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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly recognized as valuable endpoints in clinical trials. The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) is a PROM utilized in children with musculoskeletal disorders. We evaluated the validity and reliability of PODCI in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). METHODS: Physical functioning and psychological well-being were assessed using PODCI in a large cohort of children enrolled in a multicenter study conducted by the Brittle Bone Disorders Consortium. Physical function scores were correlated with a validated, observer-rated scale, Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF), and with psychological well-being scores. We calculated sample sizes required to detect clinically meaningful differences in physical function. RESULTS: Four hundred seventeen children with OI types I, III, and IV were enrolled. Physical function scores in OI type III were significantly lower than those in OI types I and IV. There were no significant differences in psychological well-being. PODCI physical function scores showed moderate-to-strong correlation with BAMF. The Global Functioning Scale, a composite of physical function, did not consistently correlate with psychological well-being. CONCLUSION: PODCI can be a reliable measure of physical functioning in children with OI and offers valuable information about patient-reported health status and new ways to examine the utility of interventions in this population.

2.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 31(6): 708-715, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693577

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms and natural history of osteogenesis imperfecta, and to describe the development of new treatments for this disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: The introduction of next-generation sequencing technology has led to better understanding of the genetic cause of osteogenesis imperfecta and enabled cost-effective and timely diagnosis via expanded gene panels and exome or genome sequencing. Clinically, despite genetic heterogeneity, different forms of osteogenesis imperfecta share similar features that include connective tissue and systemic manifestations in addition to bone fragility. Thus, the goals of treatment in osteogenesis imperfecta extend beyond decreasing the risk of fracture, to include the maximization of growth and mobility, and the management of extraskeletal complications. The standard of care in pediatric patients is bisphosphonates therapy. Ongoing preclinical studies in osteogenesis imperfecta mouse models and clinical studies in individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta have been instrumental in the development of new and targeted therapeutic approaches, such as sclerostin inhibition and transforming growth factor-ß inhibition. SUMMARY: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bone fragility and extraskeletal manifestations. Better understanding of the mechanisms of osteogenesis imperfecta will enable the development of much needed targeted therapies to improve the outcome in affected individuals.

3.
Stem Cell Reports ; 13(3): 545-558, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257132

RESUMO

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) that express high levels of stem cell factor (SCF) and CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) are one crucial component of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche. While the secreted factors produced by BMSCs to support HSCs have been well described, little is known regarding the transcriptional regulators controlling the cell fate of BMSCs and thus indirectly maintaining HSCs. BMI1 is a polycomb group protein that regulates HSCs both cell intrinsically and extrinsically, but it is unknown in which cell type and how BMI1 functions to maintain HSCs extrinsically. Here we show that Bmi1 maintains HSCs by preventing adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Bmi1 is highly expressed in BMSCs but becomes downregulated upon adipogenic differentiation and during aging. Deleting Bmi1 from BMSCs increased marrow adipocytes, induced HSC quiescence and depletion, and impaired hematopoiesis. We found that BMI1 repressed multiple developmental programs in BMSCs by safeguarding the repressive epigenetic marks histone H2A ubiquitylation and H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. We identified a novel adipogenic program governed by Pax3, which BMI1 repressed in BMSCs. Our results establish Bmi1 as a critical regulator of BMSC cell fate that suppresses marrow adipogenesis to create a supportive niche for HSCs.

4.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361679

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms and natural history of osteogenesis imperfecta, and to describe the development of new treatments for this disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: The introduction of next-generation sequencing technology has led to better understanding of the genetic cause of osteogenesis imperfecta and enabled cost-effective and timely diagnosis via expanded gene panels and exome or genome sequencing. Clinically, despite genetic heterogeneity, different forms of osteogenesis imperfecta share similar features that include connective tissue and systemic manifestations in addition to bone fragility. Thus, the goals of treatment in osteogenesis imperfecta extend beyond decreasing the risk of fracture, to include the maximization of growth and mobility, and the management of extraskeletal complications. The standard of care in pediatric patients is bisphosphonates therapy. Ongoing preclinical studies in osteogenesis imperfecta mouse models and clinical studies in individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta have been instrumental in the development of new and targeted therapeutic approaches, such as sclerostin inhibition and transforming growth factor-ß inhibition. SUMMARY: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bone fragility and extraskeletal manifestations. Better understanding of the mechanisms of osteogenesis imperfecta will enable the development of much needed targeted therapies to improve the outcome in affected individuals.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 625-630, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303264

