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2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 181, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604443

RESUMO

We propose an Eulerian approach to investigate the motion of particles in turbulence under the assumption that the motion of particles remains smooth in space and time until a collision between particles occurs. When the first collision happens, particle velocity loses [Formula: see text] continuity, resulting in a finite-time blowup. The corresponding singularities in particle velocity gradient, particle number density, and particle vorticity for various Stokes numbers and gravity factors are numerically investigated for the first time in a simple two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex flow, two-dimensional decaying turbulence, and three-dimensional isotropic turbulence. In addition to the critical Stokes number above which a collision begins to occur, the flow condition leading to collision is revealed; particles tend to collide in very thin shear layer constructed by two parallel same-signed vortical structures when Stokes number is above the critical one.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1334, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive procedure, fatal infectious complications have been reported. However, adequate preventive strategies have not been determined. We aimed to investigate the effect of chlorhexidine mouthrinse on the prevention of microbial contamination during EBUS-TBNA. METHODS: In this single-center, assessor-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial, we randomly assigned adult participants undergoing EBUS-TBNA using a convex probe to gargle for 1 minute with 100 mL of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate before EBUS-TBNA or to receive usual care (no chlorhexidine mouthrinse). Aspiration needle wash samples were collected immediately after completion of EBUS-TBNA by instilling sterile saline into the used needle. The primary outcome was colony forming unit (CFU) counts per mL of needle wash samples in aerobic cultures. Secondary outcomes were CFU counts per mL of needle wash samples in anaerobic cultures, fever within 24 hours after EBUS-TBNA, and infectious complications within 4 weeks after EBUS-TBNA. RESULTS: From January 2021 to June 2021, 106 patients received either chlorhexidine mouthrinse (n = 51) or usual care (n = 55). The median CFU counts of needle wash samples in aerobic cultures were not significantly different in the two groups (10 CFU/mL vs 20 CFU/mL; P = 0.70). There were no significant differences between the groups regarding secondary outcomes, including median CFU counts in anaerobic cultures (P = 0.41) and fever within 24 hours after EBUS-TBNA (11.8% vs 5.6%, P = 0.31). There were no infectious complications within 4 weeks in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorhexidine mouthrinse did not reduce CFU counts in needle wash samples of EBUS-TBNA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04718922 . Registered on 22/01/2021.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antissépticos Bucais , Adulto , Humanos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Febre , Linfonodos
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 404, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical resection is usually recommended for the treatment of pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma (PSP). However, no comparative study has demonstrated that surgical resection leads to improved outcomes. We aimed to compare all-cause mortality between patients with PSP who underwent surgery or did not and those without PSP. METHODS: Participants aged ≥18 years who had pathologically diagnosed PSP between 2001 to 2018, at 3 hospitals were included. Randomly selected (up to 1:5) age-, sex-, and smoking status-matched controls without PSP who were randomly selected from those who underwent health checkups including chest CT were included. Mortality was compared using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Literature review of studies reporting PSP was also conducted. RESULTS: This study included 107 patients with PSP (surgery:non-surgery, 80:27) and 520 matched controls. There were no cases of lymph node or distant metastasis, recurrence, or mortality from PSP. No significant difference in all-cause mortality risk was observed between the PSP surgery, PSP non-surgery, and non-PSP groups (log rank test P = 0.78) (PSP surgery vs. non-PSP: adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-14.6; PSP non-surgery vs. non-PSP: aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.15-3.86; PSP surgery vs. PSP non-surgery: aHR, 2.35; 95% CI, 0.20-28.2). In the literature review, we identified 3469 patients with PSP from 355 studies. Only 1.33% of these patients reported metastasis, recurrence, or death. CONCLUSIONS: All-cause mortality did not differ between patients with PSP and those without, irrespective of undergoing surgery. Our study and the literature review suggest that PSP has less impact on increased mortality risk.


