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1.
ACS Nano ; 14(4): 5135-5142, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293168

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging human infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously called 2019-nCoV). Based on the rapid increase in the rate of human infection, the World Health Organization (WHO) has classified the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic. Because no specific drugs or vaccines for COVID-19 are yet available, early diagnosis and management are crucial for containing the outbreak. Here, we report a field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensing device for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. The sensor was produced by coating graphene sheets of the FET with a specific antibody against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The performance of the sensor was determined using antigen protein, cultured virus, and nasopharyngeal swab specimens from COVID-19 patients. Our FET device could detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at concentrations of 1 fg/mL in phosphate-buffered saline and 100 fg/mL clinical transport medium. In addition, the FET sensor successfully detected SARS-CoV-2 in culture medium (limit of detection [LOD]: 1.6 × 101 pfu/mL) and clinical samples (LOD: 2.42 × 102 copies/mL). Thus, we have successfully fabricated a promising FET biosensor for SARS-CoV-2; our device is a highly sensitive immunological diagnostic method for COVID-19 that requires no sample pretreatment or labeling.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Transistores Eletrônicos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Grafite , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Cavidade Nasal , Pandemias , Manejo de Espécimes
2.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(3): 451-454, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776872

RESUMO

We analyzed the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) data to evaluate whether scrub typhus infection is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardio- and cerebrovascular disease. Compared with the control group, the scrub typhus group showed a greater incidence rate of cardiovascular disease (14.5 vs. 9.0 cases per 1000 person-years). In contrast, the scrub typhus group showed no difference in incidence rate of cerebrovascular disease (12.0 vs. 13.3 cases per 1000 person-years). Based on the NHIS-NSC data, patients with scrub typhus are at greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease long term compared with that of the general population.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15397, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659261

RESUMO

Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by obligate intracellular organism Orientia tsutsugamushi. While there have been many reports on the evaluation of disease activity and infectious diseases using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), the clinical value of FDG PET/CT in scrub typhus has not been fully investigated. We enrolled 17 patients who were 18 years of age or older and clinically suspected of having scrub typhus with eschar. Clinical assessments, blood samples, and FDG PET/CT images were obtained at enrolment and again after 3 weeks. The median age of the patients was 65 years; 9 (52.9%) patients were male. On initial FDG PET/CT, the eschars showed markedly increased FDG uptake on PET imaging that improved after treatment. Generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly with high FDG uptake were observed in all patients. On follow-up FDG PET/CT after appropriate therapy, FDG uptake and sizes of eschar, lymph nodes, and spleen were markedly decreased. As far as we are aware, this is the first investigation with multiple patients of FDG PET/CT in scrub typhus and the demonstration of clinical utility. FDG PET/CT imaging of scrub typhus could provide useful information about the clinical features before and after antibiotic treatment.

4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(39): e257, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) are important arthropod-borne infectious diseases in Korea and share a common point that they are transmitted by arthropod bites mostly during outdoor activities and there are considerable overlaps of epidemiologic and clinical features at presentation. We investigated the co-infection of these infections. METHODS: The study subjects were patients with laboratory-confirmed scrub typhus who were enrolled retrospectively in 2006. SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection was confirmed by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify partial L segment of SFTSV for molecular diagnosis. HGA was confirmed by a nested PCR to amplify 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Direct sequencing of the positive PCR products was performed. Clinical features of co-infected subjects were described. RESULTS: One-hundred sixty-seven patients with scrub typhus were included in the analysis. Co-infection of A. phagocytophilum was identified in 4.2% of scrub typhus patients (7/167). The route of co-infection was uncertain. The co-infected patients had not different clinical manifestations compared to the patients with scrub typhus only. All the study subjects were negative for SFTSV. CONCLUSION: We found retrospective molecular evidence of the co-infection of scrub typhus and HGA in Korea. HGA may be more prevalent than expected and need to be considered as an important differential diagnosis of febrile patients in Korea.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/classificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Phlebovirus/genética , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tifo por Ácaros/virologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527415

