an effective and safe oral anticoagulant is appealing to physicians and patients but critical limitations of DOACs, particularly bleeding and drug-drug interaction, need careful consideration. Understanding the scientific data, as well as each patient's preferences and values, are paramount in individualizing therapy in this special population of patients. This review summarizes the current evidence for DOACs for the treatment and prevention of CAT, discusses the importance of careful patient selection, and highlights upcoming new studies that will inform guideline recommendations.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 47(4): 495-504, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859370

RESUMO

In patients with active cancer and acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), the low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) dalteparin is more effective than vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in reducing the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (rVTE) without increasing the risk of bleeding. However, the relative benefit of LMWH versus VKA in patients with active cancer at high or low risk of rVTE and bleeding is unclear. This post hoc analysis used data from the CLOT study to explore the efficacy and safety of LMWH versus VKA in preventing recurrent thrombosis in high- and low-risk patients with active cancer. High-risk patients were defined by metastatic disease and/or antineoplastic treatment at baseline; low-risk patients presented with neither. Among high-risk patients, rVTE occurred in 25/318 (8%) (LMWH) versus 53/314 (17%) (VKA) (hazard ratio, 0.44; p = 0.001). No significant difference was detected in the rate of major or any bleeding. The 6-month mortality rate was 40% (LMWH) versus 41% (VKA). In low-risk patients, 2/20 (10%) (LMWH) had rVTE versus 0/24 (0%) (VKA) (hazard ratio, not estimable; p = 0.998). No significant difference was detected in the rate of major or any bleeding. The 6-month mortality rate was 20% (LMWH) versus 29% (VKA). In patients with cancer-associated thrombosis at high risk of rVTE and bleeding, the LMWH dalteparin was more effective than VKA in reducing the risk of rVTE without increasing the risk of bleeding. No difference in rate of rVTE or bleeding was observed between LMWH and VKA among low-risk patients.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/administração & dosagem , Dalteparina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Cumarínicos/efeitos adversos , Dalteparina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trombose/mortalidade , Trombose/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
8.
N Engl J Med ; 380(8): 711-719, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with active cancer have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. The Khorana score (range, 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of venous thromboembolism) has been validated to identify patients with cancer at elevated risk for this complication and may help select those who could benefit from thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial assessing the efficacy and safety of apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily) for thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with cancer who were at intermediate-to-high risk for venous thromboembolism (Khorana score, ≥2) and were initiating chemotherapy. The primary efficacy outcome was objectively documented venous thromboembolism over a follow-up period of 180 days. The main safety outcome was a major bleeding episode. RESULTS: Of the 574 patients who underwent randomization, 563 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Venous thromboembolism occurred in 12 of 288 patients (4.2%) in the apixaban group and in 28 of 275 patients (10.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.65; P<0.001). In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, major bleeding occurred in 10 patients (3.5%) in the apixaban group and in 5 patients (1.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.95; P = 0.046). During the treatment period, major bleeding occurred in 6 patients (2.1%) in the apixaban group and in 3 patients (1.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.39 to 9.24). CONCLUSIONS: Apixaban therapy resulted in a significantly lower rate of venous thromboembolism than did placebo among intermediate-to-high-risk ambulatory patients with cancer who were starting chemotherapy. The rate of major bleeding episodes was higher with apixaban than with placebo. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Bristol-Myers Squibb-Pfizer Alliance; AVERT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02048865.).


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
9.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 2(4): 664-669, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349884

RESUMO

Background: The management of anticoagulation for cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) in patients with thrombocytopenia is controversial. Whereas some studies suggest that administration of reduced-dose low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or temporary discontinuation for moderate and severe thrombocytopenia may be a safe and effective, others suggest full-dose anticoagulation with transfusion support. We sought to address this important knowledge gap and summarize the literature comparing these two common management strategies. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (PROSPERO CRD42017077127) using MEDLINE (inception to September 2017) was conducted. We included studies that reported recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding complications among patients treated with both of the two most common management strategies: therapeutic anticoagulation with platelet transfusion support and dose-modified anticoagulation for periods when the platelet count is <50 × 109/L. Results: A total of 134 article records were identified on the initial search and 10 articles underwent full text review. Two observational studies met the inclusions criteria. A total of 121 patients with CAT and thrombocytopenia were included. Forty-two of these patients had pulmonary embolism and 87 had deep vein thrombosis (DVT) including 38 upper extremity DVT. Overall, 27% of patients, regardless of their treatment strategy, experienced recurrent VTE. Thirteen percent of anticoagulated patients (15% of all patients) experienced a major bleeding episode. Meta-analysis could not be conducted. Conclusions: Our findings do not support one management strategy over another to treat CAT patients with thrombocytopenia. However, the data highlights the heightened risk of recurrent VTE in this patient population despite the thrombocytopenia.