RESUMO

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by poikiloderma, sparse hair, short stature, and skeletal anomalies. Type 2 RTS, which is defined by the presence of bi-allelic mutations in RECQL4, is characterized by increased cancer susceptibility and skeletal anomalies, whereas the genetic basis of RTS type 1, which is associated with juvenile cataracts, is unknown. We studied ten individuals, from seven families, who had RTS type 1 and identified a deep intronic splicing mutation of the ANAPC1 gene, a component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), in all affected individuals, either in the homozygous state or in trans with another mutation. Fibroblast studies showed that the intronic mutation causes the activation of a 95 bp pseudoexon, leading to mRNAs with premature termination codons and nonsense-mediated decay, decreased ANAPC1 protein levels, and prolongation of interphase. Interestingly, mice that were heterozygous for a knockout mutation have an increased incidence of cataracts. Our results demonstrate that deficiency in the APC/C is a cause of RTS type 1 and suggest a possible link between the APC/C and RECQL4 helicase because both proteins are involved in DNA repair and replication.

6.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273346

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Information obtained from clinical exome sequencing (ES) may impact clinical care or other aspects of a patient's life. Little is known about clinicians' perceptions regarding either the value of ES results or which among various outcomes are most relevant to determine value. This study aims to assess clinicians' opinions of the importance of ES results for medical decision making and identify a set of outcomes to be measured in future ES evaluations. METHODS: Expert opinion regarding the value of remarkable (diagnostic/positive) and unremarkable (nondiagnostic/negative) ES results was elicited via the Delphi method, consisting of two survey rounds and a teleconference. Participants had expertise in caring for clinically diverse infants and children with suspected underlying genetic etiologies. Descriptive statistics and (dis)agreement were calculated for each survey item. RESULTS: Remarkable ES results were considered important for 17 outcome domains. Unremarkable ES results were also perceived as important in terms of psychological impact and ability to inform follow-up diagnostic test decisions. CONCLUSION: Clinicians regard remarkable ES results as more important in many ways than findings from other diagnostic modalities. Unremarkable ES results were not considered unimportant for decision making, but rather uncertain in most outcome domains.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2311-2318, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic connective tissue disorder that causes bone fragility. Phenotypic severity influences ability to walk, however, little is known about ambulatory characteristics of individuals with OI, especially in more severe forms. The purpose of this work was to characterize mobility in OI using standard clinical assessment tools and determine if patient characteristics could be used to predict mobility outcomes. METHODS: We collected mobility data at five clinical sites to analyze the largest cohort of individuals with OI (n = 491) to date. Linear mixed models were developed to explore relationships among subject demographics and mobility metrics. RESULTS: Results showed minor limitations in the mild group while the more severe types showed more significant limitations in all mobility metrics analyzed. Height and weight were shown to be the most significant predictors of mobility. Relationships with mobility and bisphosphonates varied with OI type and type used (oral/IV). CONCLUSION: These results are significant to understanding mobility limitations of specific types of OI and beneficial when developing rehabilitation protocols for this population. It is important for physicians, patients, and caregivers to gain insight into severity and classification of the disease and the influence of disease-related characteristics on prognosis for mobility.

8.
Am J Sports Med ; 47(5): 1223-1229, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: The benefits of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are believed to be in part dependent on growth factor release after platelet activation. Platelet activation is complex and involves multiple mechanisms. One important mechanism is driven by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1)-mediated conversion of arachidonic acid (AA) to precursor prostaglandins that then mediate proinflammatory responses that trigger growth factor release. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; also known as aspirin) is known to irreversibly inhibit COX-1, thereby blocking AA-mediated signaling; however, it is unclear whether ASA use alters growth factor release from freshly isolated PRP. PURPOSE:: To assess the effects of low-dose ASA use on activation of growth factor release from freshly isolated human PRP via AA and thrombin (TBN). STUDY DESIGN:: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:: Twelve healthy men underwent blood collection and leukocyte-rich PRP (LR-PRP) preparation through a double-spin protocol to obtain baseline whole blood and PRP counts the same day. PRP was aliquoted into 3 groups: nonactivated, AA activated, and TBN activated. Immediately after activation, the concentrations of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The same 12 participants were then placed on an 81-mg daily dose of oral ASA for 14 days. Repeat characterization of whole blood and PRP analyses was done on day 14, followed by repeat ELISAs of growth factors under the same nonactivated and activated settings as previously stated. RESULTS:: Fourteen days of daily ASA had no effect on the number of platelets and leukocytes measured in whole blood and LR-PRP. Compared with nonactivated LR-PRP, AA- and TBN-mediated activation led to significant release of VEGF and PDGF-AB. In contrast, release of TGF-ß1 from LR-PRP was observed only with activation by AA, not with TBN. Consistent with its inhibitory role in AA signaling, ASA significantly inhibited AA-mediated release of all 3 growth factors measured in this study. Although ASA had no effect on TBN-mediated release of VEGF and TGF-ß1 from LR-PRP, ASA did partially block TBN-mediated release of PDGF-AB, although the mechanism remains unclear. CONCLUSION:: Daily use of low-dose ASA reduces VEGF, PDGF-AB, and TGF-ß1 expression in freshly isolated human LR-PRP when activated with AA. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:: Reduction in growth factor release attributed to daily use of low-dose ASA or other COX inhibitors can be mitigated when PRP samples are activated with TBN. Clinical studies are needed to determine whether activation before PRP injection is needed in all applications where ASA is in use and to what extent ASA may inhibit growth factor release in vivo at the site of injury.