RESUMO

Despite the high-demand work environment for field epidemiologists in field epidemiology training programs, little is known about their occupational stress. To identify occupational stress and its related factors, the occupational stress among trainees in field epidemiology training programs in Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions from 2016 to 2018 was examined using six subscales: Role Overload, Role Insufficiency, Role Ambiguity, Role Boundary, Responsibility, and Physical Environment. Furthermore, the data on the year of training and type of training program as well as the level of burnout, which affects stress-coping strategies, were collected. Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression models were used to examine associations between occupational stress, burnout, the number of years of training, and the type of training program. Sixty-two trainees participated, and there were no significant associations between burnout, the year of training, and type of training program. A burden of occupational stress in Role Overload and Physical Environment was reported by 56% and 53% of respondents, respectively. The trainees affiliated with a university program were less likely to have a burden of occupational stress in Responsibility and Physical Environment. It is concerning that more than half of trainees in the programs experienced occupational stress in Role Overload and Physical Environment. Additional efforts to design improved training programs to reduce occupational stress are warranted.


Assuntos
Epidemiologistas/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional , Adaptação Psicológica , Ásia , Austrália , Epidemiologistas/educação , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Local de Trabalho
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(4): 859-862, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436153

RESUMO

Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by the obligate intracellular organism Orientia tsutsugamushi, endemic to South Korea. The course of scrub typhus can range from a self-limiting disease to a fatal illness. Serological cross-reactivity has been reported with other intracellular organisms, including Rickettsia species, Chlamydophila species, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. We conducted a retrospective study to assess the current seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM and Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM in scrub typhus patients in South Korea. We enrolled 150 patients with suspected rickettsial disease over the course of 2 years. Of these patients, 60 were confirmed to have scrub typhus and had paired acute and convalescent serum. Among the 60 scrub typhus patients, 40 (66.7%) had M. pneumoniae IgM and 19 (31.7%) had C. pneumoniae IgM in acute- or convalescent phase sera. The seroconversion rates of M. pneumoniae IgG and IgM were 16.7% and 33.3%, respectively. The seroconversion rates of C. pneumoniae IgG and IgM were 8.3% and 11.7%, respectively. Compared with previous study results, this may indicate a relatively high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM and C. pneumoniae IgM in scrub typhus patients, indicating possible misdiagnosis of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae infections in non-endemic scrub typhus areas.

7.
Infect Chemother ; 51(2): 150-160, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lamivudine and abacavir sulfate are widely used nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) backbone agents, which are recommended in major international treatment guidelines. The fixed-dose combination of lamivudine and abacavir sulfate has been developed to contribute to low pill burden of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen and patient adherence. A mandatory post-marketing surveillance was conducted in Korea to monitor the safety of Kivexa (lamivudine 300 mg/abacavir 600 mg). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An open label, multi-center, non-interventional post-marketing surveillance was conducted to monitor the safety of Kivexa from July 2011 to July 2017 in 23 hospitals in Korea. Subjects over 12 years old taking Kivexa per prescribing information were enrolled. The primary outcome was defined as the occurrence of any adverse events during the study period. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of adverse drug reaction, the occurrence of serious adverse events and the effectiveness of Kivexa. RESULTS: A total of 600 patients from 23 hospitals were enrolled within the 6 years of study. The total observation period was 1,004 person-years. Three hundred and ten patients reported 674 adverse events. The incidence of upper respiratory infection (65 cases, 10.9%) was the highest, followed by diarrhea (20 cases, 3.3%), and nausea (18 cases, 3.0%). 109 subjects reported 71 events of adverse drug reactions, and the most common reaction was nausea in 2.33% of the subjects. Thirty-one subjects reported serious adverse events, none of them were considered drug related. From the total of 600 subjects, excluding 48 subjects who were 'effectiveness unassessable' by investigators, 552 patients were eligible for the subjective effectiveness analysis. 459 (83.2%) were evaluated as 'improved'. Proportion of subjects whose human immunodeficiency virus-RNA is <50 copies/ml was 61.2% (309/505) at the beginning of observation and increased to 91.9% (464/505) at the end of study period. CONCLUSIONS: The post-marketing surveillance showed the safety of Kivexa in HIV-1 patients in Korea. Ischemic cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity associated with Kivexa were few. There was no significant new safety information. This data may be helpful in implementing Kivexa and lamivudine/abacavir sulfate containing drugs in Korea.

