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1.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 2103-2110, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913379

RESUMO

Quantum dots (QDs) have shown great potential for next generation displays owing to their fascinating optoelectronic characteristics. In this work, we present a novel full-color display based on blue organic light emitting diodes (BOLEDs) and patterned red and green QD color conversion layers (CCLs). To enable efficient blue-to-green or blue-to-red photoconversion, micrometer-thick QD films with a uniform surface morphology are obtained by utilizing UV-induced polymerization. The uniform QD layers are directly inkjet printed on red and green color filters to further eliminate the residual blue emissions. Based on this QD-BOLED architecture, a 6.6-inch full-color display with 95% Broadcasting Service Television 2020 (BT.2020) color gamut and wide viewing-angles is successfully demonstrated. The inkjet printing method introduced in this work provides a cost-effective way to extend the applications of QDs for full-color displays.

2.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 79: 533-540, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629050

RESUMO

A bilayer membrane (GKU) with a commercial polyurethane wound dressing as an outer layer and electrospun gelatin/keratin nanofibrous mat as an inner layer was fabricated as a novel wound dressing. Scanning electron micrographs showed that gelatin/keratin nanofibers had a uniform morphology and bead-free structure with average fiber diameter of 160.4nm. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay using L929 fibroblast cells indicated that the residues released from the gelatin/keratin composite nanofibrous mat accelerated cell proliferation. Cell attachment experiments revealed that adhered cells spread better and migrated deeper into the gelatin/keratin nanofibrous mat than that into the gelatin nanofibrous mat. In animal studies, compared with the bilayer membrane without keratin, gauze and commercial wound dressing, Comfeel®, GKU membrane gave much more number of blood vessels and a greater reduction in wound area at 4days, and better wound repair at 14days with a thicker epidermis and larger number of newly formed hair follicles. GKU membrane, thus, could be a good candidate for wound dressing applications.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Animais , Bandagens , Gelatina , Queratinas , Pele
3.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 12(1): 420, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629208

RESUMO

We present new normally off GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that overcome the typical limitations in multi-mesa-channel (MMC) width through modulation of the via-hole-length to regulate the charge neutrality screen effect. We have prepared enhancement-mode (E-mode) GaN HEMTs having widths of up to 300 nm, based on an enhanced surface pinning effect. E-mode GaN HEMTs having MMC structures and widths as well as via-hole-lengths of 100 nm/2 µm and 300 nm/6 µm, respectively, exhibited positive threshold voltages (V th) of 0.79 and 0.46 V, respectively. The on-resistances of the MMC and via-hole-length structures were lower than those of typical tri-gate nanoribbon GaN HEMTs. In addition, the devices not only achieved the E-mode but also improved the power performance of the GaN HEMTs and effectively mitigated the device thermal effect. We controlled the via-hole-length sidewall surface pinning effect to obtain the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Our findings suggest that via-hole-length normally off GaN HEMTs have great potential for use in next-generation power electronics.

4.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 11(1): 235, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27129687

RESUMO

In this study, films of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) were prepared through remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium and oxygen plasma. The chemical composition and optical properties of the Ga2O3 thin films were investigated; the saturation growth displayed a linear dependence with respect to the number of ALD cycles. These uniform ALD films exhibited excellent uniformity and smooth Ga2O3-GaN interfaces. An ALD Ga2O3 film was then used as the gate dielectric and surface passivation layer in a metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT), which exhibited device performance superior to that of a corresponding conventional Schottky gate HEMT. Under similar bias conditions, the gate leakage currents of the MOS-HEMT were two orders of magnitude lower than those of the conventional HEMT, with the power-added efficiency enhanced by up to 9 %. The subthreshold swing and effective interfacial state density of the MOS-HEMT were 78 mV decade(-1) and 3.62 × 10(11) eV(-1) cm(-2), respectively. The direct-current and radio-frequency performances of the MOS-HEMT device were greater than those of the conventional HEMT. In addition, the flicker noise of the MOS-HEMT was lower than that of the conventional HEMT.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(38): 21433-41, 2015 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26340378