9.
Spec Care Dentist ; 39(2): 214-219, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (DI) forms a group of dental abnormalities frequently found associated with Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), a hereditary disease characterized by bone fragility. The objectives of this study were to quantify the dental caries prevalence and experience among different OI-types in the sample population and quantify how much these values change for the subset with DI. METHODS: To determine which clinical characteristics were associated with increased Caries Prevalence and Experience (CPE) in patients with OI, the adjusted DFT scores were used to account for frequent hypodontia, impacted teeth and retained teeth in OI population. For each variable measured, frequency distributions, means, proportions and standard deviations were generated. Groups means were analyzed by the unpaired t-test or ANOVA as appropriate. For multivariate analysis, subjects with caries experience of zero were compared with those with caries experience greater than zero using logistic regression. RESULTS: The stepwise regression analysis while controlling for all other variables demonstrated the presence of DI (OR 2.43; CI 1.37-4.32; P = 0.002) as the significant independent predictor of CPE in the final model. CONCLUSION: This study found no evidence that CPE of OI subjects differs between the types of OI. The presence of DI when controlled for other factors was found to be the significant predictor of CPE.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Osteogênese Imperfeita/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
11.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 1977-1986, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670878

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Untargeted metabolomic analysis is increasingly being used in the screening and management of individuals with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). We aimed to test whether untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma might be useful for monitoring the disease course and management of urea cycle disorders (UCDs). METHODS: Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was used to generate z-scores for more than 900 metabolites in plasma from 48 individuals with various UCDs. Pathway analysis was used to identify common pathways that were perturbed in each UCD. RESULTS: Our metabolomic analysis in plasma identified multiple potentially neurotoxic metabolites of arginine in arginase deficiency and, thus, may have utility in monitoring the efficacy of treatment in arginase deficiency. In addition, we were also able to detect multiple biochemical perturbations in all UCDs that likely reflect clinical management, including metabolite alterations secondary to dietary and medication management. CONCLUSION: In addition to utility in screening for IEM, our results suggest that untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma may be beneficial for monitoring efficacy of clinical management and off-target effects of medications in UCDs and potentially other IEM.

12.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1652-1656, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568308

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain malformations caused by 17p13.3 deletions include lissencephaly with deletions of the larger Miller-Dieker syndrome region or smaller deletions of only PAFAH1B1, white matter changes, and a distinct syndrome due to deletions including YWHAE and CRK but sparing PAFAH1B1. We sought to understand the significance of 17p13.3 deletions between the YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 loci. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical features of six individuals from five families with 17p13.3 deletions between and not including YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 identified among individuals undergoing clinical chromosomal microarray testing or research genome sequencing. RESULTS: Five individuals from four families had multifocal white matter lesions while a sixth had a normal magnetic resonance image. A combination of our individuals and a review of those in the literature with white matter changes and deletions in this chromosomal region narrows the overlapping region for this brain phenotype to ~345 kb, including 11 RefSeq genes, with RTN4RL1 haploinsufficiency as the best candidate for causing this phenotype. CONCLUSION: While previous literature has hypothesized dysmorphic features and white matter changes related to YWHAE, our cohort contributes evidence to the presence of additional genetic changes within 17p13.3 required for proper brain development.