8.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(5)2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035341

RESUMO

DNA-encapsulated Silver Nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) based sensors have gained increasing attention in past years due to their diverse applications in bioimaging, biosensing, and enzymatic assays. Given the potential of DNA/AgNCs for practical applications, the systematic studies of the fluorescent stability over an extended period is necessary. However, the correlation between nucleic acid properties and the long-term stability of DNA/AgNCs is less known. With locking-to-unlocking sensors, in which the secondary structure of DNA template is standardized, we investigated the correlation between the DNA structure and the fluorescence stability of AgNCs. Post-synthesis of DNA/AgNCs, the fluorescence, and structures of templates were monitored over three weeks. By combining the fluorescence spectroscopy with the in-gel fluorescent assay, we found that AgNCs encapsulated by dimer-structured DNA/AgNCs templates were more stable than those of hairpin-structured DNA/AgNCs templates. While the orange fluorescence from the dimer templates increased over three weeks, the red fluorescence from the hairpin templates was diminished by >80% within two days at room temperature. Further tests revealed that hairpin-encapsulated red-emissive AgNCs is more sensitive to oxidation by atmospheric oxygen compared to dimer encapsulated orange AgNCs. Our observations may provide an important clue in encapsulating photophysically more stable AgNCs by tuning the DNA secondary structures. The proposed strategy here can be essential for pragmatic applications of DNA/AgNCs templates.

9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(11): e87, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914905
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 174, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is emerging in Asian 3 countries, China, Japan and Korea, which are scrub typhus endemic areas, and its incidence is increasing. As the two infections overlap epidemiologically and clinically and the accessibility or sensitivity of diagnostic tests is limited, early clinical prediction may be useful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. METHODS: Patients aged ≥16 years who were clinically suspected and laboratory-confirmed to be infected with Orientia tsutsugamushi or the SFTS virus in South Korea were enrolled. Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared. Scrub typhus was further subclassified according to the status of eschar and skin rash. An SFTS prediction scoring tool was generated based on a logistic regression analysis of SFTS compared with scrub typhus. RESULTS: The analysis was performed on 255 patients with scrub typhus and 107 patients with SFTS. At initial presentation, subjective symptoms except for gastrointestinal symptoms, were more prominent in scrub typhus patients. In addition to the characteristic eschar and skin rash, headache was significantly more prominent in scrub typhus, while laboratory abnormalities were more prominent in SFTS. Leukopenia (white blood cell count < 4000/mm3; odds ratio [OR] 30.13), thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 80,000 /mm3; OR 19.73) and low C-reactive protein (< 1 mg/dL; OR 67.46) were consistent risk factors for SFTS (all P < 0.001). A prediction score was generated using these 3 variables, and a score ≥ 2 had a sensitivity of 93.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.9-96.4%) and a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI, 93.8-97.6%) for SFTS. CONCLUSION: This prediction scoring tool may be useful for differentiating SFTS from eschar- or skin rash-negative scrub typhus. It is a simple and readily applicable tool with potential for use in primary care settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Idoso , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Orientia tsutsugamushi/patogenicidade , Phlebovirus/genética , Phlebovirus/patogenicidade , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/virologia , Trombocitopenia/virologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17373, 2018 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478364

RESUMO

Scrub typhus, which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region and is the third most frequently reported infectious disease in South Korea. While ultrastructural studies have been performed on O. tsutsugamushi in murine fibroblasts, its variable locations in patients have hampered similar studies in humans. Two patients with scrub typhus agreed to provide an eschar biopsy and peripheral blood, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy was performed separately on the necrotic crust and perifocal skin of the eschar, the peripheral blood, and the infected murine L cells. O. tsutsugamushi was located within or adjacent to the outermost layer of the perifocal inflamed skin of the eschar but not in the necrotic centre. O. tsutsugamushi in peripheral blood monocytes exhibited the characteristic features of O. tsutsugamushi in L cells, namely, nearly round shaped bacteria with a size of 1-2 µm and a double membrane bearing a clear halo-like outer layer. The findings confirmed that the bacterium was predominantly located in the inflamed skin around the eschar and that the bacterium had the same ultrastructural features in human monocytes as in L cells. These findings suggest that the perifocal area, not the necrotic centre, should be sampled for diagnosis.


