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1.
Zookeys ; 1046: 143-155, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239338

RESUMO

A new parabathynellid bathynellacean species, Hangangbathynella mihoensis sp. nov., was found in the groundwater of the Geumgang River in South Korea. This is the first report of Hangangbathynella from a tributary of the Geumgang River. All previously-reported species were found in the Hangang River and the origins of the two rivers are distinct from each other. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the two-segmented mandibular palp and the absence of epipods on thoracopod II. In this study, we provide a description of the new species and an identification table for the genus Hangangbathynella. In addition, we obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene for DNA barcoding.

2.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 45: 116312, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332211

RESUMO

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) mediate intracellular signal transduction. Aberrant PI3K signaling is associated with oncogenesis and disease progression in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Idelalisib (1), a first-in-class PI3Kδ inhibitor for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, was developed, but its sales were limited by black box warnings due to unexpected adverse effects. Therefore, to overcome these adverse events, various quinazolinone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in vitro based on their inhibitory activity against the PI3K enzyme and the viability of cell lines such as MOLT and SUDHL. Among them, 6f (IC50 = 0.39 nM) and 6m (IC50 = 0.09 nM) showed excellent enzyme activity, and 6m displayed an approximately four-fold higher selectivity for PI3Kγ/δ compared with Idelalisib (1). Furthermore, in vivo PK experiments with 6f and 6m revealed that 6f (AUClast = 81.04 h*ng/mL, Cmax = 18.34 ng/mL, Tmax = 0.5 h, t1/2 = 10.2 h in 1 mpk dose) had improved PK compared with 1. Finally, further experiments will be conducted with 6f selected as a candidate, and the potential for it to be developed as a treatment with good efficacy for hematologic malignancies will be determined.

3.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805759

RESUMO

Fat globule size and phospholipid (PL) content in human milk (HM) were investigated. HM was classified into three groups depending on fat content (A < B < C). PL content (mg/100 g HM) was significantly higher in the C group (p < 0.05), indicating its positive relationship with HM fat content. When the PL content was normalized (mg/g fat), that of group A was significantly higher (p < 0.05) and fat droplet size in group C was slightly larger, suggesting that HM fat content is affected by fat droplet numbers to a larger extent than by fat droplet size. A correlation between PC and SM content in HM was observed regardless of fat content, while correlation between PE and either PC or SM increased in the order of C > B > A, hence the composition and content of PL species in HM varied according to its fat content.


Assuntos
Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/ultraestrutura , Leite Humano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lactação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Leite/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfolipídeos/análise , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PeerJ ; 9: e10786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569255

RESUMO

Pseudocrangonyx Akatsuka & Komai, 1922 is the most diverse group of subterranean amphipods in the groundwater communities of Far East Asia. In Korea, the diversity of the group has been underestimated due to the records of morphological variants of Pseudocrangonyx asiaticus Uéno, 1934. To estimate the species diversity, we analyzed the morphological characteristics and conducted molecular analyses of specimens collected from Korean caves that we treated as morphological variants of P. asiaticus. We described three new subterranean pseudocrangonyctid amphipod species, P. deureunensis sp. nov., P. kwangcheonseonensis sp. nov. , and P. hwanseonensis sp. nov., from the groundwater of limestone caves in South Korea. Additionally, we determined sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of the new species for molecular analyses. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the three new species formed a monophylum together with P. joolaei Lee et al., 2020 and P. wonkimi Lee, Tomikawa & Min, 2020, which are species that are endemic to Korean caves.

5.
Zookeys ; 960: 1-15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884395

RESUMO

A new species of pseudocrangonyctid amphipod, Pseudocrangonyx wonkimi sp. nov., was found in the groundwater of a cave in the southwestern Korean Peninsula. Pseudocrangonyx wonkimi sp. nov. is morphologically most closely related to P. joolaeiLee et al., 2020. However, P. wonkimi is clearly distinguished from P. joolaei by lacking sternal gills, fewer setae on maxilla 1 inner plate, fewer serrate robust setae on the carpus of the gnathopods, lacking bifid setae on the inner ramus of pleopod 3, and fewer articles of rami on pleopod 3. We also determined sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of P. wonkimi sp. nov. for molecular diagnosis. From the molecular analysis based on COI sequences, P. wonkimi showed the closest relationship with P. joolaei with 15.1% genetic distance.