Assuntos
Hemangioma Esclerosante Pulmonar , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Hemangioma Esclerosante Pulmonar/cirurgia , Hemangioma Esclerosante Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hemangioma Esclerosante Pulmonar/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(10)2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36290703

RESUMO

Cereblon (CRBN) has been shown to play an essential role in regulating inflammatory response and endoplasmic reticulum stress, thus mediating the development of various diseases. However, little is known about the roles of CRBN in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. We found that the protein levels of CRBN in lung homogenates from patients with COPD were lower than those from never smokers and smokers. The CRBN protein level was positively correlated with the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC). To investigate the role of CRBN in modulating elastase-induced emphysema, we used Crbn knockout (KO) mice. Elastase-induced emphysematous changes were significantly aggravated in Crbn KO mice. Neutrophil infiltration, lung cell injury, and protein leakage into the bronchoalveolar space were more severe in Crbn KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, Crbn KO resulted in the elevated release of neutrophilic chemokines and inflammatory cytokines in lung epithelial cells and macrophages. The transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was significantly increased in Crbn knocked-down cells. In conclusion, Crbn deficiency might be involved in the development of emphysema by enhancing NF-κB activation, suggesting that targeting CRBN might be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of COPD.

6.
Acc Chem Res ; 55(19): 2811-2820, 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129235

RESUMO

ConspectusThermoelectric (TE) materials have received much attention because of their ability to convert heat energy to electrical energy. At a given temperature T, the efficiency of a TE material for this energy conversion is measured by the figure of merit zT, which is related to the thermopower (or Seebeck coefficient) S, the thermal conductivity κ, and the electrical conductivity σ of the TE material as zT = (S2σT)/κ. Bi2Q3 and PbQ (Q = Se, Te) are efficient TE materials with high zT, although they are not ecofriendly and their stability is poor at high temperature. In principle, a TE material can have a high zT if it has a low thermal conductivity and a high electrical conductivity, but the latter condition is hardly met in a real material because the parameters S, σ and κ have a conflicting dependence on material properties. The difficulty in searching for TE materials of high zT is even more exasperated because the relationship between the thermopower S and the carrier density n (hereafter, the S-vs-n relationship) for the well-known hole-doped samples of BiCuSeO showed that the hole carriers responsible for their thermopower are associated largely with the electronic states lying within ∼0.5 eV of its valence band maximum (VBM). Thus, the states governing the TE properties lie in the "skin-deep" region from the VBM. For electron-doped TE systems, the electron carriers responsible for their thermopower should also be associated with the electronic states lying within ∼0.5 eV of the conduction band minimum (CBM). This makes it difficult to predict TE materials of high zT. One faces a similar skin-deep phenomenon in searching for superconductors of high transition temperature because the transition from a normal metallic to a superconducting state involves the normal metallic states in the vicinity of the Fermi level EF. Other skin-deep phenomena in metallic compounds include the formation of charge density wave (CDW), which involves the electronic states in the vicinity of their Fermi levels. For magnetic materials of transition-metal ions, the preferred orientation of their spin moments is a skin-deep phenomenon because it is governed by the interaction between the highest-occupied and the lowest unoccupied d-states of these ions. In the present work we probe the issues concerning how to find the possible range of thermopower expected for a given TE material and hence how to recognize what experimental values of thermopower are expected or unusual. For these purposes, we analyze the accumulated S and n data on the three well-studied TE materials, Bi2Q3, PbQ, and BiCuQO (Q = Se, Te), as representative examples, in terms of the ideal theoretical S-vs-n relationships, which we determine for their defect-free Bi2Q3, PbQ, and BiCuQO structures using density functional theory (DFT) calculations under the rigid band approximation. We find that the general trends in the experimental S-vs-n relationships are reasonably well explained by the calculated S-vs-n relationships, and the carrier densities covering these relationships are associated with the states lying within ∼0.5 eV from their band edges confirming the skin-deep nature of their thermoelectric properties. Despite the fact that these TE materials are not one-dimensional (1D) in structure, they mostly possess sharp density-of-state peaks around their band edges because their band dispersions have a hidden 1D character so their thermopower is generally high in magnitude.

7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(32): e2203663, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104225

RESUMO

Metal-air batteries as alternatives to the existing lithium-ion battery are becoming increasingly attractive sources of power due to their high energy-cost competitiveness and inherent safety; however, their low oxygen evolution and reduction reaction (OER/ORR) performance and poor operational stability must be overcome prior to commercialization. Herein, it is demonstrated that a novel class of hydrothermally grown dual-phase heterogeneous electrocatalysts, in which silver-manganese (AgMn) heterometal nanoparticles are anchored on top of 2D nanosheet-like nickel vanadium oxide (NiV2 O6 ), allows an enlarged surface area and efficient charge transfer/redistribution, resulting in a bifunctional OER/ORR superior to those of conventional Pt/C or RuO2 . The dual-phase NiV2 O6 /AgMn catalysts on the air cathode of a zinc-air battery lead to a stable discharge-charge voltage gap of 0.83 V at 50 mA cm-2 , with a specific capacity of 660 mAh g-1 and life cycle stabilities of more than 146 h at 10 mA cm-2 and 11 h at 50 mA cm-2 . The proposed new class of dual-phase NiV2 O6 /AgMn catalysts are successfully applied as pouch-type zinc-air batteries with long-term stability over 33.9 h at 10 mA cm-2 .

