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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393086

RESUMO

We previously reported that the evolutionary conserved transcriptional cofactor Jab1/Cops5 is critical for mouse chondrocyte differentiation by selectively repressing BMP signaling. In this study, we first uncovered that the endogenous Jab1 interacts with endogenous Smad1/5/8. Furthermore, although Jab1 did not directly interact with Acvr1 (Alk2), a key Type I BMP receptor, the interaction between endogenous Smad1/5/8 and Acvr1 was increased in Jab1-null chondrocytes. Thus, Jab1 might negatively regulate BMP signaling during chondrocyte differentiation in part by sequestering Smad1/5/8 away from Acvr1. Next, to identity Jab1 downstream targets in chondrocytes, we performed RNA-sequencing analysis of Jab1-null chondrocytes and discovered a total of 1993 differentially expressed genes. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that key targets inhibited by Jab1 includes p53, BMP/transforming growth factor beta, and apoptosis pathways. We confirmed that endogenous Jab1 interacts with endogenous p53. There was significantly elevated p53 reporter activity, an enhanced expression of phospho-p53, and an increased expression of a key p53 downstream target, Puma, in Jab1-null chondrocytes. Moreover, treatments with a p53-specific inhibitor and/or a BMP Type I receptor-specific inhibitor reversed the elevated p53 and BMP signaling activities in Jab1-null chondrocytes and partially restored columnar growth plate structure in E17.5 Jab1-null mouse tibia explant cultures. Finally, we demonstrated that the chondrocyte-specific Jab1 overexpression in mice resulted in smaller-sized embryos with disorganized growth plates. In conclusion, our data showed that the delicate Jab1-mediated crosstalk between BMP and p53 pathways is crucial to maintain proper chondrocyte survival and differentiation. Moreover, the appropriate Jab1 expression level is essential for proper skeletal development.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373331

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) supplements may prevent bone loss and fractures in preclinical models of estrogen deficiency. However, the mechanisms by which NO modulates bone anabolism remain largely unclear. Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is the only mammalian enzyme capable of synthesizing arginine, the sole precursor for nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent NO synthesis. Moreover, ASL is also required for channeling extracellular arginine to NOS for NO production. ASL deficiency (ASLD) is thus a model to study cell-autonomous, NOS-dependent NO deficiency. Here, we report that loss of ASL led to decreased NO production and impairment of osteoblast differentiation. Mechanistically, the bone phenotype was at least in part driven by the loss of NO-mediated activation of the glycolysis pathway in osteoblasts that led to decreased osteoblast differentiation and function. Heterozygous deletion of Caveolin-1, a negative regulator of NO synthesis, restored NO production, osteoblast differentiation, glycolysis, and bone mass in a hypomorphic mouse model of ASLD. The translational significance of these preclinical studies was further reiterated by studies conducted in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from an individual with ASLD. Taken together, our findings suggest that ASLD is a unique genetic model for studying NO-dependent osteoblast function and that the NO-glycolysis pathway may be a new target to modulate bone anabolism.

