Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 68
Filtrar
2.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retinal vascular occlusion is a leading cause of profound irreversible visual loss, but the understanding of the disease is insufficient. We systematically investigated the age, gender, and laterality at the onset of retinal artery occlusion (RAO) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in the IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight). DESIGN: A retrospective registry cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Retinal vascular occlusion cases participating in the IRIS Registry. METHODS: All cases diagnosed as retinal vascular occlusion in the IRIS Registry between 2013 and 2017 were included. Cases with unspecified gender or laterality were excluded when conducting the relevant analyses. Cases were categorized based on diagnosis codes into RAO, with subtypes transient retinal artery occlusion (TRAO), partial retinal artery occlusion (PRAO), branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), and into RVO, with subtypes venous engorgement (VE), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Age was evaluated as a categorical variable (5-year increments). We investigated the association of age, gender, and laterality with the onset frequency of retinal vascular occlusion subtypes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency of onset of RAO and RVO subtypes by age, gender and laterality. RESULTS: A total of 1,251,476 retinal vascular occlusion cases were included, 23.8% of which were RAO, while 76.2% were RVO. 1,248,656 and 798,089 cases were selected for analysis relevant to gender and laterality, respectively. The onset frequency of all subtypes increased with age. PRAO, BRAO, CRAO, and CRVO presented more frequently in men (53.5%, 51.3%, 52.6%, 50.4%), while TRAO, VE, and BRVO presented more frequently in women (54.9%, 56.0%, 54.5%). BRVO and all RAO subtypes showed a right-eye onset preference (BRVO 51.0%, TRAO 51.7%, PRAO 54.4%, BRAO 53.5%, CRAO 53.4%), while VE and CRVO exhibited a left-eye onset preference (VE 53.3%, CRVO 50.9%). CONCLUSIONS: While retinal vascular occlusion incidence increases with age regardless of subtypes, we found various subtype-specific disease onset differences related to gender and, in particular, ocular laterality. These findings may improve understanding of the specific etiology of retinal vascular occlusions of different subtypes and their relationship with structural and anatomic asymmetries of the vascular system.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(1): 245-253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular disease is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementia in older adults. Retinal artery/vein occlusion (RAVO) is an ophthalmic complication of systemic vascular pathology. Whether there are associations between RAVO and dementia risk is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether RAVOs are associated with an increased risk of developing vascular dementia or AD. METHODS: Data from Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study participants were analyzed. This prospective, population-based cohort study followed older adults (age ≥65 years) who were dementia-free at enrollment for development of vascular dementia or AD based on research criteria. RAVO diagnoses were extracted from electronic medical records. Cox-regression survival analyses were stratified by APOEɛ4 genotype and adjusted for demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: On review of 41,216 person-years (4,743 participants), 266 (5.6%) experienced RAVO. APOEɛ4 carriers who developed RAVO had greater than four-fold higher risk for developing vascular dementia (Hazard Ratio [HR] 4.54, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.86, 11.10, p = 0.001). When including other cerebrovascular disease (history of carotid endarterectomy or transient ischemic attack) in the model, the risk was three-fold higher (HR 3.06, 95% CI 1.23, 7.62). No other conditions evaluated in the secondary analyses were found to confound this relationship. There was no effect in non-APOEɛ4 carriers (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.37, 2.80). There were no significant associations between RAVO and AD in either APOE group. CONCLUSION: Older dementia-free patients who present with RAVO and carry the APOEɛ4 allele appear to be at higher risk for vascular dementia.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4802, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637820