10.
Thromb J ; 16: 21, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186045

RESUMO

Background: Around 20% of venous thromboembolism (VTE) cases occur in patients with cancer. Current guidelines recommend low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as the preferred anticoagulant for VTE treatment. However, some guidelines state that vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are acceptable alternatives for long-term therapy in some patients if LMWHs are not available. LMWHs and VKAs have a number of drawbacks that can increase the burden on patients. DOACs, such as rivaroxaban, can ameliorate some burdens and may offer an opportunity to increase patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The Cancer-associated thrOmboSIs - patient-reported outcoMes with rivarOxaban (COSIMO) study is designed to provide real-world information on treatment satisfaction in patients with active cancer who switch from LMWH or VKA to rivaroxaban for the treatment of acute VTE or to prevent recurrent VTE. Methods: COSIMO is a prospective, non-interventional, single-arm cohort study that aims to recruit 500 patients in Europe, Canada and Australia. Adults with active cancer who are switching to rivaroxaban having received LMWH/VKA for the treatment and secondary prevention of recurrent VTE for at least the previous 4 weeks are eligible. Patients will be followed for 6 months. The primary outcome is treatment satisfaction assessed as change in the Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS) Burdens score at week 4 after enrolment compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes include treatment preferences, measured using a discrete choice experiment, change in ACTS Burdens score at months 3 and 6, and change in HRQoL (assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue questionnaire). COSIMO will collect data on patients' medical history, patterns of anticoagulant use and incidence of bleeding and thromboembolic events. Study recruitment started in autumn 2016. Conclusions: COSIMO will provide information on outcomes associated with switching from LMWH or VKA therapy to rivaroxaban for the treatment or secondary prevention of cancer-associated thrombosis in a real-life setting. The key goal is to assess whether there is a change in patient-reported treatment satisfaction. In addition, COSIMO will facilitate the evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of rivaroxaban in preventing recurrent VTE in this patient population. Trial registration: NCT02742623. Registered 19 April 2016.

11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 46(3): 386-392, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014300