3.
Bone ; 142: 115703, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099032

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a heritable disorder caused by abnormalities in synthesis or processing of type I collagen, is characterized by skeletal fragility. Type I collagen interacts with multiple components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including other collagens types. Thus, alterations in structure or quantity may broadly affect ECM homeostasis. In fact, while OI is clinically categorized by severity of bone disease, patients can also present with extra-skeletal manifestations, including the pulmonary, muscle and cardiovascular systems. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a regulator of skeletal homeostasis but the receptor for PTH/PTH1R is expressed in a variety of other tissues. Given interactions between type I collagen with other collagens in the ECM and the potential for PTH action on tissues beyond the skeleton, we explored whether serum levels of non-type I collagens are altered in response to teriparatide (human parathyroid hormone 1-34). We measured biomarkers of collagens II, III, IV, V, and VI in serum from individuals with type I and types III/IV OI in response to an 18 month course of teriparatide or placebo. These results were compared to similar biomarker measures in postmenopausal (PM) women without OI treated with teriparatide. In type I OI, teriparatide therapy increased concentrations of biomarkers of collagens II, III, IV, V, and VI. In individuals with types III/IV OI these biomarker changes in response to teriparatide were blunted, as we previously reported with collagen I biomarkers during teriparatide therapy. In contrast to OI, in PM women there were no effects of teriparatide on the collagen biomarkers we assessed (II, V, and VI). These findings suggest that in OI teriparatide therapy has abnormal effects on the homeostasis of many ECM collagens likely derived from skeletal as well as extra-skeletal tissues.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) improves diagnostic rates in individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions to varying degrees, primarily by directing the prioritization of candidate DNA variants identified on exome or genome sequencing (ES/GS). Here we implemented an RNA-seq guided method to diagnose individuals across a wide range of ages and clinical phenotypes. METHODS: One hundred fifteen undiagnosed adult and pediatric patients with diverse phenotypes and 67 family members (182 total individuals) underwent RNA-seq from whole blood and fibroblasts at the Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) clinical site from 2014-2020. We implemented a workflow to detect outliers in gene expression and splicing for cases that remained undiagnosed despite standard genomic and transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS: The transcriptome-directed approach resulted in a diagnostic rate of 12% across the entire cohort, or 17% after excluding cases solved on ES/GS alone. Newly diagnosed conditions included Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KANSL1), Renpenning syndrome (PQBP1), TBCK-associated encephalopathy, NSD2- and CLTC-related intellectual disability, and others, all with negative conventional genomic testing, including ES and chromosomal microarray (CMA). Fibroblasts exhibited higher and more consistent expression of clinically relevant genes than whole blood. In solved cases with RNA-seq from both tissues, the causative defect was missed in blood in half the cases but none from fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: For our cohort of undiagnosed individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions, transcriptome-directed genomic analysis facilitated diagnoses, primarily through the identification of variants missed on ES and CMA.

5.
Bone ; 140: 115547, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is commonly associated with short stature, but it is unclear whether this is exclusively secondary to fractures and bone deformities or whether there is a primary defect in longitudinal bone growth. As metacarpal and phalangeal bones are rarely affected by fractures and deformities, any length deficits in these bones should reflect a direct disease effect on longitudinal growth. This study therefore assessed the relationship of hand bone length with clinical OI type and genotype. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. RESULTS: The length of all 19 tubular hand bones were measured in 144 individuals (age 6 to 57 years; 68 female) who had OI caused by COL1A1 or COL1A2 variants. Measurements of bone length were converted to z-scores using published reference data. Bone length was mostly normal in OI type I but was significantly decreased in OI types III and IV. Mean hand bone length z-score (i.e., the average length z-score of all 19 bones of a hand) was -0.2 for OI type I, -2.9 for OI type III and -1.2 for OI type IV. Mean hand bone length z-score was positively associated with height z-score (r2 = 0.65, P < 0.001). Regarding genotype-phenotype correlations, mean hand bone length z-score was close to 0 in individuals with COL1A1 mutations leading to haploinsufficiency but were significantly lower in the presence of mutations leading to triple-helical glycine substitutions in either the alpha 1 or alpha 2 chain of collagen type I. CONCLUSION: COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutations affect bone growth not only by inducing fractures and bone deformities, but also through longitudinal growth deficits in bones that do not fracture or deform.

6.
Cancer Discov ; 10(10): 1514-1527, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699031

RESUMO

Among 2,186 U.S. adults with invasive cancer and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we examined the association of COVID-19 treatments with 30-day all-cause mortality and factors associated with treatment. Logistic regression with multiple adjustments (e.g., comorbidities, cancer status, baseline COVID-19 severity) was performed. Hydroxychloroquine with any other drug was associated with increased mortality versus treatment with any COVID-19 treatment other than hydroxychloroquine or untreated controls; this association was not present with hydroxychloroquine alone. Remdesivir had numerically reduced mortality versus untreated controls that did not reach statistical significance. Baseline COVID-19 severity was strongly associated with receipt of any treatment. Black patients were approximately half as likely to receive remdesivir as white patients. Although observational studies can be limited by potential unmeasured confounding, our findings add to the emerging understanding of patterns of care for patients with cancer and COVID-19 and support evaluation of emerging treatments through inclusive prospective controlled trials. SIGNIFICANCE: Evaluating the potential role of COVID-19 treatments in patients with cancer in a large observational study, there was no statistically significant 30-day all-cause mortality benefit with hydroxychloroquine or high-dose corticosteroids alone or in combination; remdesivir showed potential benefit. Treatment receipt reflects clinical decision-making and suggests disparities in medication access.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1426.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(7): 480-490.e2, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of malocclusion is higher among people with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) than the general population, and treatment options are limited due to the weak structure of bones and teeth. Focusing on those malocclusion traits that might have a high impact on a patient's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is warranted. METHODS: A total of 138 children and adolescents with OI were examined for malocclusion traits. OHRQoL was measured using age-specific versions (8 through 10 years and 11 through 14 years) of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), considering the following domains: oral symptoms, functional limitation, emotional well-being, and social well-being. Higher scores implied worse OHRQoL. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the association between malocclusion traits and OHRQoL. RESULTS: Among children aged 8 through 10 years (n = 56), the CPQ and its constituent domain scores were relatively similar between those with malocclusion (higher scores) and those without. In the adolescent (n = 82) group aged 11 through 14 years; however, those with posterior crossbite (odds ratio, 5.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 12.41) or open bite (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 10.23) experienced statistically significantly higher degrees of functional limitations (a higher functional limitation score) than those without. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with OI and posterior open bites or crossbites have substantial self-reported functional limitations and worse oral symptoms, which warrants additional investigation and therapeutic trials in an attempt to improve the malocclusion. In addition, the authors found that the CPQ can be a useful tool in a clinical trial of orthodontic interventions in OI.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Osteogênese Imperfeita , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(13): 2171-2184, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504080