RESUMO

The COVID-19 epidemic of 2019-20 is due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Following first case description in December, 2019 this virus has infected over 10 million individuals and resulted in at least 500,000 deaths world-wide. The virus is undergoing rapid mutation, with two major clades of sequence variants emerging. This study sought to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 sequence variants are associated with differing outcomes among COVID-19 patients in a single medical system. Whole genome SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence was obtained from isolates collected from patients registered in the University of Washington Medicine health system between March 1 and April 15, 2020. Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of patients and their outcome data including their hospitalization and death were collected. Statistical and machine learning models were applied to determine if viral genetic variants were associated with specific outcomes of hospitalization or death. Full length SARS-CoV-2 sequence was obtained 190 subjects with clinical outcome data. 35 (18.4%) were hospitalized and 14 (7.4%) died from complications of infection. A total of 289 single nucleotide variants were identified. Clustering methods demonstrated two major viral clades, which could be readily distinguished by 12 polymorphisms in 5 genes. A trend toward higher rates of hospitalization of patients with Clade 2 infections was observed (p = 0.06, Fisher's exact). Machine learning models utilizing patient demographics and co-morbidities achieved area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of 0.93 for predicting hospitalization. Addition of viral clade or sequence information did not significantly improve models for outcome prediction. In summary, SARS-CoV-2 shows substantial sequence diversity in a community-based sample. Two dominant clades of virus are in circulation. Among patients sufficiently ill to warrant testing for virus, no significant difference in outcomes of hospitalization or death could be discerned between clades in this sample. Major risk factors for hospitalization and death for either major clade of virus include patient age and comorbid conditions.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , /genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto Jovem
5.
Diabetes Care ; 44(5): 1168-1175, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With rising global prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), automated DR screening is needed for primary care settings. Two automated artificial intelligence (AI)-based DR screening algorithms have U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Several others are under consideration while in clinical use in other countries, but their real-world performance has not been evaluated systematically. We compared the performance of seven automated AI-based DR screening algorithms (including one FDA-approved algorithm) against human graders when analyzing real-world retinal imaging data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, noninterventional device validation study evaluating a total of 311,604 retinal images from 23,724 veterans who presented for teleretinal DR screening at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Puget Sound Health Care System (HCS) or Atlanta VA HCS from 2006 to 2018. Five companies provided seven algorithms, including one with FDA approval, that independently analyzed all scans, regardless of image quality. The sensitivity/specificity of each algorithm when classifying images as referable DR or not were compared with original VA teleretinal grades and a regraded arbitrated data set. Value per encounter was estimated. RESULTS: Although high negative predictive values (82.72-93.69%) were observed, sensitivities varied widely (50.98-85.90%). Most algorithms performed no better than humans against the arbitrated data set, but two achieved higher sensitivities, and one yielded comparable sensitivity (80.47%, P = 0.441) and specificity (81.28%, P = 0.195). Notably, one had lower sensitivity (74.42%) for proliferative DR (P = 9.77 × 10-4) than the VA teleretinal graders. Value per encounter varied at $15.14-$18.06 for ophthalmologists and $7.74-$9.24 for optometrists. CONCLUSIONS: The DR screening algorithms showed significant performance differences. These results argue for rigorous testing of all such algorithms on real-world data before clinical implementation.

6.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 9(2): 62, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344065

RESUMO

Purpose: Delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation (RMDA) is a functional biomarker for incipient age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We used anatomically restricted spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging data to localize de novo imaging features associated with and to test hypotheses about delayed RMDA. Methods: Rod intercept time (RIT) was measured in participants with and without AMD at 5 degrees from the fovea, and macular SD-OCT images were obtained. A deep learning model was trained with anatomically restricted information using a single representative B-scan through the fovea of each eye. Mean-occlusion masking was utilized to isolate the relevant imaging features. Results: The model identified hyporeflective outer retinal bands on macular SD-OCT associated with delayed RMDA. The validation mean standard error (MSE) registered to the foveal B-scan localized the lowest error to 0.5 mm temporal to the fovea center, within an overall low-error region across the rod-free zone and adjoining parafovea. Mean absolute error (MAE) on the test set was 4.71 minutes (8.8% of the dynamic range). Conclusions: We report a novel framework for imaging biomarker discovery using deep learning and demonstrate its ability to identify and localize a previously undescribed biomarker in retinal imaging. The hyporeflective outer retinal bands in central macula on SD-OCT demonstrate a structural basis for dysfunctional rod vision that correlates to published histopathologic findings. Translational Relevance: This agnostic approach to anatomic biomarker discovery strengthens the rationale for RMDA as an outcome measure in early AMD clinical trials, and also expands the utility of deep learning beyond automated diagnosis to fundamental discovery.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Macula Lutea , Degeneração Macular , Adaptação à Escuridão , Humanos , Macula Lutea/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Acuidade Visual
8.
Ophthalmol Glaucoma ; 3(4): 253-261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008558

