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2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 51: 101544, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813092

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is attributed to both micro- and macrovascular complications at any stage of metabolic deregulation including prediabetes. Current global diabetes prevention programmes appear to be glucocentric, and do not fully acknowledge the ramifications of cardiorenal risk factors in smokers and ex-smokers. A more holistic approach is needed to prevent vascular complications in people with prediabetes and diabetes before and after quitting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on participants who agreed to take part in the UK Biobank dataset at the time of their first attendances between March 01, 2006, and December 31, 2010. Those who had their urinary albumin concentration (UAC) data available were included, and those who did not have this data, were excluded. A logistic regression model was fitted to explore the relationship between cardiorenal risk factors and albuminuria in people with prediabetes and diabetes, based on smoking status. Findings: A total of 502,490 participants were included in the UK Biobank dataset. Of them, 30.4% (n=152,896) had their UAC level recorded. Compared with non-smokers, the odds of albuminuria in smokers with prediabetes and diabetes were 1.21 (95% CI 1.05 - 1.39, p=0.009), and 1.26 (95% CI 1.10 - 1.44, p=0.001), respectively. The odds declined after quitting in both groups, but it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Each unit increase in HbA1c was associated with equivalent increased odds of albuminuria in current and ex-smokers, OR 1.035 (95% CI 1.030 - 1.039, p<0.001), and 1.026 (95% CI 1.023 - 1.028, p <0.001), respectively. Compared to females, male ex-smokers were at 15% increased odds of albuminuria. In ex-smokers, each unit increase in waist circumference was associated with 1% increased risk of albuminuria. Compared with the least deprived quintiles, the odds of albuminuria in the most deprived quintiles, in current and ex-smokers were identical, OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.324, p=0.010), and 1.19 (95% CI 1.11 - 1.27, p<0.001), respectively. Interpretation: Male smokers are at a higher risk of albuminuria after smoking cessation. Monitoring waist circumference in quitters may identify those who are at a higher risk of albuminuria. Combining smoking cessation intervention in smokers with prediabetes in the current diabetes prevention programmes may offset post-cessation weight gain and reduce the risk of albuminuria. Funding: University of Sheffield.

4.
J R Soc Med ; 115(8): 313-321, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900036
5.
BDJ Open ; 8(1): 20, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on dental practitioner use and perceptions of articaine. This study is a cross-sectional survey of dental practitioners from January, 2021 to ascertain the extent of their use of the dental local anaesthetic, articaine, the basis of their perceptions about articaine and whether current practices are in line with recent evidence regarding articaine safety and efficacy. METHOD: An anonymous survey was designed using the SAP Qualtrics Core XM software platform and a survey link was disseminated from December 2020 to January 2021 via social media. The survey was designed as a five minute, anonymous, online questionnaire including a plain language information sheet, request for participant consent and 14 questions. Data were entered onto a Microsoft™ Excel spreadsheet and analysed qualitatively, isolating the answers into recurrent themes. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the surveyed dental practitioner used articaine as their preferred dental anaesthetic. Twenty-three percent of the dental practitioner surveyed used articaine for all of their dental procedures including inferior alveolar nerve blocks, while 40% of respondents used articaine for all their dental procedures except inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The predominant basis of dental practitioner uses and perception of articaine were their countries dental guidelines. CONCLUSION: Despite the latest findings that articaine is as safe and more efficacious as lidocaine for all routine dental treatment, 40% of survey respondents avoided articaine use for inferior alveolar blocks. Our study recognises a discrepancy between reported clinical practice and current research evidence. Further research and clarifications are needed to achieve ubiquitous practice of evidence-based dentistry.