8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15698, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127353

RESUMO

A systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis is necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with different doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We selected 26 parallel randomized controlled trials (41,366 patients) comparing triple therapy with ICS/long-acting beta-agonist (LABA), LABA/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), and LAMA in patients with stable COPD for ≥ 12 weeks from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and clinical trial registries (search from inception to June 30, 2022). Triple therapy with high dose (HD)-ICS exhibited a lower risk of total exacerbation in pre-specified subgroups treated for ≥ 48 weeks than that with low dose (LD)-ICS (odds ratio [OR] = 0.66, 95% credible interval [CrI] = 0.52-0.94, low certainty of evidence) or medium dose (MD)-ICS (OR = 0.66, 95% CrI = 0.51-0.94, low certainty of evidence). Triple therapy with HD-ICS exhibited a lower risk of moderate-to-severe exacerbation in pre-specified subgroups with forced expiratory volume in 1 s < 65% (OR = 0.6, 95% CrI = 0.37-0.98, low certainty of evidence) or previous exacerbation history (OR = 0.6, 95% CrI = 0.36-0.999, very low certainty of evidence) than triple therapy with MD-ICS. Triple therapy with HD-ICS may reduce acute exacerbation in patients with COPD treated with other drug classes including triple therapy with LD- or MD-ICS or dual therapies.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2 , Teorema de Bayes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede
9.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 231, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple inhaler triple therapy (MITT), comprising inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), long-acting beta-agonists (LABA), and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), has been used as an escalation treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, real-world use of MITT has not been investigated in Asia, including South Korea. This study reports baseline characteristics of patients with COPD initiated on MITT in South Korea, and their treatment patterns. Healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs associated with COPD exacerbations following MITT initiation were also assessed. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using the South Korea National Health Insurance database (2014-2018). Included patients were ≥ 40 years, had a COPD diagnosis, were newly initiated on MITT and had ≥ 12 months' data both before (baseline) and after index date (the first day with overlapping supply of all MITT components). Treatment immediately before initiation and immediately following discontinuation of MITT were identified, and proportion of days covered (PDC) by MITT was calculated. HRU and costs (per person per year [PPPY]) associated with exacerbations were identified following MITT initiation; costs were calculated using the average 2020 exchange rate (0.0008 USD/KRW). RESULTS: Among 37,400 patients, the mean age was 69 (SD 10) years and 73% were males; 56% had ≥ 1 COPD exacerbation during the baseline period, with a mean of 2 (SD 5) events/year. ICS/LABA was the most frequent regimen prescribed immediately before initiation (37%) and immediately following discontinuation (41% of 34,264 patients) of MITT. At 3, 6, and 12 months from treatment initiation, mean PDC was 81%, 63% and 49%, respectively; median treatment duration was 102 days. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) number of total visits for severe COPD exacerbations was 0.77 PPPY (0.75-0.78); mean PPPY total healthcare costs were 2093 USD. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COPD in South Korea experienced frequent exacerbations prior to MITT, and PDC by MITT was low. Patients may benefit from early optimization of COPD therapy, and greater emphasis on adherence to inhaled COPD therapy. Severe exacerbations were found to incur substantial costs; treatment alternatives that can reduce the rate of severe exacerbations are likely to minimize healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides , Idoso , Broncodilatadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(26): e206, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790208

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). Patients in the prospective NTM-PD cohort were matched to healthy controls to measure the association between BCG and NTM-PD development. The clinical course of NTM-PD patients was also evaluated to investigate the association between BCG and NTM-PD progression. BCG scars were not associated with NTM-PD development (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-4.34) or progression (adjusted OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.92-2.81). In conclusion, BCG vaccination was not associated with the development or progression of NTM-PD.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Pneumopatias , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cicatriz , Humanos , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2204901119, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881790