RESUMO

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inborn error of cationic amino acid (arginine, lysine, ornithine) transport caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in SLC7A7, which encodes the light subunit of the y+LAT1 transporter. Treatments for the complications of LPI, including growth failure, renal disease, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, autoimmune disorders and osteoporosis, are limited. Given the early lethality of the only published global Slc7a7 knockout mouse model, a viable animal model to investigate global SLC7A7 deficiency is needed. Hence, we generated two mouse models with global Slc7a7 deficiency (Slc7a7em1Lbu/em1Lbu; Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu and Slc7a7em1(IMPC)Bay/em1(IMPC)Bay; Slc7a7Bay/Bay) using CRISPR/Cas9 technology by introducing a deletion of exons 3 and 4. Perinatal lethality was observed in Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu and Slc7a7Bay/Bay mice on the C57BL/6 and C57BL/6NJ inbred genetic backgrounds, respectively. We noted improved survival of Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice on the 129 Sv/Ev × C57BL/6 F2 background, but postnatal growth failure occurred. Consistent with human LPI, these Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice exhibited reduced plasma and increased urinary concentrations of the cationic amino acids. Histopathological assessment revealed loss of brush border and lipid vacuolation in the renal cortex of Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice, which combined with aminoaciduria suggests proximal tubular dysfunction. Micro-computed tomography of L4 vertebrae and skeletal radiographs showed delayed skeletal development and suggested decreased mineralization in Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice, respectively. In addition to delayed skeletal development and delayed development in the kidneys, the lungs and liver were observed based on histopathological assessment. Overall, our Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mouse model on the F2 mixed background recapitulates multiple human LPI phenotypes and may be useful for future studies of LPI pathology.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2397, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409697

RESUMO

Obesity is a health problem affecting more than 40% of US adults and 13% of the global population. Anti-obesity treatments including diet, exercise, surgery and pharmacotherapies have so far failed to reverse obesity incidence. Herein, we target obesity with a pharmacotherapeutic approach that decreases caloric efficiency by mitochondrial uncoupling. We show that a recently identified mitochondrial uncoupler BAM15 is orally bioavailable, increases nutrient oxidation, and decreases body fat mass without altering food intake, lean body mass, body temperature, or biochemical and haematological markers of toxicity. BAM15 decreases hepatic fat, decreases inflammatory lipids, and has strong antioxidant effects. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies show that BAM15 improves insulin sensitivity in multiple tissue types. Collectively, these data demonstrate that pharmacologic mitochondrial uncoupling with BAM15 has powerful anti-obesity and insulin sensitizing effects without compromising lean mass or affecting food intake.


Assuntos
Diaminas/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Oxidiazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diaminas/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Oxidiazóis/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos
10.
Oncogene ; 39(23): 4581-4591, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390003

