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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9677, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273260

RESUMO

We have studied in-situ cleaved (0001) surfaces of the magnetic Weyl semimetal Mn3Sn by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S). It was found that freshly cleaved Mn3Sn surfaces are covered with unknown clusters, and the application of voltage pulses in the tunneling condition was needed to achieve atomically flat surfaces. STM topographs taken on the flat terrace show a bulk-terminated 1 × 1 honeycomb lattice with the Sn site brightest. First-principles calculations reveal that the brightest contrast at the Sn site originates from the surrounding surface Mn d orbitals. Tunneling spectroscopy performed on the as-cleaved and voltage-pulsed surfaces show a prominent semimetal valley near the Fermi energy.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1028, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833678

RESUMO

Detecting the spectroscopic signatures of relativistic quasiparticles in emergent topological materials is crucial for searching their potential applications. Magnetometry is a powerful tool for fathoming electrons in solids, by which a clear method for discerning relativistic quasiparticles has not yet been established. Adopting the probes of magnetic torque and parallel magnetization for the archetype Weyl semimetal TaAs in strong magnetic field, we observed a quasi-linear field dependent effective transverse magnetization and a non-saturating parallel magnetization when the system enters the quantum limit. Distinct from the saturating magnetic responses for non-relativistic quasiparticles, the non-saturating signals of TaAs in strong field is consistent with our newly developed magnetization calculation for a Weyl fermion system in an arbitrary angle. Our results establish a high-field thermodynamic method for detecting the magnetic response of relativistic quasiparticles in topological materials.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(29): 295502, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873298

RESUMO

A way to represent the band structure that distinguishes between energy-momentum and energy-crystal momentum relationships is proposed upon the band-unfolding concept. This momentum-resolved band structure offers better understanding of the physical processes requiring the information of wave functions in momentum space and provides a direct connection to angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) spectra. Following this approach, we demonstrate that Dirac cones in graphene are intrinsically broken in momentum space and can be described by a conceptual unit cell smaller than the primitive unit cell. This hidden degree of freedom can be measured by ARPES experiments as missing weight that is retrievable by investigating the effect of different polarized light. Having the energy-momentum relationship, we provide alternative understanding of the retrieved momentum intensity beyond the periodic-zone scheme, that is, the retrieved momentum intensity is assisted with the properties of final states, not from the Dirac cones directly. The revealed broken Dirac cones and momenta supplied by the lattice give interesting ingredients for designing advanced nanodevices.

4.
Sci Adv ; 3(9): eaao0362, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948229

RESUMO

Orbital-related physics attracts growing interest in condensed matter research, but direct real-space access of the orbital degree of freedom is challenging. We report a first, real-space, imaging of a surface-assisted orbital ordered structure on a cobalt-terminated surface of the well-studied heavy fermion compound CeCoIn5. Within small tip-sample distances, the cobalt atoms on a cleaved (001) surface take on dumbbell shapes alternatingly aligned in the [100] and [010] directions in scanning tunneling microscopy topographies. First-principles calculations reveal that this structure is a consequence of the staggered d xz -d yz orbital order triggered by enhanced on-site Coulomb interaction at the surface. This so far overlooked surface-assisted orbital ordering may prevail in transition metal oxides, heavy fermion superconductors, and other materials.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(2): 026401, 2017 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28128626

RESUMO

A general method is presented to calculate absolute binding energies of core levels in metals and insulators, based on a penalty functional and an exact Coulomb cutoff method in the framework of density functional theory. The spurious interaction of core holes between supercells is avoided by the exact Coulomb cutoff method, while the variational penalty functional enables us to treat multiple splittings due to chemical shift, spin-orbit coupling, and exchange interaction on equal footing, both of which are not accessible by previous methods. It is demonstrated that the absolute binding energies of core levels for both metals and insulators are calculated by the proposed method in a mean absolute (relative) error of 0.4 eV (0.16%) for eight cases compared to experimental values measured with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy within a generalized gradient approximation to the exchange-correlation functional.