13.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(12): 103606, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593885

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is an ultrarare heritable bone disorder caused by the heterozygous c.-14C > T mutation in IFITM5. The oro-dental and craniofacial phenotype has not been described in detail, which we therefore undertook to evaluate in a multicenter study (Brittle Bone Disease Consortium). Fourteen individuals with OI type V (age 3-50 years; 10 females, 4 males) underwent dental and craniofacial assessment. None of the individuals had dentinogenesis imperfecta. Six of the 9 study participants (66%) for whom panoramic radiographs were obtained had at least one missing tooth (range 1-9). Class II molar occlusion was present in 8 (57%) of the 14 study participants. The facial profile was retrusive and lower face height was decreased in 8 (57%) individuals. Cephalometry, performed in three study participants, revealed a severely retrusive maxilla and mandible, and moderately to severly retroclined incisors in a 14-year old girl, a protrusive maxilla and a retrusive mandible in a 14-year old boy. Cone beam computed tomograpy scans were obtained from two study participants and demonstrated intervertebral disc calcification at the C2-C3 level in one individual. Our study observed that OI type V is associated with missing permanent teeth, especially permanent premolar, but not with dentinogenesis imperfecta. The pattern of craniofacial abnormalities in OI type V thus differs from that in other severe OI types, such as OI type III and IV, and could be described as a bimaxillary retrusive malocclusion with reduced lower face height and multiple missing teeth.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 164-178, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580808

RESUMO

SMARCC2 (BAF170) is one of the invariable core subunits of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling BAF (BRG1-associated factor) complex and plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and corticogenesis. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding other components of the BAF complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. Despite its significant biological role, variants in SMARCC2 have not been directly associated with human disease previously. Using whole-exome sequencing and a web-based gene-matching program, we identified 15 individuals with variable degrees of neurodevelopmental delay and growth retardation harboring one of 13 heterozygous variants in SMARCC2, most of them novel and proven de novo. The clinical presentation overlaps with intellectual disability syndromes associated with other BAF subunits, such as Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes and includes prominent speech impairment, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features such as hypertrichosis, thick eyebrows, thin upper lip vermilion, and upturned nose. Nine out of the fifteen individuals harbor variants in the highly conserved SMARCC2 DNA-interacting domains (SANT and SWIRM) and present with a more severe phenotype. Two of these individuals present cardiac abnormalities. Transcriptomic analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals highlights a group of differentially expressed genes with possible roles in regulation of neuronal development and function, namely H19, SCRG1, RELN, and CACNB4. Our findings suggest a novel SMARCC2-related syndrome that overlaps with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variants in BAF-complex subunits.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Síndrome
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 475-479, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569621

RESUMO

Genetic alterations leading to overactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling result in brain overgrowth syndromes such as focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and megalencephaly. Megalencephaly with cutis tri-color of the Blaschko-linear type pigmentary mosaicism and intellectual disability is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder attributed to the recurrent mosaic c.5930C > T (p.Thr1977Ile) MTOR variant. This variant was previously reported at low to intermediate levels of mosaicism in the peripheral blood of three unrelated individuals with consistent clinical findings. We report a fourth case of a 3-year-old female presenting with megalencephaly, obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebral aqueductal stenosis, asymmetric polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, hypotonia, developmental delay, and cutaneous pigmentary mosaicism. Oligonucleotide and SNP chromosomal microarray (CMA), karyotype, and trio whole exome sequencing (WES) in the peripheral blood, as well as a targeted gene variant panel from fibroblasts derived from hyperpigmented and non-hyperpigmented skin did not detect any abnormalities in MTOR or other genes associated with brain overgrowth syndromes. Unlike the previously reported cases, the de novo c.5930C > T (p.Thr1977Ile) MTOR variant was detected at 32% mosaicism in our patient only after WES was performed on fibroblast-derived DNA from the hyperpigmented skin. This case demonstrates the tissue variability in mosaic expression of the recurrent p.Thr1977Ile MTOR variant, emphasizes the need for skin biopsies in the genetic evaluation of patients with skin pigmentary mosaicism, and expands the clinical phenotype associated with this pathogenic MTOR variant.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503518

RESUMO

FUK encodes fucokinase, the only enzyme capable of converting L-fucose to fucose-1-phosphate, which will ultimately be used for synthesizing GDP-fucose, the donor substrate for all fucosyltransferases. Although it is essential for fucose salvage, this pathway is thought to make only a minor contribution to the total amount of GDP-fucose. A second pathway, the major de novo pathway, involves conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. Here we describe two unrelated individuals who have pathogenic variants in FUK and who presented with severe developmental delays, encephalopathy, intractable seizures, and hypotonia. The first individual was compound heterozygous for c.667T>C (p.Ser223Pro) and c.2047C>T (p.Arg683Cys), and the second individual was homozygous for c.2980A>C (p.Lys994Gln). Skin fibroblasts from the first individual confirmed the variants as loss of function and showed significant decreases in total GDP-[3H] fucose and [3H] fucose-1-phosphate. There was also a decrease in the incorporation of [5,6-3H]-fucose into fucosylated glycoproteins. Lys994 has previously been shown to be an important site for ubiquitin conjugation. Here, we show that loss-of-function variants in FUK cause a congenital glycosylation disorder characterized by a defective fucose-salvage pathway.