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the average intraocular pressure (IOP) among smokers, past smokers, and never smokers using the American Academy of Ophthalmology Intelligent Research in Sight (IRIS®) Registry. DESIGN: Retrospective database study of the IRIS® Registry data. PARTICIPANTS: Intelligent Research in Sight Registry patients who were seen by an eye care provider during 2017. METHODS: Patients were divided into current smoker, past smoker, and never smoker categories. The IOP was based on an average measurement, and separate analyses were performed in patients with and without a glaucoma diagnosis based on International Classification of Diseases (Ninth Edition and Tenth Edition) codes. Stratified, descriptive statistics by glaucoma status were determined, and the relationship between smoking and IOP was assessed with a multivariate linear regression model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean IOP. RESULTS: A total of 12 535 013 patients were included. Compared with never smokers, current and past smokers showed a statistically significantly higher IOP by 0.92 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.95 mmHg) and 0.77 mmHg (95% CI, 0.75-0.79 mmHg), respectively, after adjusting for age, gender, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma surgery, cataract surgery, and first-order interactions. In addition, the difference in IOP between current and never smokers was the highest in the fourth decade, regardless of the glaucoma status (glaucoma group, 1.14 mmHg [95% CI, 1.00-1.29 mmHg]; without glaucoma group, 0.68 mmHg [95% CI, 0.65-0.71 mmHg]). CONCLUSIONS: Current smokers and past smokers have higher IOP than patients who never smoked. This difference is higher in patients with an underlying glaucoma diagnosis.

10.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995827

RESUMO

Background The COVID-19 epidemic of 2019-20 is due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Following first case description in December, 2019 this virus has infected over 10 million individuals and resulted in at least 500,000 deaths world-wide. The virus is undergoing rapid mutation, with two major clades of sequence variants emerging. This study sought to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 sequence variants are associated with differing outcomes among COVID-19 patients in a single medical system. Methods Whole genome SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence was obtained from isolates collected from patients registered in the University of Washington Medicine health system between March 1 and April 15, 2020. Demographic and baseline medical data along with outcomes of hospitalization and death were collected. Statistical and machine learning models were applied to determine if viral genetic variants were associated with specific outcomes of hospitalization or death. Findings Full length SARS-CoV-2 sequence was obtained 190 subjects with clinical outcome data. 35 (18.4%) were hospitalized and 14 (7.4%) died from complications of infection. A total of 289 single nucleotide variants were identified. Clustering methods demonstrated two major viral clades, which could be readily distinguished by 12 polymorphisms in 5 genes. A trend toward higher rates of hospitalization of patients with Clade 2 was observed (p=0.06). Machine learning models utilizing patient demographics and co-morbidities achieved area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of 0.93 for predicting hospitalization. Addition of viral clade or sequence information did not significantly improve models for outcome prediction. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 shows substantial sequence diversity in a community-based sample. Two dominant clades of virus are in circulation. Among patients sufficiently ill to warrant testing for virus, no significant difference in outcomes of hospitalization or death could be discerned between clades in this sample. Major risk factors for hospitalization and death for either major clade of virus include patient age and comorbid conditions.

11.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(10): 1017-1024, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761143

RESUMO

Importance: Amid an explosion of interest in deep learning in medicine, including within ophthalmology, concerns regarding data privacy, security, and sharing are of increasing importance. A model-to-data approach, in which the model itself is transferred rather than data, can circumvent many of these challenges but has not been previously demonstrated in ophthalmology. Objective: To determine whether a model-to-data deep learning approach (ie, validation of the algorithm without any data transfer) can be applied in ophthalmology. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center cross-sectional study included patients with active exudative age-related macular degeneration undergoing optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the New England Eye Center from August 1, 2018, to February 28, 2019. Data were primarily analyzed from March 1 to June 20, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Training of the deep learning model, using a model-to-data approach, in recognizing intraretinal fluid (IRF) on OCT B-scans. Results: The model was trained (learning curve Dice coefficient, >80%) using 400 OCT B-scans from 128 participants (69 female [54%] and 59 male [46%]; mean [SD] age, 77.5 [9.1] years). In comparing the model with manual human grading of IRF pockets, no statistically significant difference in Dice coefficients or intersection over union scores was found (P > .05). Conclusions and Relevance: A model-to-data approach to deep learning applied in ophthalmology avoided many of the traditional hurdles in large-scale deep learning, including data sharing, security, and privacy concerns. Although the clinical relevance of these results is limited at this time, this proof-of-concept study suggests that such a paradigm should be further examined in larger-scale, multicenter deep learning studies.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834009