RESUMO

Patterning and alignment of conductive nanowires are essential for good electrical isolation and high conductivity in various applications. Herein a facile bottom-up, additive technique is developed to pattern and align silver nanowires (AgNWs) by manipulating wetting of dispersions in microchannels. By forming hydrophobic/hydrophilic micropatterns down to 8 µm with fluoropolymer (Cytop) and SiO2, the aqueous AgNW dispersions with the optimized surface tension and viscosity self-assemble into microdroplets and then dry to form anisotropic AgNW networks. The alignment degree characterized by the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) can be well-controlled from 39.8° to 84.1° by changing the width of microchannels. A mechanism is proposed and validated by statistical analysis on AgNW alignment, and a static model is proposed to guide the patterning of general NWs. The alignment reduced well the electrical resistivity of AgNW networks by a factor of 5 because of the formation of efficient percolation path for carrier conduction.

6.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 505, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25258616

RESUMO

The flip chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (FC UV-LEDs) with a wavelength of 365 nm are developed with the ex situ reactive plasma deposited (RPD) AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) by an atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (AP MOCVD). The ex situ RPD AlN nucleation layer can significantly reduce dislocation density and thus improve the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers. Utilizing high-resolution X-ray diffraction, the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve shows that the crystalline quality of the epitaxial layer with the (RPD) AlN nucleation layer is better than that with the low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer. The threading dislocation density (TDD) is estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which shows the reduction from 6.8 × 10(7) cm(-2) to 2.6 × 10(7) cm(-2). Furthermore, the light output power (LOP) of the LEDs with the RPD AlN nucleation layer has been improved up to 30 % at a forward current of 350 mA compared to that of the LEDs grown on PSS with conventional LT-GaN nucleation layer.

7.
Opt Express ; 22(4): 4516-22, 2014 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24663772

RESUMO

Micro-patterned PDMS film was fabricated and combined with LED chip on board (COB) package to improve the emission uniformity of LED chip. The micro scale patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) was used as a mold to fabricate micro-cone patterned PDMS (MC-PDMS) film. A strong scattering effect from this MC-PDMS film can be verified by the high haze ratio and the Bi-directional Transmission effect. The angle dependent color temperature measurement system was used to measure the ΔCCT of COB with and without MC-PDMS. The measurement results indicate that the ΔCCT was reduced from 1025K to 428K. This improvement can effectively eliminate the yellow ring effect of LED chip. This technology can be thus considered as a cost-effective way for the next generation of light source packages.

8.
ACS Nano ; 7(8): 7318-29, 2013 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23906340

RESUMO

We present systematic works in characterization of CIGS nanotip arrays (CIGS NTRs). CIGS NTRs are obtained by a one-step ion-milling process by a direct-sputtering process of CIGS thin films (CIGS TF) without a postselenization process. At the surface of CIGS NTRs, a region extending to 100 nm in depth with a lower copper concentration compared to that of CIGS TF has been discovered. After KCN washing, removal of secondary phases can be achieved and a layer with abundant copper vacancy (V(Cu)) was left. Such compositional changes can be a benefit for a CIGS solar cell by promoting formation of Cd-occupied Cu sites (Cd(Cu)) at the CdS/CIGS interface and creates a type-inversion layer to enhance interface passivation and carrier extraction. The raised V(Cu) concentration and enhanced Cd diffusion in CIGS NTRs have been verified by energy dispersive spectrometry. Strengthened adhesion of Al:ZnO (AZO) thin film on CIGS NTRs capped with CdS has also been observed in SEM images and can explain the suppressed series resistance of the device with CIGS NTRs. Those improvements in electrical characteristics are the main factors for efficiency enhancement rather than antireflection.