RESUMO

Although a wide variety of genetic tools has been developed to study learning and memory, the molecular basis of memory encoding remains incompletely understood. Here, we undertook an unbiased approach to identify novel genes critical for memory encoding. From a large-scale, in vivo mutagenesis screen using contextual fear conditioning, we isolated in mice a mutant, named Clueless, with spatial learning deficits. A causative missense mutation (G434V) was found in the voltage-gated potassium channel, subfamily C member 3 (Kcnc3) gene in a region that encodes a transmembrane voltage sensor. Generation of a Kcnc3G434V CRISPR mutant mouse confirmed this mutation as the cause of the learning defects. While G434V had no effect on transcription, translation, or trafficking of the channel, electrophysiological analysis of the G434V mutant channel revealed a complete loss of voltage-gated conductance, a broadening of the action potential, and decreased neuronal firing. Together, our findings have revealed a role for Kcnc3 in learning and memory.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Memória , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Canais de Potássio Shaw , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Canais de Potássio Shaw/genética , Canais de Potássio Shaw/fisiologia
12.
Radiology ; 305(1): 199-208, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670713

RESUMO

Background Preexisting indexes for predicting the prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) do not use radiologic information and are impractical because they involve complex history assessments or exercise tests. Purpose To develop and to validate a deep learning-based survival prediction model in patients with COPD (DLSP) using chest radiographs, in addition to other clinical factors. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, data from patients with COPD who underwent postbronchodilator spirometry and chest radiography from 2011-2015 were collected and split into training (n = 3475), validation (n = 435), and internal test (n = 315) data sets. The algorithm for predicting survival from chest radiographs was trained (hereafter, DLSPCXR), and then age, body mass index, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were integrated within the model (hereafter, DLSPinteg). For external test, three independent cohorts were collected (n = 394, 416, and 337). The discrimination performance of DLSPCXR was evaluated by using time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (TD AUCs) at 5-year survival. Goodness of fit was assessed by using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Using one external test data set, DLSPinteg was compared with four COPD-specific clinical indexes: BODE, ADO, COPD Assessment Test (CAT), and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results DLSPCXR had a higher performance at predicting 5-year survival than FEV1 in two of the three external test cohorts (TD AUC: 0.73 vs 0.63 [P = .004]; 0.67 vs 0.60 [P = .01]; 0.76 vs 0.77 [P = .91]). DLSPCXR demonstrated good calibration in all cohorts. The DLSPinteg model showed no differences in TD AUC compared with BODE (0.87 vs 0.80; P = .34), ADO (0.86 vs 0.89; P = .51), and SGRQ (0.86 vs 0.70; P = .09), and showed higher TD AUC than CAT (0.93 vs 0.55; P < .001). Conclusion A deep learning model using chest radiographs was capable of predicting survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(10): 2607-2613.e4, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only limited data are available regarding the effects of bronchiectasis on the clinical course of asthma. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated longitudinal clinical outcomes according to bronchiectasis status in patients with asthma. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with asthma who underwent chest computed tomography and pulmonary function tests between January 2013 and December 2019. The annual incidence of episodes of moderate-to-severe acute clinical deterioration (exacerbations) and longitudinal changes in lung function were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 667 patients with asthma, 251 had bronchiectasis. Patients with bronchiectasis had significantly more history of tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease, and lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity, compared with patients without bronchiectasis, although there was no difference in smoking intensity and inhaled corticosteroid treatment. Bronchiectasis was significantly associated with higher annual rates of severe and moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations; it was also associated with greater risk of acute exacerbation during follow-up. The severity and progression of bronchiectasis were independent risk factors for acute exacerbation. There were no significant differences in annual decline of lung function according to bronchiectasis status or bronchiectasis progression. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with asthma, the presence and progression of bronchiectasis were significantly associated with increased risk of moderate-to-severe acute exacerbation, but they were not associated with longitudinal changes in lung function.