17.
N Engl J Med ; 379(22): 2131-2139, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients remain without a diagnosis despite extensive medical evaluation. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) was established to apply a multidisciplinary model in the evaluation of the most challenging cases and to identify the biologic characteristics of newly discovered diseases. The UDN, which is funded by the National Institutes of Health, was formed in 2014 as a network of seven clinical sites, two sequencing cores, and a coordinating center. Later, a central biorepository, a metabolomics core, and a model organisms screening center were added. METHODS: We evaluated patients who were referred to the UDN over a period of 20 months. The patients were required to have an undiagnosed condition despite thorough evaluation by a health care provider. We determined the rate of diagnosis among patients who subsequently had a complete evaluation, and we observed the effect of diagnosis on medical care. RESULTS: A total of 1519 patients (53% female) were referred to the UDN, of whom 601 (40%) were accepted for evaluation. Of the accepted patients, 192 (32%) had previously undergone exome sequencing. Symptoms were neurologic in 40% of the applicants, musculoskeletal in 10%, immunologic in 7%, gastrointestinal in 7%, and rheumatologic in 6%. Of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, 132 received a diagnosis, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. A total of 15 diagnoses (11%) were made by clinical review alone, and 98 (74%) were made by exome or genome sequencing. Of the diagnoses, 21% led to recommendations regarding changes in therapy, 37% led to changes in diagnostic testing, and 36% led to variant-specific genetic counseling. We defined 31 new syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: The UDN established a diagnosis in 132 of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund.).

18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 187, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) affects dental and craniofacial development and may therefore impair Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). However, little is known about OHRQoL in children and adolescents with OI. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of OI severity on oral health-related quality of life in children and adolescents. METHODS: Children and adolescents aged 8-14 years were recruited in the context of a multicenter longitudinal study (Brittle Bone Disease Consortium) that enrolls individuals with OI in 10 centers across North America. OHRQoL was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ) versions for 8 to 10-year-olds (CPQ8-10) and for 11 to 14-year-olds (CPQ11-14). RESULTS: A total of 138 children and adolescents (62% girls) diagnosed with OI types I, III, IV, V and VI (n = 65, 30, 37, 4 and 2, respectively) participated in the study. CPQ8-10 scores were similar between OI types in children aged 8 to 10 years. In the 11 to 14-year-old group, CPQ11-14-scores were significantly higher (i.e. worse) for OI types III (24.7 [SD 12.5]) and IV (23.1 [SD 14.8]) than for OI type I (16.5 [SD 12.8]) (P < 0.05). The difference between OI types was due to the association between OI types and the functional limitations domain, as OI types III and IV were associated with significantly higher grade of functional limitations compared to OI type I. CONCLUSION: The severity of OI impacts OHRQoL in adolescents aged 11 to 14 years, but not in children age 8 to 10 years.

19.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1277-1285, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349862

RESUMO

De novo variants in DDX3X account for 1-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases and are amongst the most common causes of ID especially in females. Forty-seven patients (44 females, 3 males) have been described. We identified 31 additional individuals carrying 29 unique DDX3X variants, including 30 postnatal individuals with complex clinical presentations of developmental delay or ID, and one fetus with abnormal ultrasound findings. Rare or novel phenotypes observed include respiratory problems, congenital heart disease, skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA depletion, and late-onset neurologic decline. Our findings expand the spectrum of DNA variants and phenotypes associated with DDX3X disorders.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289614

RESUMO

Severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) are usually caused by mutations in genes that code for collagen Type I and frequently are associated with craniofacial abnormalities. However, the dental and craniofacial characteristics of OI caused by the p.Ser40Leu mutation in the IFITM5 gene have not been reported. We investigated a 15-year-old girl with severe OI caused by this mutation. She had marked deformations of extremity long bones. There were no clinical or radiological signs of dentinogenesis imperfecta, but one tooth was missing and several teeth were impacted. Cone beam computed tomography revealed a generalized osteopenic appearance of the craniofacial skeleton, bilateral enlargement of mandibular bodies, and areas of cortical erosions. The cranial base and skull showed a generalized granular bone pattern with a mixture of osteosclerosis and osteolysis. Sphenoid and frontal sinuses were congenitally missing. Cephalometric analysis indicated a Class III growth pattern. In this case, the IFITM5 p.Ser40Leu mutation did not affect tooth structure but was associated with deformities in craniofacial bones that resemble those in the other parts of the skeleton.

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