6.
Zootaxa ; 4731(3): zootaxa.4731.3.2, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230294

RESUMO

A new subterranean species of pseudocrangonyctid amphipod, Pseudocrangonyx joolaei, is described from the groundwater of a cave in South Korea. Pseudocrangonyx joolaei sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners by the number of sternal gills as well as a combination of the antennal sinus, the accessory flagellum of antenna 1, and the terminal article of uropod 3. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA genes revealed that P. joolaei sp. nov. formed a clade with P. akatsukai Tomikawa Nakano, 2018 that inhabits limestone caves in the western Honshu island, Japan.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Animais , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , República da Coreia
7.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 5(3): 2436-2437, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33457817

RESUMO

We determined the mitogenome sequence of Jesogammarus (Jesogammarus) hinumensis Morino, 1993, which is the first complete mitogenome sequence in the family Anisogammaridae Bousfield, 1977. The complete mitogenome of J. (J.) hinumensis was 15,186 bp in length with the typical 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and a control region (CR). The gene order of J. (J.) hinumensis was in accordance with the typical pan-crustacean ground pattern. A maximum-likelihood tree constructed using 25 eumalacostracan mitogenomes confirmed that J. (J.) hinumensis is most closely related to the family Micruropodidae, and supported the monophyly of the superfamily Gammaroidea.

8.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 5(3): 3011-3012, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458036

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome of a subterranean pseudocrangonyctid amphipod, Pseudocrangonyx joolaei, was determined in this paper. The complete mitogenome of P. joolaei was 14,814 bp in length with the typical 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs, and a control region (CR). The gene order of P. joolaei was unique in that the CR was an inversion, and the gene order of Pseudocrangonyx was not concordant when compared to that of P. daejeonensis, a subterranean amphipod found in Korea. A maximum-likelihood tree, constructed based on 26 eumalacostracan mitogenomes, confirmed that P. joolaei supported monophyly in the family Pseudocrangonyctidae and is most closely related to the superfamily Crangonyctoidea.

9.
Zookeys ; (735): 27-44, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674860

RESUMO

A new subterranean species of pseudocrangonyctid amphipod, Pseudocrangonyx daejeonensissp. n. is described from the interstitial waters in Daejeon, Korea. Pseudocrangonyx daejeonensissp. n. is distinguished from three morphologically similar congeners, P. coreanus Uéno, 1966, P. febras Sidorov, 2009, and P. gudariensis Tomikawa & Sato, 2016, by the characteristics of antenna 1, antenna 2, mandible, gnathopod 2, pleopods, uropods 1-2, and telson. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA genes revealed that P. daejeonensis is a sister species of the unnamed Pseudocrangonyx sp. 3 inhabiting central Japan.

10.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 3(2): 823-824, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474336

RESUMO

The complete mitogenome sequence of a subterranean pseudocrangonyctid amphipod, Pseudocrangonyx daejeonensis, was determined. The complete mitogenome of P. daejeonensis was 15,069 bp in length with the typical 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and a control region (CR). This is the first complete mitogenome sequence in the family Pseudocrangonyctidae. Interestingly, gene arrangements of most amphipod species were almost identical to the typical pan-crustacean ground pattern, whereas two PCGs, both of rRNAs and CR were translocated in P. daejeonensis. A maximum-likelihood tree, constructed based on 30 eumalacostracan mitogenomes, confirmed that P. daejeonensis is closely related to the crangonyctid Stygobromus indentatus and S. tenuis potomacus and supported the monophyly of the superfamily Crangonyctoidea.

11.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0170424, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107438

RESUMO

Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae) are subterranean aquatic crustaceans that typically inhabit freshwater interstitial spaces (e.g., groundwater) and are occasionally found in caves and even hot springs. In this study, we sequenced the whole transcriptome of Allobathynella bangokensis using RNA-seq. De novo sequence assembly produced 74,866 contigs including 28,934 BLAST hits. Overall, the gene sequences were most similar to those of the waterflea Daphnia pulex. In the A. bangokensis transcriptome, no opsin or related sequences were identified, and no contig aligned to the crustacean visual opsins and non-visual opsins (i.e. arthropsins, peropsins, and melaopsins), suggesting potential regressive adaptation to the dark environment. However, A. bangokensis expressed conserved gene family sets, such as heat shock proteins and those related to key innate immunity pathways and antioxidant defense systems, at the transcriptional level, suggesting that this species has evolved adaptations involving molecular mechanisms of homeostasis. The transcriptomic information of A. bangokensis will be useful for investigating molecular adaptations and response mechanisms to subterranean environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Homeostase , Opsinas de Bastonetes/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Transcrição Genética
12.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 1(1): 204-206, 2016 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644345