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone cancer and ranks amongst the leading causes of cancer mortality in young adults. Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) is overexpressed in many cancers and has recently emerged as a novel target for cancer treatment. However, the role of JAB1 in osteosarcoma was virtually unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that JAB1-knockdown in malignant osteosarcoma cell lines significantly reduced their oncogenic properties, including proliferation, colony formation, and motility. We also performed RNA-sequencing analysis in JAB1-knockdown OS cells and identified 4110 genes that are significantly differentially expressed. This demonstrated for the first time that JAB1 regulates a large and specific transcriptome in cancer. We also found that JAB1 is overexpressed in human OS and correlates with a poor prognosis. Moreover, we generated a novel mouse model that overexpresses Jab1 specifically in osteoblasts upon a TP53 heterozygous sensitizing background. Interestingly, by 13 months of age, a significant proportion of these mice spontaneously developed conventional OS. Finally, we demonstrate that a novel, highly specific small molecule inhibitor of JAB1, CSN5i-3, reduces osteosarcoma cell viability, and has specific effects on the ubiquitin-proteasome system in OS. Thus, we show for the first time that the overexpression of JAB1 in vivo can result in accelerated spontaneous tumor formation in a p53-dependent manner. In summary, JAB1 might be a unique target for the treatment of osteosarcoma and other cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Complexo do Signalossomo COP9/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Complexo do Signalossomo COP9/genética , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Camundongos , Osteossarcoma/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(544)2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434850

RESUMO

Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), such as alendronate, are the most widely prescribed medications for diseases involving bone, with nearly 200 million prescriptions written annually. Recently, widespread use of N-BPs has been challenged due to the risk of rare but traumatic side effects such as atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). N-BPs bind to and inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase, resulting in defects in protein prenylation. Yet, it remains poorly understood what other cellular factors might allow N-BPs to exert their pharmacological effects. Here, we performed genome-wide studies in cells and patients to identify the poorly characterized gene, ATRAID Loss of ATRAID function results in selective resistance to N-BP-mediated loss of cell viability and the prevention of alendronate-mediated inhibition of prenylation. ATRAID is required for alendronate inhibition of osteoclast function, and ATRAID-deficient mice have impaired therapeutic responses to alendronate in both postmenopausal and senile (old age) osteoporosis models. Last, we performed exome sequencing on patients taking N-BPs that suffered ONJ or an AFF. ATRAID is one of three genes that contain rare nonsynonymous coding variants in patients with ONJ or an AFF that is also differentially expressed in poor outcome groups of patients treated with N-BPs. We functionally validated this patient variation in ATRAID as conferring cellular hypersensitivity to N-BPs. Our work adds key insight into the mechanistic action of N-BPs and the processes that might underlie differential responsiveness to N-BPs in people.

12.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1303-1310, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As exome sequencing (ES) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool, we aimed to compare ES with status quo genetic diagnostic workup for infants with suspected genetic disorders in terms of identifying diagnoses, survival, and cost of care. METHODS: We studied newborns and infants admitted to intensive care with a suspected genetic etiology within the first year of life at a US quaternary-referral children's hospital over 5 years. In this propensity-matched cohort study using electronic medical record data, we compared patients who received ES as part of a diagnostic workup (ES cohort, n = 368) with clinically similar patients who did not receive ES (No-ES cohort, n = 368). RESULTS: Diagnostic yield (27.4% ES, 25.8% No-ES; p = 0.62) and 1-year survival (80.2% ES, 84.8% No-ES; p = 0.10) were no different between cohorts. ES cohort patients had higher cost of admission, diagnostic investigation, and genetic testing (all p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: ES did not differ from status quo genetic testing collectively in terms of diagnostic yield or patient survival; however, it had high yield as a single test, led to complementary classes of diagnoses, and was associated with higher costs. Further work is needed to define the most efficient use of diagnostic ES for critically ill newborns and infants.

13.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(3): 1056-1069, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269734

RESUMO

Sox9 is the master transcription factor essential for cartilage development and homeostasis. To investigate the specific role of Sox9 during chondrocyte hypertrophy, we generated a novel Col10a1-Sox9 transgenic mouse model, in which Sox9 is specifically expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes driven by a well-characterized 10-kb Col10a1 promoter. These mice were viable and fertile, and appeared normal at birth. However, they developed dwarfism by ten weeks of age. The histological analysis of the growth plates from these transgenic mice demonstrated an abnormal growth plate architecture and a significantly reduced amount of trabecular bone and mineral content in the primary spongiosa. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed the reduced expression of Col10a1, and increased expressions of adipogenic differentiation markers in primary hypertrophic chondrocytes isolated from transgenic mice. Concomitantly, the transgenic mouse chondrocyte cultures had increased lipid droplet accumulation. Unexpectedly, we also observed an increased incidence of spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA) development in the transgenic mice by X-ray analysis, micro-computed tomography scanning, and histological examination of knee joints. The manifestation of OA in Col10a1-Sox9 transgenic mice began by six-months of age, and worsened by eleven-months of age. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence that the proper spatiotemporal expression of Sox9 is necessary for normal adult hypertrophic cartilage homeostasis, and that the aberrant expression of Sox9 might lead to spontaneous OA development.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(4): 570-583, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197074