Assuntos
Monócitos/microbiologia , Monócitos/patologia , Orientia tsutsugamushi/ultraestrutura , Tifo por Ácaros/microbiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/patologia , Idoso , Biópsia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 33(42): e262, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310364

RESUMO

Pathogenic gram-negatives that produce 16S ribosomal RNA methyltransferases (16S RMTases) have already been distributed all over the world. To investigate the predominance of aminoglycoside resistance associated with 16S RMTases in Korea, we collected a total of 222 amikacin resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates from patient specimens between 1999 and 2015 from three hospital banks across Korea. ArmA and rmtB were the predominant 16S RMTase genes responsible for aminoglycoside-resistant isolates circulating in Korean community settings although only one rmtA-producing isolate was detected in 2006.


Assuntos
Amicacina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , República da Coreia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(30): e11594, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045292

RESUMO

Hand washing plays a key role in preventing respiratory infection in many clinical settings. However, its effectiveness in preventing acute respiratory illness (ARI) during field training in military training facilities has been not studied.A quasi-interventional study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of ARIs over 4 weeks in a Korean army training center in South Korea from January 2009 to February 2009. A total of 1291 recruits participating in military training for 4 weeks were randomly distributed to 2 battalions (one with 631 and the other with 660). After noticing there is a difference between the 2 battalions in terms of the development of ARIs at the end of 2 weeks of training, we conducted interviews with the battle commanders to determine factors that may be related to one battalion having a higher incidence of ARI. Thereafter, we performed an intervention, which consists of instructing the battalion having a higher incidence of ARI to implement field hand washing from the third week. Following the intervention, we compared the cumulative rate of ARI during 4 weeks of training.The interviews revealed that there were no major differences between the 2 battalions in terms of the training schedules, living environments, or indoor hand washing methods. However, there was difference in terms of hand washing during field training for the first 2 weeks; whereas one battalion (the early hand washing group) implemented hand washing during field training starting in the first week, the other battalion did not implement hand washing for the first 2 weeks but instead began in the third week (the late hand washing group). The cumulative incidence rate of ARI during 4 weeks of training was significantly lower in the early hand washing group (13.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.6%-15.9%) than in the late hand washing group (28.0%, 95% CI, 24.7%-31.5%).Our study suggests that outdoor hand washing during field training may be an effective precaution for reducing ARI incidence among recruits participating in military training.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higiene Militar/métodos , Militares/educação , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Instalações Militares , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
16.
Microb Drug Resist ; 24(5): 534-541, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863982

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess emergence of daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DAP-NS) phenotype in DAP-naive patients with invasive Staphylococcus aureus (ISA) infections in Korea. A total of 208 S. aureus clinical isolates were selected from a previous prospective study on ISA infections and evaluated for DAP-NS. Although DAP has never been introduced in Korea, five DAP-NS S. aureus strains (2.4%) were identified among 208 S. aureus strains collected from ISA infections. The DAP-NS phenotype was observed only in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, but not in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains. One DAP-NS MRSA strain belonged to sequence type 72 (ST72) and four were ST5 MRSA strains, three of which were heteroresistant vancomycin (VAN)-intermediate S. aureus. All these five DAP-NS MRSA strains were from healthcare-associated infections without prior exposure to VAN within 30 days. While the ST72 MRSA strain exhibited DAP-NS phenotype via charge repulsion mechanism, four ST5 DAP-NS S. aureus strains had charge-independent DAP-NS mechanism. None of the five DAP-NS strains displayed significant increase in cell wall thickness, indicating that altered cell wall thickness was not associated with the observed DAP-NS phenotype.