RESUMO

We determined the mitogenome sequence of Munida gregaria (Fabricius 1793) (Anomura, Galatheoidea, Munididae), which is the first complete mitogenome sequence in the family Munididae Ahyong et al., 2010. The mitogenome of M. gregaria is 16 326 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and two control regions (CRs). Mitogenome analysis of M. gregaria showed an extra copy of the CR and rearrangements of two PCGs (nad2 and nad3) compared to the arthropod ground pattern. Additionally, it contains a tRNA (trnY) inversion and rearrangements of two PCGs (nad1 and nad3) when compared with that of Neopetrolisthes maculatus and Shinkaia crosnieri, respectively. The phylogenetic tree confirmed that M. gregaria belongs to the superfamily Galatheoidea within Anomura. Our results will be useful for the detailed study of mitogenome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships among the superfamily in the infraorder Anomura.

13.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 174(7): 2639-51, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25192693

RESUMO

Biomass storage is essential for effective utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Although long-term storage of biomass is as important as the conversion process, no effective method has been developed. This study investigated the effects of low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment on biomass quality for long-term storage with moisture content from 30 to 70 %. Carbohydrate loss due to fungal growth was observed in the moisturized corn stover without ammonia loading, after 12 weeks of storage. This also resulted in reduced enzymatic digestibility. Both ammoniation and LMAA pretreatment reduced the decomposition of carbohydrates by fungal growth, during storage in the presence of moisture. LMAA pretreatment rendered 83 % of glucan and 67 % of xylan digestibility after 24 weeks of storage. Ammoniated corn stover also resulted in 63 % of glucan and 48 % of xylan digestibility at 0 week of storage, and hydrolysis yields increased to 78 % for glucan and 64 % for xylan, without pretreatment, after 12 weeks of storage.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Biomassa , Lignina/química , Zea mays/química , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo
14.
ChemSusChem ; 5(7): 1146-61, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22693154

RESUMO

The electrochemical behaviors of molybdenum and its oxides, both in bulk and thin film dimensions, are critical because of their widespread applications in steels, electrocatalysts, electrochromic materials, batteries, sensors, and solar cells. An important area of current interest is electrodeposited CIGS-based solar cells where a molybdenum/glass electrode forms the back contact. Surprisingly, the basic electrochemistry of molybdenum and its oxides has not been reviewed with due attention. In this Review, we assess the scattered information. The potential and pH dependent active, passive, and transpassive behaviors of molybdenum in aqueous media are explained. The major surface oxide species observed, reversible redox transitions of the surface oxides, pseudocapacitance and catalytic reduction are discussed along with carefully conducted experimental results on a typical molybdenum glass back contact employed in CIGS-based solar cells. The applications of molybdenum oxides and the electrodeposition of molybdenum are briefly reviewed.


Assuntos
Eletroquímica/métodos , Molibdênio/química , Óxidos/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Lítio/química
15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 48(5): 696-8, 2012 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22134188

RESUMO

Detonated nanodiamonds (NDs) exhibit remarkable photocatalytic activity towards the hydrogen gas generation upon 532 nm laser pulse irradiation. Hydrogenation dramatically increases the quantum yield, suggesting that hydrogen-terminated sites work as electron reservoirs. NDs can also be used as effective photocatalysts to reduce graphene oxide. The resulting composites exhibit high and stable photocurrent generation upon visible light irradiation.

16.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 164(6): 729-40, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21274655

RESUMO

Hot water and aqueous ammonia fractionation of corn stover were used to separate hemicellulose and lignin and improve enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. A two-stage approach was used: The first stage was designed to recover soluble lignin using aqueous ammonia at low temperature, while the second stage was designed to recover xylan using hot water at high temperature. Specifically, the first stage employed a batch reaction using 15 wt.% ammonia at 60 °C, in a 1:10 solid:liquid ratio for 8 h, while the second stage employed a percolation reaction using hot water, 190-210 °C, at a 20 ml/min flow rate for 10 min. After fractionation, the remaining solids were nearly pure cellulose. The two-stage fractionation process achieved 68% lignin purity with 47% lignin recovery in the first stage, and 78% xylan purity, with 65% xylan recovery in the second stage. Two-stage treatment enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of remaining cellulose to 96% with 15 FPU/g of glucan using commercial cellulase enzymes. Enzyme hydrolyses were nearly completed within 12-24 h with the remaining solids fraction.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Zea mays/química , Amônia/química , Temperatura Alta , Hidrólise , Lignina/análise , Lignina/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Água/química
17.
ACS Nano ; 4(4): 2391-401, 2010 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20349941