6.
BMJ Neurol Open ; 4(2): e000315, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865788

RESUMO

Background: Adherence and persistence are critical to optimising therapeutic benefit from disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This prospective, open-label, multicentre, observational study (AubPRO), conducted in 13 hospital-based neurology clinics around Australia, describes treatment satisfaction in patients newly initiated on teriflunomide (Aubagio) and evaluates the use of an electronic patient-reported outcome (PRO) tool. Methods: Patients (≥18 years) newly initiated on teriflunomide (14 mg/day) were followed up at 24 and 48 weeks. Patients completed questionnaires and pill counts electronically using MObile Data in Multiple Sclerosis. The primary endpoint was treatment satisfaction, measured by the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM, V.1.4), at week 48. Secondary endpoints included treatment satisfaction at week 24, other PRO scales, clinical outcomes, medication adherence and safety. Results: Patients (n=103; 54 (52.4%) treatment naive) were mostly female (n=82 (79.6%)), aged 49.5 (11.8) years, with MS duration since symptom onset of 9.1 (11.8) years and a median Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 1.0. Mean treatment satisfaction scores were high (≥60%) across all domains of the TSQM V.1.4 at week 24 and at week 48. Compared with week 24, week 48 treatment satisfaction increased for patients who were treatment naïve and for those previously on another oral or injectable DMT. Over 48 weeks, PROs remained stable across a range of measures including disability, physical health, emotional health and mobility, and there were improvements in work capacity and daily life activity. Adherence was high throughout the study with mean compliance (pill counts) of 93.2%±6.26%, and 98 of 103 (95.1%) patients remained relapse-free. Conclusion: This cohort of Australian patients with RRMS, newly initiated on teriflunomide, and treated in a real-world clinical practice setting, reported high treatment satisfaction and adherence at 24 and 48 weeks. Patient-reported measures of disability remained stably low, work capacity and daily life activity improved, and most patients remained relapse-free.

8.
J Vasc Surg ; 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of subclavian steal (defined as retrograde/bidirectional vertebral artery flow) in the general population and in patients undergoing cerebrovascular duplex ultrasound (CDUS) exams is variable. This is the largest study to date to analyze the incidence of duplex-suggested subclavian steal in 5615 CDUS exams over a one year period and to examine its clinical implications. PATIENT POPULATION AND METHODS: All consecutive CDUS exams performed over a one year period were examined for the presence of subclavian steal. Indications of testing, presence of posterior cerebral circulation/subclavian steal symptoms, and any interventions for subclavian steal were analyzed. RESULTS: 171/5,615 (3.1%) were found to have subclavian steal (duplex-suggested). 117 (2.1%) had retrograde flow and 54 (1%) had bidirectional flow. 104/171 (60.8%) were left sided. Indications for CDUS were: post CEA/CAS surveillance in 39 patients (22.8%), surveillance for progression of carotid stenosis in 76 patients (44.4%), TIA/stroke in 26 patients (15%), asymptomatic screening/carotid bruit in 18 patients (10.5%) and isolated posterior cerebral circulation symptoms in 12 patients (7%). 63% of patients had associated >50% carotid stenosis. The mean arm Doppler pressure gradient was 32.2 mmHg for asymptomatic patients vs 37mmHg for patients with posterior circulation symptoms (p=.3254). There were significant differences between the mean systolic arm pressure for patients with retrograde vs antegrade vs bidirectional flow (105 mmHg vs 146 vs 134, p<.0001). All patients with retrograde flow had >50% subclavian stenosis or occlusion (100/117 had subtotal/total occlusion) except for one patient. Meanwhile, 52/54 patients with bidirectional flow had >50% subclavian stenosis (6/54 with subtotal/total occlusion) while two patients were normal/<50% stenosis (p<.0001). Overall, 26/171 patients (15.2%) had interventions for disabling symptoms. 11/26 of all interventions were for disabling arm claudication, and only 10/171 patients (5.8%) were done for disabling posterior circulation symptoms with complete resolution of symptoms in all except one. At a late follow-up with a mean of 18 mos. (range 1-37 mos.), there was no late major stroke with only two lacunar infarcts (not subclavian steal related). There were also seven late deaths, none stroke related. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of subclavian steal in patients who undergo CDUS is relatively rare. Most of these patients are asymptomatic and can be treated conservatively with only a few percentage who may need intervention for disabling symptoms with good symptom resolution.