6.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13643, 2016 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27917858

RESUMO

The recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1-xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1-xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topological Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1-xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1-xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(9): 096801, 2016 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26991191

RESUMO

A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as quasiparticle excitations. The Weyl fermions at zero energy correspond to points of bulk-band degeneracy, called Weyl nodes, which are separated in momentum space and are connected only through the crystal's boundary by an exotic Fermi arc surface state. We experimentally measure the spin polarization of the Fermi arcs in the first experimentally discovered Weyl semimetal TaAs. Our spin data, for the first time, reveal that the Fermi arcs' spin-polarization magnitude is as large as 80% and lies completely in the plane of the surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that the chirality of the Weyl nodes in TaAs cannot be inferred by the spin texture of the Fermi arcs. The observed nondegenerate property of the Fermi arcs is important for establishing its exact topological nature, which reveals that spins on the arc form a novel type of 2D matter. Additionally, the nearly full spin polarization we observed (∼80%) may be useful in spintronic applications.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(6): 066601, 2016 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26919003

RESUMO

The recent discovery of the first Weyl semimetal in TaAs provides the first observation of a Weyl fermion in nature. Such a topological semimetal features a novel type of anomalous surface state, the Fermi arc, which connects a pair of Weyl nodes through the boundary of the crystal. Here, we present theoretical calculations of the quasiparticle interference (QPI) patterns that arise from the surface states including the topological Fermi arcs in the Weyl semimetals TaAs and NbP. Most importantly, we discover that the QPI exhibits termination points that are fingerprints of the Weyl nodes in the interference pattern. Our results, for the first time, propose a universal interference signature of the topological Fermi arcs in TaAs, which is fundamental for scanning tunneling microscope (STM) measurements on this prototypical Weyl semimetal compound. More generally, our work provides critical guideline and methodology for STM studies on new Weyl semimetals. Further, the scattering channels revealed by our QPIs are broadly relevant to surface transport and device applications based on Weyl semimetals.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(6): 066802, 2016 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26919005

RESUMO

The recent discovery of the first Weyl semimetal in TaAs provides the first observation of a Weyl fermion in nature and demonstrates a novel type of anomalous surface state, the Fermi arc. Like topological insulators, the bulk topological invariants of a Weyl semimetal are uniquely fixed by the surface states of a bulk sample. Here we present a set of distinct conditions, accessible by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), each of which demonstrates topological Fermi arcs in a surface state band structure, with minimal reliance on calculation. We apply these results to TaAs and NbP. For the first time, we rigorously demonstrate a nonzero Chern number in TaAs by counting chiral edge modes on a closed loop. We further show that it is unreasonable to directly observe Fermi arcs in NbP by ARPES within available experimental resolution and spectral linewidth. Our results are general and apply to any new material to demonstrate a Weyl semimetal.

10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10735, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26911701

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals provide the realization of Weyl fermions in solid-state physics. Among all the physical phenomena that are enabled by Weyl semimetals, the chiral anomaly is the most unusual one. Here, we report signatures of the chiral anomaly in the magneto-transport measurements on the first Weyl semimetal TaAs. We show negative magnetoresistance under parallel electric and magnetic fields, that is, unlike most metals whose resistivity increases under an external magnetic field, we observe that our high mobility TaAs samples become more conductive as a magnetic field is applied along the direction of the current for certain ranges of the field strength. We present systematically detailed data and careful analyses, which allow us to exclude other possible origins of the observed negative magnetoresistance. Our transport data, corroborated by photoemission measurements, first-principles calculations and theoretical analyses, collectively demonstrate signatures of the Weyl fermion chiral anomaly in the magneto-transport of TaAs.

11.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10556, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829889

RESUMO

Topological semimetals can support one-dimensional Fermi lines or zero-dimensional Weyl points in momentum space, where the valence and conduction bands touch. While the degeneracy points in Weyl semimetals are robust against any perturbation that preserves translational symmetry, nodal lines require protection by additional crystalline symmetries such as mirror reflection. Here we report, based on a systematic theoretical study and a detailed experimental characterization, the existence of topological nodal-line states in the non-centrosymmetric compound PbTaSe2 with strong spin-orbit coupling. Remarkably, the spin-orbit nodal lines in PbTaSe2 are not only protected by the reflection symmetry but also characterized by an integer topological invariant. Our detailed angle-resolved photoemission measurements, first-principles simulations and theoretical topological analysis illustrate the physical mechanism underlying the formation of the topological nodal-line states and associated surface states for the first time, thus paving the way towards exploring the exotic properties of the topological nodal-line fermions in condensed matter systems.