Assuntos
Asma , Bronquiectasia , Deterioração Clínica , Corticosteroides , Asma/complicações , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 157, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although single-cell RNA sequencing of xenograft samples has been widely used, no comprehensive bioinformatics pipeline is available for human and mouse mixed single-cell analyses. Considering the numerous homologous genes across the human and mouse genomes, misalignment errors should be evaluated, and a new algorithm is required. We assessed the extents and effects of misalignment errors and exonic multi-mapping events when using human and mouse combined reference data and developed a new bioinformatics pipeline with expression-based species deconvolution to minimize errors. We also evaluated false-positive signals presumed to originate from ambient RNA of the other species and address the importance to computationally remove them. RESULT: Error when using combined reference account for an average of 0.78% of total reads, but such reads were concentrated to few genes that were greatly affected. Human and mouse mixed single-cell data, analyzed using our pipeline, clustered well with unmixed data and showed higher k-nearest-neighbor batch effect test and Local Inverse Simpson's Index scores than those derived from Cell Ranger (10 × Genomics). We also applied our pipeline to multispecies multisample single-cell library containing breast cancer xenograft tissue and successfully identified all samples using genomic array and expression. Moreover, diverse cell types in the tumor microenvironment were well captured. CONCLUSION: We present our bioinformatics pipeline for mixed human and mouse single-cell data, which can also be applied to pooled libraries to obtain cost-effective single-cell data. We also address misalignment, multi-mapping error, and ambient RNA as a major consideration points when analyzing multispecies single-cell data.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Genoma , Algoritmos , Animais , Genômica , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA
15.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 14(2): 220-232, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although asthma treatment guidelines recommend regular inhaled medication, real-world treatment patterns and outcomes in South Korea have not been examined. We examined real-world treatment patterns and outcomes among patients treated for asthma in South Korea. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the South Korean National Health Insurance database (2013-2016). Newly treated patients with asthma aged ≥18 years without history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were included. Initial and maintenance medication prescriptions were examined. Treatment discontinuation and switch were described. Asthma exacerbation rates, poor asthma control, and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) were compared between maintenance treatment groups (inhaled versus oral) using adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) and hazard ratios (aHR). RESULTS: Overall, 1,054,707 patients initiated any asthma medication; 37,868 patients initiated inhaled (n = 9,983, 26.4%) or oral (n = 27,885, 73.6%) maintenance medication. More patients initiating inhaled versus oral asthma medication discontinued treatment within 12 months (94.4% vs. 86.3%; P < 0.0001). Patients treated with inhaled and oral medication switched treatment (2.5% and 2.3%; P = 0.4160, respectively). Patients initiating inhaled medication had significantly lower rates of asthma exacerbation (aIRR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.39-0.69), lack of asthma control (aHR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.48-0.62; P < 0.0001), all-cause and asthma-related HRU versus oral medication. CONCLUSIONS: Despite current asthma guidelines, more patients in South Korea were prescribed oral than inhaled medications, resulting in suboptimal asthma management and increased HRU. This study highlights the need to reduce oral corticosteroid prescriptions for optimized treatment in asthma management.

16.
Comput Ind Eng ; 166: 107967, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136280

RESUMO

With the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, vaccination is an urgent need worldwide. Internet of Things (IoT) has a vital role in the smart city for vaccine manufacturing with wearable sensors. According to the advanced services in intelligent manufacturing, the fourth resolution is also changing in Industry 5.0 and utilizes high-definition connectivity sensors. Traditional manufacturing companies rely on trusted third parties, which may act as a single point of failure. Access control, big data, and scalability are also challenging issues in existing systems because of the demand response data (DRD) in advanced manufacturing. To mitigate these challenges, CoVAC: A P2P Smart Contract-based Intelligent Smart City Architecture for Vaccine Manufacturing is proposed with three layers, including connection, conversion, and intelligent cloud layer. Smart contract-based blockchain is utilized at the conversion layer for resolving access control, security, and privacy issues. Deep learning is adopted in the intelligent cloud layer for big data analysis and increasing production for vaccine manufacturing in smart city environments. A case study is carried out wherein access data are collected from the various smart plants for vaccines using smart manufacturing to validate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture. Simulation of the proposed architecture is performed on the collected advanced sensor IoT plants data to address the challenges above, offering scalable production in the vaccine manufacturing for the smart city.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 61(9): 3843-3850, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195990