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential insights into the pathogenesis of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) using multimodal diagnostic imaging and laboratory evaluation in long-term follow-up. A retrospective, single-center case series was conducted on seven consecutive patients (14 eyes) who were given a diagnosis of APMPPE from March 1, 2011, through June 30, 2019 with at least three months of follow-up. Clinical characteristics (age, symptoms, visual acuity [VA]), laboratory testing including coxsackievirus titers, and multimodal imaging from fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICG) were analyzed for each patient. The initial median VA was 20/71 and final median VA was 20/22. Coxsackievirus B (CVB) titers were elevated (≥ 1:80) in six of seven patients, with a four-fold increase in convalescent titers seen in two patients suggestive of recent infection. All patients were treated with oral corticosteroids, and five patients underwent corticosteroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy. Initially, multifocal deep choroidal lesions were observed in the posterior pole corresponding to patches of hypocyanescence on ICG. Overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) disease was observed on FAF, although this finding was not universally observed, suggesting that RPE disease may occur as a sequelae to unchecked choroidal inflammation. SD-OCT architectural changes confirmed outer retina and ellipsoid zone disruption. FA of active lesions showed early hypofluorescence and late hyperfluorescence with surrounding leakage while inactive disease showed areas of staining. Long-term follow-up of multimodal diagnostic imaging in APMPPE revealed that choroidal inflammation likely precedes RPE change and photoreceptor damage. Elevation of coxsackievirus titers with seroconversion may be associated with an infectious trigger in concert with immune-mediated disease in this posterior uveitis syndrome.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Coroidite Multifocal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coroidite Multifocal/virologia , Imagem Multimodal , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/virologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Óptica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
15.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 9(2): 11, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704417

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI)-based automated classification and segmentation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) features have become increasingly popular. However, its 3-dimensional volumetric nature has made developing an algorithm that generalizes across all patient populations and OCT devices challenging. Several recent studies have reported high diagnostic performances of AI models; however, significant methodological challenges still exist in applying these models in real-world clinical practice. Lack of large-image datasets from multiple OCT devices, nonstandardized imaging or post-processing protocols between devices, limited graphics processing unit capabilities for exploiting 3-dimensional features, and inconsistency in the reporting metrics are major hurdles in enabling AI for OCT analyses. We discuss these issues and present possible solutions.

16.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532764

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. This is the third and largest coronavirus outbreak since the new millennium after SARS in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012. Over 3 million people have been infected and the COVID-19 has caused more than 217 000 deaths. A concern exists regarding the vulnerability of patients who have been treated with immunosuppressive drugs prior or during this pandemic. Would they be more susceptible to infection by the SARS-CoV-2 and how would their clinical course be altered by their immunosuppressed state? This is a question the wider medical fraternity-including ophthalmologists, rheumatologists, gastroenterologist and transplant physicians among others-must answer. The evidence from the SARS and MERS outbreak offer some degree of confidence that immunosuppression is largely safe in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Preliminary clinical experiences based on case reports, small series and observational studies show the morbidity and mortality rates in immunosuppressed patients may not differ largely from the general population. Overwhelmingly, current best practice guidelines worldwide recommended the continuation of immunosuppression treatment in patients who require them except for perhaps high-dose corticosteroid therapy and in patients with associated risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease.

17.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) is often considered for systemic treatment of non-infectious uveitis (NIU). During the evolving coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, given the concerns related to IMT and the increased risk of infections, an urgent need for guidance on the management of IMT in patients with uveitis has emerged. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of international uveitis experts was conducted. An expert steering committee identified clinical questions on the use of IMT in patients with NIU during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using an interactive online questionnaire, guided by background experience and knowledge, 139 global uveitis experts generated consensus statements for IMT. In total, 216 statements were developed around when to initiate, continue, decrease and stop systemic and local corticosteroids, conventional immunosuppressive agents and biologics in patients with NIU. Thirty-one additional questions were added, related to general recommendations, including the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hydroxychloroquine. RESULTS: Highest consensus was achieved for not initiating IMT in patients who have suspected or confirmed COVID-19, and for using local over systemic corticosteroid therapy in patients who are at high-risk and very high-risk for severe or fatal COVID-19. While there was a consensus in starting or initiating NSAIDs for the treatment of scleritis in healthy patients, there was no consensus in starting hydroxychloroquine in any risk groups. CONCLUSION: Consensus guidelines were proposed based on global expert opinion and practical experience to bridge the gap between clinical needs and the absence of medical evidence, to guide the treatment of patients with NIU during the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Eye (Lond) ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictors of narrow angle detection in a United States population-based cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using the Massachusetts All-Payer Claims Database. Demographic information of all patients and eye care provider information during the years 2011-2015 were extracted from Massachusetts All Payers Claims Data. All payers who received eye care during 1/1/2012-12/31/2015 without any previous eye visit during 2011 were included in the analyses. Laser peripheral iridotomy was identified by Current Procedural Terminology code 66761. Narrow angle detection was defined as the diagnosis of narrow angles by diagnosis code followed by a laser peripheral iridotomy procedure. Different predictors of narrow angle detection were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves with the log rank and Cox regression modeling. RESULTS: A total of 1,082,144 patients were included. The hazard ratio of narrow angle detection increased with age compared to the reference group of 0-10 years: 21-30 years of age (hazard ratio = 4.5), 31-40 (10.5), 41-50 (27.9), 51-60 (46.1), 61-70 (68.4), 71-80 (56.8) (all p < 0.0002), was 1.47 times higher in women and 1.85 times higher if evaluated by ophthalmologists compared to optometrists, after controlling for provider × time interaction. CONCLUSION: Older age and female sex are associated with narrow angles. The rate of narrow angle detection was significantly higher if patients are seen by ophthalmologists compared to optometrists only. Evaluation with an ophthalmologist may be important for patients at high risks for developing primary angle closure glaucoma.