9.
J Vasc Surg ; 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported the incidence of ≥50% and ≥80% carotid in-stent stenosis. This study will analyze the rates of progression of in-stent stenosis and clinical outcome at later follow-up. PATIENT POPULATION AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 450 transfemoral carotid artery stentings (TfCAS) at a later follow-up (a mean of 70 months). Progression of in-stent stenosis was defined as advancing to a higher severity of disease, i.e. <50% to ≥50% or ≥50% to ≥80%. A Kaplan Meier Analysis was used to estimate the rate of progression from <50% to ≥50%, ≥50% to ≥80%, overall rates of ≥50% and ≥80% in-stent stenosis, and survival at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years. RESULTS: At a mean follow-up of 70.3 months (range: 1-222 months), 121/446 (27%) had ≥50% and 39 (8.7%) had ≥80% in-stent stenosis. Of those patients whose first duplex was normal or <50% (406), 82 progressed from normal/<50% to ≥50% in-stent stenosis. 82/406 (20.2%) of those that were normal or <50% in-stent stenosis progressed to ≥50% in-stent stenosis at a mean of 51.7 months (range: 1-213) and 14/121 (11.6%) of those with ≥50% stenosis progressed to ≥80% at a mean of 33.6 months (range: 6-89 months). Ten out of 82 (12%) of those who progressed from <50 to ≥50% had a neuro event (8 TIAs and 2 strokes). Two out of 14 (14.3%) of those that progressed from ≥50% to ≥80% had transient ischemic attacks (TIA), while the remaining patients were asymptomatic. Nine out of 39 patients (23%) with ≥80% in-stent stenosis had neurological events (eight TIAs and one contralateral stroke). Overall 13/121 patients with late ≥50% restenosis had a neurologic event (10.7%) (ten ipsilateral TIA, two ipsilateral stroke, and one contralateral stroke), i.e. 12 patients developed ipsilateral TIA/stroke out of 446 (2.7%) at a mean follow up of 70 months. Rates of freedom from <50% to ≥50% in-stent stenosis progression were 93%, 85%, 78%, and 66% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years; and for progression from ≥50% to ≥80% in-stent stenosis were 89%, 81%, and 77% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The overall rates of freedom for ≥50% in-stent stenosis were 86%, 77%, 71%, and 59%; and for ≥80% in-stent stenosis were 96%, 93%, 91%, and 84%; and the stroke survival rates were 95%, 80%, 63%, and 31% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of progression of carotid in-stent stenosis were modest, but had a low incidence of stroke events. Therefore, the utility of post-carotid artery stenting duplex surveillance should be selective and perhaps re-evaluated.

10.
Histopathology ; 2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromosome 17 alterations affect the assessment of HER2 gene amplification in breast cancer (BC), but its clinical significance remains unclear. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of centromere enumeration probe 17 (CEP17) alterations, and its correlation with response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) in BC patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry-equivocal score. METHODS: A large BC cohort (n= 6,049) with HER2 immunohistochemistry score 2+ and florescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) results was included to assess the prevalence of CEP17 alterations. Another cohort (n= 885) with available clinicopathological data was used to evaluate the effect of CEP17 in the setting of NAT. RESULTS: HER2-amplified tumours with monosomy 17 (CEP17 copy number <1.5 per nucleus), normal 17 (CEP17 1.5 - <3.0) and polysomy 17 (CEP17 ≥3.0) were observed in 16%, 59% and 25% respectively compared with 3%, 74% and 23%, respectively in HER2-non-amplified tumours. There was no significant relationship between CEP17 alterations and pCR rate in both HER2 amplified and HER2 non-amplified tumours. The independent predictors of pCR were ER-negativity in HER2 amplified tumours (ER negative versus positive; OR, 11.80; 95%CI, 1.37-102.00; p=0.02), and histological grade 3 in HER2 non-amplified tumours (3 versus 1, 2; OR, 5.54; 95%CI, 1.61-19.00; p=0.007). CONCLUSION: The impacts of CEP17 alterations are not as strong as that of HER2/CEP17 ratio and HER2 copy number. The hormonal receptors status and tumour histological grade are more useful to identify BC patients, with HER2 immunohistochemistry-equivocal score, who would benefit from NAT.

11.
Opt Lett ; 47(14): 3391-3394, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838686

RESUMO

We demonstrate a new, to the best of our knlowledge, cavity design for terahertz (THz) lasers based on stimulated polariton scattering (SPS). The design simplifies the angle tuning of these lasers, which require non-collinear cavity fields at fundamental and Stokes wavelengths to cross in an SPS crystal with adjustable crossing angle. A mirror shared by both the fundamental and Stokes cavities ensures stationary overlap of the fields within the crystal, with the angle between the fields tunable by adjustment of one axis of a single mirror. We demonstrate the design for an intracavity SPS laser using a rubidium titanyle phosphate (RTP) crystal, and achieve single-mirror tuning of the THz output in bands between 3 and 5.8 THz, with a maximum output of 78 µW at 4.08 THz.