RESUMO

Density functional theory calculations were carried out to probe the nature of the electronic structure change in TiPO4 before and after its spin-Peierls distortion at 74.5 K, which is characterized by the dimerization in the chains of Ti3+ (d1) ions present in TiPO4. These calculations suggest strongly that the electronic state of TiPO4 is magnetic insulating before the distortion, but becomes nonmagnetic insulating after the distortion. Consistent with this suggestion, the phonon dispersion relations calculated for TiPO4 show that the undistorted TiPO4 is stable, while the distorted TiPO4 is not, if each Ti3+ ion has a spin moment, and that the opposite is true if each Ti3+ ion has no spin moment. These observations suggest that the driving force for the spin-Peierls distortion is the formation of direct metal-metal bonds leading to the dimerized chains of Ti3+ ions. The abrupt change in the electronic structures from a magnetic insulating state to a nonmagnetic insulating state explains why the spin-Peierls distortion of TiPO4 exhibits a first-order character. Although the two electronic states of TiPO4 before and after the distortion have a band gap, the substantial spin-Peierls distortion is found to enhance the thermoelectric properties of TiPO4.

18.
ACS Omega ; 7(3): 3037-3043, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35097297

RESUMO

Flocculants are used in the primary step of wastewater treatment to precipitate solids. Bovine blood is a slaughterhouse byproduct, and there is limited evidence in the literature demonstrating that it can be used as a flocculant. In this study, native bovine blood (NBB) and three types of chemically modified blood (methylated bovine blood (MeBB), polymerized bovine blood (PolyBB), and polymerized & methylated bovine blood (PMBB)) were tested against suspensions of negatively charged kaolin or positively charged hematite. The methylation reaction had the expected effect of increasing the apparent isoelectric point of MeBB and PMBB relative to that of the NBB starting material, and the polymerization reaction had the intended effect of increasing the average molar mass. NBB and PolyBB performed well with kaolin suspensions at pH ≤5.5, and MeBB showed high and consistent performance, across the pH range of 4.5-8.5. Relative to NBB, MeBB had improved potency and pH independence but also the disadvantage of increased sensitivity to overdosing. The performance of PolyBB was very similar to that of NBB. PMBB had performance enhancements similar to those of MeBB, with a modest improvement in its overdose sensitivity. The performances of MeBB and PMBB with hematite suspensions were poor at all tested doses (2-100 mg/g hematite), whereas a 30 mg/g dose of PolyBB showed 81% precipitation in an hour. The results show that simple chemical treatments can improve the utility of blood as a flocculant for negatively charged solids.

19.
Nano Lett ; 22(3): 1059-1066, 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084865

RESUMO

The orbital degree of freedom, strongly coupled with the lattice and spin, is an important factor when designing correlated functions. Whether the long-range orbital order is stable at reduced dimensions and, if not, what the critical thickness is remains a tantalizing question. Here, we report the melting of orbital ordering, observed by controlling the dimensionality of the canonical eg1 orbital system LaMnO3. Epitaxial films are synthesized with vertically aligned orbital ordering planes on an orthorhombic substrate, so that reducing film thickness changes the two-dimensional planes into quasi-one-dimensional nanostrips. The orbital order appears to be suppressed below the critical thickness of about six unit cells by changing the characteristic phonon modes and making the Mn d orbital more isotropic. Density functional calculations reveal that the electronic energy instability induced by bandwidth narrowing via the dimensional crossover and the interfacial effect causes the absence of orbital order in the ultrathin thickness.

20.
Nano Lett ; 22(3): 1159-1166, 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35088595

RESUMO

Despite the enormous applications of and fundamental scientific interest in amorphous hollow-silica nanostructures (h-SiNSs), their synthesis in crystal-like nonspherical polygonal architectures is challenging. Herein, we present a facile one-shot synthetic procedure for various unconventional h-SiNSs with controllable surface curvatures (concave, convex, or angular), symmetries (spherical, polygonal, or Janus), and interior architectures (open or closed walls) by the addition of a metal salt and implementing kinetic handles of silica precursor (silanes/ammonia) concentrations and reverse-micellar volume. During the silica growth, we identified the key role of transiently in situ crystallized metal coordination complexes as a nanopolyhedral "ghost template", which provides facet-selective interactions with amino-silica monomers and guides the differential silica growth that produces different h-SiNSs. Additionally, crystal-like well-defined polygonal h-SiNSs with flat surfaces, assembled as highly ordered close-packed octahedral mesoscale materials (ca. 3 µm) where h-SiNSs with different nanoarchitectures act as building units (ca. 150 nm) to construct customizable cavities and nanospaces, differ from conventionally assembled materials.

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