19.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 4(10): 1008-1015, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446843

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and vitreous findings in premature infants detected by handheld spectral-domain (SD) OCT. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive sample of 92 premature infants requiring ROP screening at 2 academic neonatal intensive care units between July 2015 and March 2018. METHODS: Infants underwent handheld SD OCT at the time of routine ROP examinations. Two masked, trained graders analyzed right-eye vitreoretinal findings, including semiautomated quantification of punctate hyperreflective vitreous opacities within 5 foveal or parafoveal B-scans (vitreous opacity ratio). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Excluding posttreatment data, vitreous findings were compared with clinical ROP diagnoses. RESULTS: Agreement between image graders for all vitreoretinal findings was 91% (κ = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.90; P < 0.001). Among 92 infants undergoing 280 imaging sessions (52% male; mean gestational age, 28.3 ± 2.8 weeks; mean birthweight, 1014.5 ± 285.0 g), 36 of 92 (39%) demonstrated ROP. Punctate hyperreflective vitreous opacities were identified in 61 of 92 infants (66%). The presence of punctate hyperreflective vitreous opacities at least once was associated with a diagnosis of ROP (62% vs. 29% without opacities; P = 0.003), maximum ROP stage (P = 0.001), preplus or plus disease (24% vs. 5%; P = 0.005), and type 1 disease (14% vs. 2%; P = 0.03). Among 29 infants (45 imaging sessions) with right-eye punctate hyperreflective vitreous opacities, the vitreous opacity ratio from 2 graders (F1 score, 0.82 ± 0.36; Dice coefficient, 0.97 ± 0.04) correlated with ROP stage (P = 0.02). Tractional vitreous bands on imaging correlated with plus disease status (29% vs. 5% without bands; P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Punctate hyperreflective vitreous opacities and tractional vitreous bands predict the presence and severity of ROP. Further studies should explore handheld OCT as a noninvasive ROP screening tool.

20.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 218: 337-341, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387435

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To address challenges associated with identifying retinal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and strategies for future investigation of novel ophthalmologic biomarkers. DESIGN: Perspective. METHODS: Summarization of the current understanding of retinal changes that have been identified using advances in imaging technology, analysis of current research into how these changes reflect neurodegenerative pathology, and recommendations for further research in this area that will allow for the identification of unique biomarkers for early AD. RESULTS: Some retinal changes detectable using various imaging modalities may reflect neurodegeneration or other AD-related pathology on a cellular level. Structural changes in both the peripapillary and macular retina and changes in vascular parameters have been identified. Some imaging findings correlate with known histopathologic findings, and some are associated with cognitive decline. However, multiple challenges exist, such as identifying retinal biomarkers that are specific to biomarker-positive AD, clinical syndrome of AD, and/or pathologic AD brain, finding features that are highly sensitive and specific to AD in patients with other eye diseases, and validating potential biomarkers in population-based longitudinal cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to validate retinal biomarkers for AD, with accurate classification of patients according to diagnosis and cognitive symptoms. Advances in imaging technology, big data, and machine learning, as well as carefully designed studies, will help to identify and confirm potential biomarkers and may lead to novel treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...