9.
Anticancer Drugs ; 23(2): 191-9, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22008852

RESUMO

In our previous studies, we demonstrated that 2,6-bis-(2-chloroacetamido) anthraquinone (B1) showed a highly significant cytotoxic effect. However, its influence in the cell cycle and apoptotic induction effects has not been investigated yet. Here we report the antiproliferative effect of B1, for which IC50 values were 0.57 µmol/l for lung cancer A549 cells, 0.63 µmol/l for colon cancer HT-29 cells, and 0.53 µmol/l for breast cancer MCF-7 cells. DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), an essential enzyme in DNA synthesis and meiotic division, is highly expressed in cancer cells. Some currently used clinical anticancer drugs (doxorubicin and mitoxantrone) targeting Topo II are very effective antineoplastic agents. B1, sharing the basic structure of known Topo II inhibitors, demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on Topo II bioactivity. In A549 cells, B1 increased apoptotic cell population with induction of Fas, Bax, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and by reduction of Bcl-2 expression. Moreover, cell cycle analysis indicated that B1 induced G1 phase arrest through modulation of G1 cell cycle regulatory proteins, such as the downregulation of cyclin D1 and upregulation of Cip/p21, Kip1/p27, and p53. Thus, our study suggests that B1, with the ability to inhibit Topo II activity and cause cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis, has potential as a novel anticancer agent.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/farmacologia , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase , Estrutura Molecular
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 697(1-2): 75-82, 2011 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21641421

RESUMO

This article reports the integration of the fiber optic-particle plasmon resonance (FO-PPR) biosensor with a microfluidic chip to reduce response time and improve detection limit. The microfluidic chip made of poly(methyl methacrylate) had a flow-channel of dimensions 4.0 cm × 900 µm × 900 µm. A partially unclad optical fiber with gold or silver nanoparticles on the core surface was placed within the flow-channel, where the volume of the flow space was about 14 µL. Results using sucrose solutions of various refractive indexes show that the refractive index resolution improves by 2.4-fold in the microfluidic system. The microfluidic chip is capable of delivering a precise amount of biological samples to the detection area without sample dilution. Several receptor/analyte pairs were chosen to examine the biosensing capability of the integrated platform: biotin/streptavidin, biotin/anti-biotin, DNP/anti-DNP, OVA/anti-OVA, and anti-MMP-3/MMP-3. Results show that the response time to achieve equilibrium can be shortened from several thousand seconds in a conventional liquid cell to several hundred seconds in a microfluidic flow-cell. In addition, the detection limit also improves by about one order of magnitude. Furthermore, the normalization by using the relative change of transmission response as the sensor output alleviate the demand on precise optical alignment, resulting in reasonably good chip-to-chip measurement reproducibility.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Fibras Ópticas , Integração de Sistemas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Ouro/química , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Limite de Detecção , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Líquido Sinovial/enzimologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Biomicrofluidics ; 4(4): 46502, 2010 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21079695

RESUMO

This paper reports using femtosecond laser marker to fabricate the three-dimensional interior microstructures in one closed flow channel of plastic substrate. Strip-like slots in the dimensions of 800 µm×400 µm×65 µm were ablated with pulse Ti:sapphire laser at 800 nm (pulse duration of ∼120 fs with 1 kHz repetition rate) on acrylic slide. After ablation, defocused beams were used to finish the surface of microstructures. Having finally polished with sonication, the laser fabricated structures are highly precise with the arithmetic roughness of 1.5 and 4.5 nm. Fabricating such highly precise microstructures cannot be accomplished with nanosecond laser marking or other mechanical drilling methods. In addition, since laser ablation can directly engrave interior microstructures in one closed chip, glue smearing problems to damage molded microstructures possibly to occur during the chip sealing procedures can be avoided too.