RESUMO

Patients with acute leukemia frequently develop catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) despite concurrent thrombocytopenia. The incidence, treatment and outcomes of this complication are poorly documented. We undertook this study to determine the incidence of CRT in patients with acute leukemia and assess the safety and effectiveness of a treatment strategy using a platelet-adjusted low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) dosing protocol. Patients (18 years and older) with newly diagnosed acute leukemia from January 2014 to December 2015 who received central venous catheters were included. The clinical data were reviewed up to 12 months from acute leukemia diagnosis to capture objectively documented CRT events. The outcome events including recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), bleeding events, infectious or mechanical complications, and death were reported up to 3 months from the time of CRT diagnosis. The incidence of CRT among 214 patients was 10.7% (23 patients) in the first 12 months after acute leukemia diagnosis. Among 18 patients who were treated with anticoagulation, 14 (78%) received reduced LMWH dosing due to concurrent thrombocytopenia. There were no recurrent VTE episodes, but 3 patients experienced bleeding events while on anticoagulation. Fifteen patients (83%) completed a minimum of 3 months anticoagulation. Twelve patients (52%) experienced an infectious complication, which was the main reason for catheter removal. Deaths occurred in 2 patients, related to underlying acute leukemia during 3 months period following CRT. Symptomatic CRT is frequent in patients with acute leukemia. Platelet-adjusted LMWH dosing may be effective and well tolerated despite thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Plaquetas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombocitopenia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa , Adulto Jovem
12.
Thromb Haemost ; 118(5): 914-921, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article assesses the impact of renal impairment (RI) on the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation in patients with cancer-associated thrombosis from the Comparison of Acute Treatments in Cancer Hemostasis (CATCH) study (NCT01130025). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal function was assessed using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation in patients with cancer-associated thrombosis who received either tinzaparin (175 IU/kg) once daily or warfarin for 6 months, in an open-label, randomized, multi-centre trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Associations between baseline RI (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2) and recurrent symptomatic or incidental venous thromboembolism (VTE), clinically relevant bleeding (CRB), major bleeding and death were assessed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Baseline-centralized GFR data were available for 864 patients (96% of study population). RI was found in 131 patients (15%; n = 69 tinzaparin). Recurrent VTE occurred in 14% of patients with and 8% of patients without RI (relative risk [RR] 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06, 2.85), CRB in 19% and 14%, respectively (RR 1.33; 95% CI 0.90, 1.98), major bleeding in 6.1% and 2.0%, respectively (RR 2.98; 95% CI 1.29, 6.90) and mortality rate was 40% and 34%, respectively (RR 1.20; 95% CI 0.94, 1.53). Patients with RI on tinzaparin showed no difference in recurrent VTE, CRB, major bleeding or mortality rates versus those on warfarin. CONCLUSION: RI in patients with cancer-associated thrombosis on anticoagulation was associated with a statistically significant increase in recurrent VTE and major bleeding, but no significant increase in CRB or mortality. No differences were observed between long-term tinzaparin therapy and warfarin.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/complicações , Rim/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Tinzaparina/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tinzaparina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Value Health ; 21(4): 449-455, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients and its treatment is associated with a high risk of recurrent VTE (rVTE) and bleeding. OBJECTIVES: To analyze data from the Comparison of Acute Treatments in Cancer Hemostasis (CATCH) trial to describe the impact of rVTE and bleeding events on health-related quality of life. METHODS: The three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) data were collected monthly for up to 7 months in patients starting anticoagulation for newly diagnosed VTE. Analyses were designed to describe the impact of rVTE and bleeding on EQ-5D scores while controlling for effects of covariates such as background and clinical variables and longitudinal changes. A repeated-measures model with specification of the variance-covariance matrix to characterize the intrapatient correlation was used to estimate the utility values. The impact of an rVTE or a bleeding event was assumed to be reflected in the utility value when it occurred within 2 weeks from a planned data collection point. RESULTS: Data were available from 883 patients. A total of 76 rVTE and 159 bleeding events occurred during follow-up. rVTE had a significant impact on EQ-5D scores, with a decrement of -0.075 on the basis of our reference case (male, no metastasis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score = 1, Western European), but different patients might have different decrements. Bleeding events had a smaller (nonstatistically significant) impact on EQ-5D scores. CONCLUSIONS: This data set study has quantified the decline in EQ-5D scores associated with experiencing rVTE or bleeding events in cancer patients. These results indicate the net gain in quality of life and impact on cost-effectiveness of secondary VTE prevention.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Hemorragia/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/psicologia
14.
Thromb Res ; 164 Suppl 1: S162-S167, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307469

RESUMO

Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are available to provide guidance to clinicians in managing patients living with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). While most are developed using rigorous methods and grounded by systematic reviews of the literature, their recommendations do differ because of differences in their grading criteria and interpretation of the data. This can be confusing to practicing clinicians. Also, guidelines are often out of date and cannot keep pace with publications because of the lengthy processes and extensive resources required for completion. The most recent updates of major guidelines in the management of cancer-associated VTE were published in 2015-2016. They broadened the topics addressed in earlier versions but, similar to that in earlier documents, the quality of evidence remains weak in many important clinical scenarios, such as management of recurrent VTE, choice of anticoagulants for long-term and extended treatment, and duration of anticoagulant therapy. Consequently, many recommendations continue to reflect expert opinion and extrapolation from indirect data in non-cancer populations. This review summarizes and comments on the most recent guideline updates from the American College of Chest Physicians, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer. A new round of revisions is expected to incorporate the emerging data on the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of cancer-associated VTE.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
15.
Blood ; 130(23): 2484-2490, 2017 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212805

RESUMO

The optimal duration of anticoagulation in patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. Without well-designed studies evaluating the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of continuing anticoagulant therapy beyond the acute treatment period of 3 to 6 months, evidence-based recommendations are lacking. Consensus guidelines generally suggest continuing anticoagulation in patients with active cancer or receiving cancer treatment, with periodic reassessment of the risks and benefits. Unfortunately, with very little published data on the epidemiology of cancer-associated VTE beyond the initial 6 months, it is not possible for clinicians and patients to weigh risks and benefits in a quantitatively informed manner. Further research is needed to provide reliable and contemporary estimates on the risk of recurrent VTE off anticoagulation, risk of bleeding on anticoagulation, case fatality or all-cause mortality, and other important consequences of living with cancer-associated VTE. This chapter provides an overview of the published literature on real-world data on anticoagulant therapy use, the risks and risk factors of recurrent VTE and bleeding, and patient preference and values regarding long-term anticoagulation. It will conclude with a pragmatic, experience-informed approach for tailoring anticoagulant therapy in patients with cancer-associated VTE.