Assuntos
Daptomicina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Fenótipo , República da Coreia , Vancomicina/farmacologia
17.
Infect Chemother ; 50(1): 51-54, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637755

RESUMO

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type is the second most common neoplasm after Kaposi's sarcoma among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Most non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases that are associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) involve extranodal sites, especially the digestive tract and the central nervous system. We report a case of multiple jejunal intussusception caused by Burkitt lymphoma in a 42-year-old AIDS patient. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and surgical biopsy were performed and a complete diagnostic study including histological and immunohistochemical analyses showed Burkitt lymphoma.

18.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 18(7): 5026-5032, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29442689

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) is one of the most attractive anode materials for lithium secondary batteries because of its large theoretical capacity, high safety, low cost and environmental benignity. However, Si-based anode material needs to overcome the structural change of the solid-electrolyte interphase due to the large volume change during cycling. To resolve these problems of composites by exploiting the superior conductivity, large specific surface area and flexibility of graphene, we have synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Si composite electrode via a simple dip-coating method. Nickel foam is used as a current collector and template for the electrode fabrication. At 0.03 wt%, Si concentration, the rGO/Si composite anode presented the excellent cycle performance with large reversible capacity (778 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles). The characteristics of the rGO/Si composites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The improved anode performance of the rGO/Si composite anode is ascribed to the rGO serving as a buffer layer, thereby preventing the volume expansion of Si nanoparticles, and provide facile electron pathways.

19.
Clin Proteomics ; 15: 6, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449793

RESUMO

Background: Scrub typhus is an acute and febrile infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative α-proteobacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi from the family Rickettsiaceae that is widely distributed in Northern, Southern and Eastern Asia. In the present study, we analysed the serum proteome of scrub typhus patients to investigate specific clinical protein patterns in an attempt to explain pathophysiology and discover potential biomarkers of infection. Methods: Serum samples were collected from three patients (before and after treatment with antibiotics) and three healthy subjects. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to identify differentially abundant proteins using quantitative proteomic approaches. Bioinformatic analysis was then performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results: Proteomic analysis identified 236 serum proteins, of which 32 were differentially expressed in normal subjects, naive scrub typhus patients and patients treated with antibiotics. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the identified proteins revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in immune responses, especially complement system, following infection with O. tsutsugamushi, and normal expression was largely rescued by antibiotic treatment. Conclusions: This is the first proteomic study of clinical serum samples from scrub typhus patients. Proteomic analysis identified changes in protein expression upon infection with O. tsutsugamushi and following antibiotic treatment. Our results provide valuable information for further investigation of scrub typhus therapy and diagnosis.

20.
Infect Chemother ; 49(3): 205-212, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abacavir is a widely-used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Mandatory postmarketing surveillance was conducted in Korea to monitor the safety and evaluate the effectiveness of Ziagen® (abacavir sulfate 300 mg; ViiV Healthcare, Middlesex, UK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An open-label, multi-center, non-interventional postmarketing surveillance study was conducted from June 2010 to June 2016 to monitor the safety and effectiveness of Ziagen across 12 hospitals in Korea. Subjects older than 18 years taking Ziagen according to prescribing information were enrolled. The primary outcome was defined as the occurrence of any adverse events after Ziagen administration. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of adverse drug reactions, occurrence of serious adverse events, and effectiveness of Ziagen administration. RESULTS: A total of 669 patients were enrolled in this study, with a total observation period of 1047.8 person-years. Of these, 90.7% of patients were male. The mean age of patients was 45.8±11.9 years. One-hundred ninety-six (29.3%) patients reported 315 adverse events, and four patients reported seven serious adverse events, without any fatal events. There was one potential case of an abacavir hypersensitivity reaction. Among the 97 adverse drug reactions that were reported from 75 patients, the most frequent adverse drug reactions included diarrhea (12 events), dyspepsia (10 events), and rash (9 events). No ischemic heart disease was observed. In the effectiveness analysis, 91% of patients achieved HIV-1 RNA under 50 copies/mL after 24 months of observation with abacavir administration. CONCLUSION: Our data showed the safety and effectiveness of Ziagen in a real-world setting. During the study period, Ziagen was well-tolerated, with one incident of a clinically suspected abacavir hypersensitivity reaction. The postmarketing surveillance of Ziagen did not highlight any new safety information. These data may be helpful in understanding abacavir and the HIV treatment practices in Korea.

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