12.
Anal Chem ; 82(3): 1123-7, 2010 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20055421

RESUMO

This article reports the use of ac-field-induced charges at the corners of microstructures on fiber-optic sensing chips to generate electro-osmotic vortex flows in flow cell channels that can accelerate solute binding on the fiber. The sensing chip made of a cyclic olefin copolymer COC substrate contained a flow cell channel of dimensions 15 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm. A partially unclad optical fiber was placed within the channel. Relief-like strip structures of 25-mum thickness fabricated on the channel bottom were produced with an injection-molding process. The external electric field lines penetrating through the corners of the plastic microstructures induce charges on the corner surfaces to build up electrical double layers. When a high-frequency ac field (approximately 100 kHz) is used to flip the field polarities quickly, neutralization of the induced charge cannot be accomplished. The electrical double layer is therefore sustained. When absorbed charges in the double layer are driven by the external field, electro-osmotic flows are generated. The unclad portion of the fiber was coated with biotin-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The streptavidin solution was filled in the channel from the feeding tube, and the ac field (approximately 50 V/cm) was subsequently turned on for 30 s. The ac-field-induced electro-osmotic flows can accelerate solute transport in the sensing channel to enhance the binding kinetics of streptavidin molecules with biotin probes implanted on the gold nanoparticle surface. As a result, the fiber-optic localized plasmon resonance (FO-LPR) sensing signal becomes steady as soon as the external field is turned off. In contrast, the signal cannot reach steady state until 200-300 s in a typical static sensing cell. A significant reduction in the sensing response time is demonstrated. The binding assay of streptavidin with immobilized biotin on gold nanoparticle-coated sensing fibers was validated using this mixing device. The detection limit for streptavidin of approximately 10(-11) M is close to the reported values obtained using static cells. Similarly, the sensing response time of an orchid Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) sample was reduced from 1000 to 330 s when an external field was applied to mix the fluid for 60 s, even though the detection limit was maintained.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Fibras Ópticas , Tobamovirus/isolamento & purificação , Alcenos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Biotina/química , Biotina/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Proteínas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ligação Proteica , Estreptavidina/análise
13.
Opt Express ; 17(26): 24250-60, 2009 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20052136

RESUMO

Compact and passive-alignment 4-channel x 2.5-Gbps optical interconnect modules are developed based on the silicon optical benches (SiOBs) of 5 x 5 mm2. A silicon-based 45 degrees micro-reflector and V-groove arrays are fabricated on the SiOB using anisotropic wet etching. Moreover, high-frequency transmission lines of 4 channel x 2.5 Gbps, and bonding pads with Au/Sn eutectic solder are also deposited on the SiOB. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array and photo-detector (PD) array are flip-chip assembled on the intended positions. The multi-mode fiber (MMF) ribbons are passively aligned and mounted onto the V-groove arrays. Without the assistance of additional optics, the coupling efficiencies of VCSEL-to-MMF in the transmitting part and MMF-to-PD in the receiving part can be as high as -5.65 and -1.98 dB, respectively, under an optical path of 180 microm. The 1-dB coupling tolerance of greater than +/- 20 microm is achieved for both transmitting and receiving parts. Eye patterns of both parts are demonstrated using 15-bit PRBS at 2.5 Gbps.


Assuntos
Lasers , Lentes , Fotometria/instrumentação , Refratometria/instrumentação , Silício/química , Telecomunicações/instrumentação , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Micro-Ondas , Miniaturização , Integração de Sistemas
14.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 55(5): 45-55, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18836974

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' disease management defined as prescription management (medication adherence), symptom management (COPD knowledge and self-care efficacy) and emotional management. A purposive sampling of 104 COPD patients from southern Taiwan enrolled in a case management program was recruited. After agreeing to participate, patients completed a questionnaire describing their medication adherence, self-care efficacy, and emotional state and provided personal demographic information. Medication adherence ranged from 20% to 30%. Mean COPD knowledge, as tested using a specially developed questionnaire, was 64.4%. Very few subjects (3.8%) expressed confidence in performing self-care behaviors. Only eight patients (7.7%) reported significant depression. Analysis of variance determined that COPD patients who lived alone or in assisted living facilities had less symptom management competency. COPD severity was not found to be a determinant of self-management behavior. The findings of this study challenge the widespread belief that COPD case management program should be determined based on disease severity.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Autocuidado , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 22(4): 563-7, 2006 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16837182