RESUMO

EIF2AK1 and EIF2AK2 encode members of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase (EIF2AK) family that inhibits protein synthesis in response to physiologic stress conditions. EIF2AK2 is also involved in innate immune response and the regulation of signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Despite these findings, human disorders associated with deleterious variants in EIF2AK1 and EIF2AK2 have not been reported. Here, we describe the identification of nine unrelated individuals with heterozygous de novo missense variants in EIF2AK1 (1/9) or EIF2AK2 (8/9). Features seen in these nine individuals include white matter alterations (9/9), developmental delay (9/9), impaired language (9/9), cognitive impairment (8/9), ataxia (6/9), dysarthria in probands with verbal ability (6/9), hypotonia (7/9), hypertonia (6/9), and involuntary movements (3/9). Individuals with EIF2AK2 variants also exhibit neurological regression in the setting of febrile illness or infection. We use mammalian cell lines and proband-derived fibroblasts to further confirm the pathogenicity of variants in these genes and found reduced kinase activity. EIF2AKs phosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1 (EIF2S1, also known as EIF2α), which then inhibits EIF2B activity. Deleterious variants in genes encoding EIF2B proteins cause childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination/vanishing white matter (CACH/VWM), a leukodystrophy characterized by neurologic regression in the setting of febrile illness and other stressors. Our findings indicate that EIF2AK2 missense variants cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome that may share phenotypic and pathogenic mechanisms with CACH/VWM.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , Adolescente , Ataxia/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Substância Branca/patologia
15.
Neuron ; 106(4): 589-606.e6, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169171

RESUMO

ACOX1 (acyl-CoA oxidase 1) encodes the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) ß-oxidation pathway in peroxisomes and leads to H2O2 production. Unexpectedly, Drosophila (d) ACOX1 is mostly expressed and required in glia, and loss of ACOX1 leads to developmental delay, pupal death, reduced lifespan, impaired synaptic transmission, and glial and axonal loss. Patients who carry a previously unidentified, de novo, dominant variant in ACOX1 (p.N237S) also exhibit glial loss. However, this mutation causes increased levels of ACOX1 protein and function resulting in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species in glia in flies and murine Schwann cells. ACOX1 (p.N237S) patients exhibit a severe loss of Schwann cells and neurons. However, treatment of flies and primary Schwann cells with an antioxidant suppressed the p.N237S-induced neurodegeneration. In summary, both loss and gain of ACOX1 lead to glial and neuronal loss, but different mechanisms are at play and require different treatments.


Assuntos
Acil-CoA Oxidase/genética , Axônios/enzimologia , Degeneração Neural/genética , Neuroglia/enzimologia , Animais , Axônios/patologia , Drosophila , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Degeneração Neural/enzimologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Ratos
16.
JBMR Plus ; 4(3): e10335, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161841

RESUMO

Worldwide, one in five men aged over 50 years will experience osteoporosis or a clinical bone fracture, with a greater fracture-related mortality rate than women. However, the genetic etiology of osteoporosis in men is still poorly understood. We aimed to identify the genetic variants and candidate genes associated with extremely low or high BMD for a better understanding of the biology underlying low bone density that may point to potential therapeutic targets for increasing bone mass. Subjects from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) cohort were evaluated by age and BMI-adjusted total hip BMD. Those with BMD values 3 SDs away from the mean were selected and the remaining individuals whose adjusted BMD ranked at the highest or lowest 100 were included. Men with the lowest adjusted BMD (N = 98) and highest adjusted BMD (N = 110) were chosen for exome sequencing. Controls (N = 82) were men of Northern and Western European descent from the US Utah population of the 1000 Genomes Project. Fisher's exact test was performed to compare low- or high-BMD subjects with controls for single-gene associations. Additionally, sets of candidate genes causative of heritable disorders of connective tissue, including osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), were grouped for multigene and mutation burden analyses. No single-gene associations with rare variants were found for either the low BMD group (33 genes) or high BMD group (18 genes). In the group of OI genes, we detected a significant threefold increased accumulation of rare variants in low-BMD subjects compared with controls (p = 0.009). Additionally, genes associated with EDS had a twofold increased frequency in low-BMD subjects compared with controls (p = 0.03). These findings reveal a rare variant burden in OI and EDS disease genes at low BMD, which suggests a potential gene-panel approach to screen for multivariant associations in larger cohorts. © 2019 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