RESUMO

Single-crystalline rock-salt PbS nanowires (NWs) were synthesized using three different routes; the solvothermal, chemical vapor transport, and gas-phase substitution reaction of pregrown CdS NWs. They were uniformly grown with the [100] or [110], [112] direction in a controlled manner. In the solvothermal growth, the oriented attachment of the octylamine (OA) ligands enables the NWs to be produced with a controlled morphology and growth direction. As the concentration of OA increases, the growth direction evolves from the [100] to the higher surface-energy [110] and [112] directions under the more thermodynamically controlled growth conditions. In the synthesis involving chemical vapor transport and the substitution reaction, the use of a lower growth temperature causes the higher surface-energy growth direction to change from [100] to [110]. The high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed that a thinner oxide-layer was produced on the surface of the PbS NWs by the substitution reaction. We fabricated field effect transistors using single PbS NW, which showed intrinsic p-type semiconductor characteristics for all three routes. For the PbS NW with a thinner oxide layer, the carrier mobility was measured to be as high as 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

18.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 5(3): 225-9, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20173755

RESUMO

All existing transistors are based on the use of semiconductor junctions formed by introducing dopant atoms into the semiconductor material. As the distance between junctions in modern devices drops below 10 nm, extraordinarily high doping concentration gradients become necessary. Because of the laws of diffusion and the statistical nature of the distribution of the doping atoms, such junctions represent an increasingly difficult fabrication challenge for the semiconductor industry. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new type of transistor in which there are no junctions and no doping concentration gradients. These devices have full CMOS functionality and are made using silicon nanowires. They have near-ideal subthreshold slope, extremely low leakage currents, and less degradation of mobility with gate voltage and temperature than classical transistors.

19.
Exp Anim ; 57(5): 433-7, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18946179

RESUMO

The majority of newly acquired nonhuman primates encounter serious problems adapting themselves to new environments or facilities. In particular, loss of appetite and abnormal behavior can occur in response to environmental stresses. These adaptation abnormalities can ultimately have an affect on the animal's growth and well-being. In this study, we evaluated the affects of a puzzle feeder on the food intake and abnormal behavior of newly acquired rhesus monkeys for a short period. The puzzle feeder was applied to 47- to 58-month-old animals that had never previously encountered one. We found that there was no difference in the change of food intake between the bucket condition and the puzzle feeder condition. In contrast, the time spent for consumption of food was three times longer in the puzzle feeder condition than in the bucket condition. Two monkeys initially exhibited stereotypic behavior. One showed a decreasing, and the other an increasing pattern of abnormal behavior after introduction of the puzzle feeder. In conclusion, this result suggests that over a short period, the puzzle feeder can only affect the time for food consumption since it failed to affect the food intake and did not consistently influence stereotypic behaviors in newly acquired rhesus monkeys.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 19(4): 289-96, 2003 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14615085

RESUMO

A photometric immunosensor that can be used for on-site diagnosis has been constructed. The sensor system was assembled by partially superimposing a nitrocellulose membrane strip (the lower) containing an immobilized antigen on the surface with a glass fiber membrane strip (the upper) including two electrodes on the opposite surfaces. To amplify the signal, we introduced a liposome, containing ruthenium molecules trapped in the core, chemically coupled to an antibody specific to the analyte (e.g. Legionella antigen). In the presence of the analyte, immune complexes were formed by antigen-antibody reactions upon addition of the immuno-liposome into a sample. This mixture was then absorbed by the capillary action from the bottom of the membrane strip. The liposome particles in the complexes were carried by a medium through the antigen pad without interaction, while free immuno-liposome was trapped by immune reactions on the pad surfaces. The aqueous medium influx into the glass pad dissolved a detergent pre-located within the compartment and the liposome rupture thereby released ruthenium molecules into the solution. The molecules were oxidized on the electrode surfaces and produced an electro-chemiluminescence (ECL) in proportion to the analyte concentration. The signal generation based on ECL resulted in an exponential dose-response pattern and the analyte detection limit of 2 ng/ml was approximately 10-fold more sensitive than that obtained from a conventional system.


Assuntos
Antígenos/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Lipossomos/química , Membranas Artificiais , Rutênio/química , Adsorção , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/análise , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/química , Antígenos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Colorimetria/métodos , Eletroquímica/métodos , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Imunoensaio/métodos , Legionella pneumophila/química , Lipoproteínas/análise , Lipoproteínas/química , Medições Luminescentes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rutênio/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
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