RESUMO

We demonstrate efficient mixing in a micro-fluidic reservoir smaller than 10 microL using ac electro-osmosis driven by field-induced polarization. Our mixing device, of that electrodes are outside of the mixing unit, consists of three circular reservoirs (3mm in diameter) connected by a 1 mm x 1 mm channel. Unlike dc electro-osmosis, whose polarization is from charged substrate functional groups, this new mechanism uses the external field to capacitively charge the surface and the surface capacitance becomes the key factor in the electrokinetic mobility. The charging and mixing are enhanced at tailor-designed channel corners by exploiting the high normal fields at geometric singularities. The induced surface dielectric polarization and the resulting electric counter-ion double layer produce an effective Zeta potential in excess of 1 V, over one order of magnitude larger than the channel Zeta potential. The resulting ac electro-osmotic slip velocity scales quadratically with respect to the applied field, in contrast to the linear scaling of dc electro-osmosis and at 1cm/s and larger, exceeds the classical dc values by two orders of magnitude. The polarization is non-uniform at the corners due to field leakage to the dielectric substrate and the inhomogeneous slip velocity produces intense mixing vortices that effectively homogenize solutes in 30s in a 3mm reservoir, in contrast to hour-long mixing by pure diffusion.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas/química , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Microeletrodos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Difusão , Eletroquímica/métodos , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Osmose , Estresse Mecânico
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1111(2): 252-7, 2006 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16288768

RESUMO

We report the procedures of machining microchannels on Vivak co-polyester thermoplastic substrates using a simple industrial CO(2) laser marker. To avoid overheating the substrates, we develop low-power marking techniques in nearly anaerobic environment. These procedures are able to machine microchannels at various aspect ratios. Either straight or serpent channel can be easily marked. Like the wire-embossed channel walls, the ablated channel surfaces become charged after alkaline hydrolysis treatment. Stable electroosmotic flow in the charged conduit is observed to be of the same order of magnitude as that in fused silica capillary. Typical dynamic coating protocols to alter the conduit surface properties are transferable to the ablated channels. The effects of buffer acidity on electroosmotic mobility in both bare and coated channels are similar to those in fused silica capillaries. Using video microscopy we also demonstrate that this device is useful in distinguishing the electrophoretic mobility of bare and latex particles from that of functionalized ones.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Lasers , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Plásticos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 20(10): 2126-30, 2005 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15741085

RESUMO

In this paper, we report the dependence of buffer pH and coating surfactant chain-length on electro-osmotic (EO) mobility in co-polyester microchannels. Thermoplastics co-polyester hydrolyzes to anionic functionality to create electrical double layer on the micro-channel walls. These negatively charged sites are partially or completely screened when long-chain surfactants are added into the buffer. This ancillary technique to modify surface charge polarity to avoid analyte adsorption is known as dynamic coating. We develop a theory to predict the EO mobility tendency on buffer acidity considering the combination of pH-dependent surfactant aggregation and surface dissociation. Our findings of pH-dependent EO mobility in coated channels, using three types of quaternary ammonium surfactants, lauryltrimethyammonium bromide (LTAB), trimethyl (tetradecyl) ammonium bromide (TTAB), and cetyltrimethyammonium bromide (CTAB), agree with our theoretical prediction. We also explain the chain-length dependence of mobility with a collaborative adsorption mechanism of surfactant aggregates.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Eletroquímica/métodos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Plásticos/química , Tensoativos/química , Tampões (Química) , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/análise , Simulação por Computador , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Peso Molecular , Pressão Osmótica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/análise
18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 20(10): 2131-5, 2005 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15741086

RESUMO

In capillary electrophoresis, effective optical signal quality improvement is obtained when high frequency (>100 Hz) external pulse fields modulate analyte velocities with synchronous lock-in detection. However, the pulse frequency is constrained under a critical value corresponding to the time required for the bulk viscous flow, which arises due to viscous momentum diffusion from the electro-osmotic slip in the Debye layer, to reach steady-state. By solving the momentum diffusion equation for transient bulk flow in the micro-channel, we show that this set-in time to steady-state and hence, the upper limit for the pulse frequency is dependent on the characteristic diffusion length scale and therefore the channel geometry; for cylindrical capillaries, the set-in time is approximately one half of that for rectangular slot channels. From our estimation of the set-in time and hence the upper frequency modulation limit, we propose that the half width of planar channels does not exceed 100 microm and that the radii of cylindrical channels be limited to 140 microm such that there is a finite working bandwidth range above 100 Hz and below the upper limit in order for flicker noise to be effectively suppressed.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Biopolímeros/efeitos da radiação , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Eletroforese Capilar/instrumentação , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Modelos Químicos , Simulação por Computador , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Microfluídica/métodos
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