16.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2017(1): 128-135, 2017 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222247

RESUMO

The optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy in patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. Without well-designed studies evaluating the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of continuing anticoagulant therapy beyond the acute treatment period of 3 to 6 months, evidence-based recommendations are lacking. Consensus guidelines generally suggest continuing anticoagulation treatment in patients with active cancer or receiving cancer treatment, with periodic reassessment of the risks and benefits. Unfortunately, with very little published data on the epidemiology of cancer-associated VTE beyond the initial 6 months, it is not possible for clinicians and patients to weigh risks and benefits in a quantitatively informed manner. Further research is needed to provide reliable and contemporary estimates on the risk of recurrent VTE off anticoagulant therapy, risk of bleeding on anticoagulant therapy, case fatality or all-cause mortality, and other important consequences of living with cancer-associated VTE. This chapter provides an overview of the published literature on real-world data on anticoagulant therapy use, the risks and risk factors of recurrent VTE and bleeding, and patient preference and values regarding long-term anticoagulation treatment. It will conclude with a pragmatic, experience-informed approach for tailoring anticoagulant therapy in patients with cancer-associated VTE.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
18.
19.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 44(1): 116-119, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27809948

RESUMO

Patterns of practice for management of cerebral venous thrombosis in Canada are unknown. We surveyed Canadian neurologists and hematologists regarding anticoagulation in cerebral venous thrombosis. The response rate was 28%, with 27 neurologists and 20 hematologists responding. We found that choice of first-line initial anticoagulation differed significantly between neurologists and hematologists, with 89% of neurologists favouring unfractionated heparin and hematologists' preference split between unfractionated heparin (50%) and low-molecular-weight heparin (50%). Differences in patterns of practice likely reflect clinical equipoise.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hematologia , Neurologistas/psicologia , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Canadá , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(10): 1078-1085, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029329

RESUMO

Purpose Circulating tissue factor (TF) has been studied as a biomarker for predicting initial, but not recurrent, venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer, a setting in which predictors are incompletely understood. We evaluated the association of TF, clinical risk factors, and other biomarkers measured at the time of initial VTE with recurrent VTE in a prespecified analysis of the CATCH (Comparison of Acute Treatments in Cancer Hemostasis) trial. Methods CATCH was a randomized, multicenter trial that investigated tinzaparin 175 IU/kg once daily or dose-adjusted warfarin for 6 months in patients with cancer and acute, symptomatic VTE. TF ELISA, soluble P-selectin, d-dimer, FVIII, and C-reactive protein were assayed. Fisher's exact test was used to screen for association with VTE; competing risk regression analysis of time to recurrent VTE was conducted, accounting for multiple variables. Results The study population comprised 900 patients (recurrent VTE, n = 76; 8.4%). Of these patients, 805 had samples available for TF assay. Mean and median TF levels were 72.5 pg/mL and 50.3 pg/mL, respectively (range, 15.6 pg/mL to 4,798 pg/mL). Patients in the highest quartile of TF experienced the greatest VTE recurrence (> 64.6 pg/mL; 38 [19%] of 203 patients v 34 [6%] of 602 patients; relative risk, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.1 to 5.1; P < .001). In competing risk regression analysis of time to recurrent VTE, TF remained strongly associated with recurrent VTE (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7 to 6.4). Other significant variables included venous compression from mass (SHR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4 to 6.5) and hepatobiliary cancer (SHR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.3 to 13.6). Conclusion This is the first report, to our knowledge, to describe TF as a potential biomarker of recurrent VTE in patients with cancer who are on anticoagulation treatment. A risk-adapted strategy could help identify high-risk patients who may benefit from more intensive anticoagulation approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Selectina-P/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tinzaparina , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
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