12.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10639, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26875819

RESUMO

A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal's boundary by exotic Fermi arcs. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in the reciprocal space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl state in Mo(x)W(1-x)Te2 where Weyl nodes are formed by touching points between metallic pockets. We show that the Fermi arc length can be changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength. Our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound Mo(x)W(1-x)Te2, where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure-driven superconductivity have been observed.

13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 18993, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26764118

RESUMO

We predict planar Sb/Bi honeycomb to harbor a two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulator (TCI) phase based on first-principles computations. Although buckled Sb and Bi honeycombs support 2D topological insulator (TI) phases, their structure becomes planar under tensile strain. The planar Sb/Bi honeycomb structure restores the mirror symmetry, and is shown to exhibit non-zero mirror Chern numbers, indicating that the system can host topologically protected edge states. Our computations show that the electronic spectrum of a planar Sb/Bi nanoribbon with armchair or zigzag edges contains two Dirac cones within the band gap and an even number of edge bands crossing the Fermi level. Lattice constant of the planar Sb honeycomb is found to nearly match that of hexagonal-BN. The Sb nanoribbon on hexagonal-BN exhibits gapped edge states, which we show to be tunable by an out-of-the-plane electric field, providing controllable gating of edge state important for device applications.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(5): 1180-5, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787914

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals have attracted worldwide attention due to their wide range of exotic properties predicted in theories. The experimental realization had remained elusive for a long time despite much effort. Very recently, the first Weyl semimetal has been discovered in an inversion-breaking, stoichiometric solid TaAs. So far, the TaAs class remains the only Weyl semimetal available in real materials. To facilitate the transition of Weyl semimetals from the realm of purely theoretical interest to the realm of experimental studies and device applications, it is of crucial importance to identify other robust candidates that are experimentally feasible to be realized. In this paper, we propose such a Weyl semimetal candidate in an inversion-breaking, stoichiometric compound strontium silicide, SrSi2, with many new and novel properties that are distinct from TaAs. We show that SrSi2 is a Weyl semimetal even without spin-orbit coupling and that, after the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling, two Weyl fermions stick together forming an exotic double Weyl fermion with quadratic dispersions and a higher chiral charge of ±2. Moreover, we find that the Weyl nodes with opposite charges are located at different energies due to the absence of mirror symmetry in SrSi2, paving the way for the realization of the chiral magnetic effect. Our systematic results not only identify a much-needed robust Weyl semimetal candidate but also open the door to new topological Weyl physics that is not possible in TaAs.

15.
ACS Nano ; 10(1): 1378-85, 2016 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26743693

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals may open a new era in condensed matter physics, materials science, and nanotechnology after graphene and topological insulators. We report the first atomic scale view of the surface states of a Weyl semimetal (NbP) using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. We observe coherent quantum interference patterns that arise from the scattering of quasiparticles near point defects on the surface. The measurements reveal the surface electronic structure both below and above the chemical potential in both real and reciprocal spaces. Moreover, the interference maps uncover the scattering processes of NbP's exotic surface states. Through comparison between experimental data and theoretical calculations, we further discover that the orbital and/or spin texture of the surface bands may suppress certain scattering channels on NbP. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of electronic properties on Weyl semimetal surfaces.