17.
J Neuroimaging ; 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optic nerve is surrounded by the extension of meningeal coverings of the brain. When the pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid increases, it causes a distention of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), which allows the use of this measurement by ultrasonography (US) as a noninvasive surrogate of elevated intracranial pressure. However, ONSD measurements in the literature have exhibited significant heterogeneity, suggesting a need for consensus on ONSD image acquisition and measurement. We aim to establish a consensus for an ONSD US Quality Criteria Checklist (ONSD US QCC). METHODS: A scoping systematic review of published ultrasound ONSD imaging and measurement criteria was performed to guide the development of a preliminary ONSD US QCC that will undergo a modified Delphi study to reach expert consensus on ONSD quality criteria. The protocol of this modified Delphi study is presented in this manuscript. RESULTS: A total of 357 ultrasound studies were included in the review. Quality criteria were evaluated under five categories: probe selection, safety, positioning, image acquisition, and measurement. CONCLUSIONS: This review and Delphi protocol aim to establish ONSD US QCC. A broad consensus from this process may reduce the variability of ONSD measurements in future studies, which would ultimately translate into improved ONSD clinical applications. This protocol was reviewed and endorsed by the German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine.

18.
iScience ; 25(7): 104474, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754729

RESUMO

Conservation breeding programs aim to maintain 90% wild genetic diversity, but rarely assess functional diversity. Here, we compare both genome-wide and functional diversity (in over 500 genes) of Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) within the insurance metapopulation and across the species' range (64,519 km2). Populations have declined by 80% since 1996 due to a contagious cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). However, predicted local extinctions have not occurred. Recent suggestions of selection for "resistance" alleles in the wild precipitated concerns that insurance population devils may be unsuitable for translocations. Using 830 wild samples collected at 31 locations between 2012 and 2021, and 553 insurance metapopulation devils, we show that the insurance metapopulation is representative of current wild genetic diversity. Allele frequencies at DFTD-associated loci were not substantially different between captive and wild devils. Methods presented here are valuable for others investigating evolutionary potential in threatened species, particularly ones under significant selective pressures.

19.
BMC Med Imaging ; 22(1): 111, 2022 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of Low Dose CT scans and protocol driven management of findings is a key aspect of lung cancer screening program performance. Reliable and reproducible methods are needed to communicate radiologists' interpretation to the screening program or clinicians driving management decision. METHODS: We performed an audit of a subset of dictated reports from the PANCAN study to assess for omissions. We developed an electronic synoptic reporting tool for radiologists embedded in a clinical documentation system software. The tool was then used for reporting as part of the Alberta Lung Cancer Screening Study and McGill University Health Centre Pilot Lung Cancer Screening Program. RESULTS: Fifty reports were audited for completeness. At least one omission was noted in 30 (70%) of reports, with a major omission (missing lobe, size, type of nodule in report or actionable incidental finding in recommendation section of report) in 24 (48%). Details of the reporting template and functionality such as automated nodule cancer risk assessment, Lung-RADS category assignment, auto-generated narrative type report as well as personalize participant results letter is provided. A description of the system's performance in its application in 2815 CT reports is then summarized. CONCLUSIONS: We found that narrative type radiologist reports for lung cancer screening CT examinations frequently lacked specific discrete data elements required for management. We demonstrate the successful implementation of a radiology synoptic reporting system for use in lung cancer screening, and the use of this information to drive program management and communications.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Eletrônica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
20.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24634, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664394

RESUMO

A 92-year-old female with poorly controlled systemic hypertension presented with bilateral eye redness, lid fullness, conjunctival chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, and ptosis for two days. A neuro-ophthalmic evaluation revealed bilateral proptosis, severe conjunctival chemosis and congestion, and an almost complete bilateral ophthalmoplegia with a complete right superior eyelid ptosis. Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated bilateral dilation of the superior ophthalmic veins, and a CT angiography (CTA) showed a direct high-flow carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) with secondary extraocular muscle enlargement. Clinicians should be aware that a typical direct high-flow CCF, although usually occurs after trauma and unilaterally, can present spontaneously without trauma and bilaterally.

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