18.
Biomolecules ; 10(2)2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092942

RESUMO

Skeletal development is a complex process which requires the tight regulation of gene activation and suppression in response to local signaling pathways. Among these pathways, Notch signaling is implicated in governing cell fate determination, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of skeletal cells-osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and chondrocytes. Moreover, human genetic mutations in Notch components emphasize the critical roles of Notch signaling in skeletal development and homeostasis. In this review, we focus on the physiological roles of Notch signaling in skeletogenesis, postnatal bone and cartilage homeostasis and fracture repair. We also discuss the pathological gain- and loss-of-function of Notch signaling in bone and cartilage, resulting in osteosarcoma and age-related degenerative diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Understanding the physiological and pathological function of Notch signaling in skeletal tissues using animal models and human genetics will provide new insights into disease pathogenesis and offer novel approaches for the treatment of bone/cartilage diseases.

19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(6): 1132-1148, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053224

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic bone dysplasia characterized by bone deformities and fractures caused by low bone mass and impaired bone quality. OI is a genetically heterogeneous disorder that most commonly arises from dominant mutations in genes encoding type I collagen (COL1A1 and COL1A2). In addition, OI is recessively inherited with the majority of cases resulting from mutations in prolyl-3-hydroxylation complex members, which includes cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP). OI patients are at an increased risk of fracture throughout their lifetimes. However, non-union or delayed healing has been reported in 24% of fractures and 52% of osteotomies. Additionally, refractures typically go unreported, making the frequency of refractures in OI patients unknown. Thus, there is an unmet need to better understand the mechanisms by which OI affects fracture healing. Using an open tibial fracture model, our study demonstrates delayed healing in both Col1a2 G610c/+ and Crtap -/- OI mouse models (dominant and recessive OI, respectively) that is associated with reduced callus size and predicted strength. Callus cartilage distribution and chondrocyte maturation were altered in OI, suggesting accelerated cartilage differentiation. Importantly, we determined that healed fractured tibia in female OI mice are biomechanically weaker when compared with the contralateral unfractured bone, suggesting that abnormal OI fracture healing OI may prime future refracture at the same location. We have previously shown upregulated TGF-ß signaling in OI and we confirm this in the context of fracture healing. Interestingly, treatment of Crtap -/- mice with the anti-TGF-ß antibody 1D11 resulted in further reduced callus size and predicted strength, highlighting the importance of investigating dose response in treatment strategies. These data provide valuable insight into the effect of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on fracture healing, a poorly understood mechanism, and support the need for prevention of primary fractures to decrease incidence of refracture and deformity in OI patients. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

20.
JCI Insight ; 5(4)2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990680

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDLiver disease in urea cycle disorders (UCDs) ranges from hepatomegaly and chronic hepatocellular injury to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. However, the prevalence and underlying mechanisms are unclear.METHODSWe estimated the prevalence of chronic hepatocellular injury in UCDs using data from a multicenter, longitudinal, natural history study. We also used ultrasound with shear wave elastography and FibroTest to evaluate liver stiffness and markers of fibrosis in individuals with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASLD), a disorder with high prevalence of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). To understand the human observations, we evaluated the hepatic phenotype of the AslNeo/Neo mouse model of ASLD.RESULTSWe demonstrate a high prevalence of elevated ALT in ASLD (37%). Hyperammonemia and use of nitrogen-scavenging agents, 2 markers of disease severity, were significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) associated with elevated ALT in ASLD. In addition, ultrasound with shear wave elastography and FibroTest revealed increased echogenicity and liver stiffness, even in individuals with ASLD and normal aminotransferases. The AslNeo/Neo mice mimic the human disorder with hepatomegaly, elevated aminotransferases, and excessive hepatic glycogen noted before death (3-5 weeks of age). This excessive hepatic glycogen is associated with impaired hepatic glycogenolysis and decreased glycogen phosphorylase and is rescued with helper-dependent adenovirus expressing Asl using a liver-specific (ApoE) promoter.CONCLUSIONOur results link urea cycle dysfunction and impaired hepatic glucose metabolism and identify a mouse model of liver disease in the setting of urea cycle dysfunction.TRIAL REGISTRATIONThis study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03721367, NCT00237315).FUNDINGFunding was provided by NIH, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, NUCDF, Genzyme/ACMG Foundation, and CPRIT.

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