16.
Sci Adv ; 2(6): e1600295, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861470

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals are of great interest because they provide the first realization of the Weyl fermion, exhibit exotic quantum anomalies, and host Fermi arc surface states. The separation between Weyl nodes of opposite chirality gives a measure of the robustness of the Weyl semimetal state. To exploit the novel phenomena that arise from Weyl fermions in applications, it is crucially important to find robust separated Weyl nodes. We propose a methodology to design robust Weyl semimetals with well-separated Weyl nodes. Using this methodology as a guideline, we search among the material parameter space and identify by far the most robust and ideal Weyl semimetal candidate in the single-crystalline compound tantalum sulfide (Ta3S2) with new and novel properties beyond TaAs. Crucially, our results show that Ta3S2 has the largest k-space separation between Weyl nodes among known Weyl semimetal candidates, which is about twice larger than the measured value in TaAs and 20 times larger than the predicted value in WTe2. Moreover, all Weyl nodes in Ta3S2 are of type II. Therefore, Ta3S2 is a type II Weyl semimetal. Furthermore, we predict that increasing the lattice by <4% can annihilate all Weyl nodes, driving a novel topological metal-to-insulator transition from a Weyl semimetal state to a topological insulator state. The robust type II Weyl semimetal state and the topological metal-to-insulator transition in Ta3S2 are potentially useful in device applications. Our methodology can be generally applied to search for new Weyl semimetals.


Assuntos
Metaloides/química , Sulfetos/química , Tantálio/química , Fenômenos Ópticos , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Sci Adv ; 1(10): e1501092, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26702446

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals are expected to open up new horizons in physics and materials science because they provide the first realization of Weyl fermions and exhibit protected Fermi arc surface states. However, they had been found to be extremely rare in nature. Recently, a family of compounds, consisting of tantalum arsenide, tantalum phosphide (TaP), niobium arsenide, and niobium phosphide, was predicted as a Weyl semimetal candidates. We experimentally realize a Weyl semimetal state in TaP. Using photoemission spectroscopy, we directly observe the Weyl fermion cones and nodes in the bulk, and the Fermi arcs on the surface. Moreover, we find that the surface states show an unexpectedly rich structure, including both topological Fermi arcs and several topologically trivial closed contours in the vicinity of the Weyl points, which provides a promising platform to study the interplay between topological and trivial surface states on a Weyl semimetal's surface. We directly demonstrate the bulk-boundary correspondence and establish the topologically nontrivial nature of the Weyl semimetal state in TaP, by resolving the net number of chiral edge modes on a closed path that encloses the Weyl node. This also provides, for the first time, an experimentally practical approach to demonstrating a bulk Weyl fermion from a surface state dispersion measured in photoemission.

18.
Science ; 349(6248): 613-7, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26184916

RESUMO

A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles and admits a topological classification that protects Fermi arc surface states on the boundary of a bulk sample. This unusual electronic structure has deep analogies with particle physics and leads to unique topological properties. We report the experimental discovery of a Weyl semimetal, tantalum arsenide (TaAs). Using photoemission spectroscopy, we directly observe Fermi arcs on the surface, as well as the Weyl fermion cones and Weyl nodes in the bulk of TaAs single crystals. We find that Fermi arcs terminate on the Weyl fermion nodes, consistent with their topological character. Our work opens the field for the experimental study of Weyl fermions in physics and materials science.

19.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7373, 2015 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26067579

RESUMO

Weyl fermions are massless chiral fermions that play an important role in quantum field theory but have never been observed as fundamental particles. A Weyl semimetal is an unusual crystal that hosts Weyl fermions as quasiparticle excitations and features Fermi arcs on its surface. Such a semimetal not only provides a condensed matter realization of the anomalies in quantum field theories but also demonstrates the topological classification beyond the gapped topological insulators. Here, we identify a topological Weyl semimetal state in the transition metal monopnictide materials class. Our first-principles calculations on TaAs reveal its bulk Weyl fermion cones and surface Fermi arcs. Our results show that in the TaAs-type materials the Weyl semimetal state does not depend on fine-tuning of chemical composition or magnetic order, which opens the door for the experimental realization of Weyl semimetals and Fermi arc surface states in real materials.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 111(15): 157401, 2013 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24160627

RESUMO

We propose a simple first-principles method to describe the propagation of tightly bound excitons. By viewing the exciton as a composite object (an effective Frenkel exciton in Wannier orbitals), we define an exciton kinetic kernel to encapsulate the exciton propagation and decay for all binding energies. Applied to prototypical LiF, our approach produces three exciton bands, which we verified quantitatively via inelastic x-ray scattering. The proposed real-space picture is computationally inexpensive and thus enables study of the full exciton dynamics, even in the presence of surfaces and impurity scattering. It also provides an intuitive understanding to facilitate practical exciton engineering in semiconductors, strongly correlated oxides, and their nanostructures.

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