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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150969, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656600

RESUMO

Because of their highly persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have become emerging contaminants and have been included in Annex A (elimination) of the Stockholm Convention since 2017. The contamination of SCCPs has been observed in the environment and biota worldwide but has not been detected in Taiwanese river ecosystems. Thus, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of SCCPs in sediments and fish from 30 major rivers in Taiwan and to evaluate the risk of SCCPs to river ecosystems and human health. The concentrations of SCCPs in sediments and fish ranged from ND (not detected) to 12.6 mg/kg dw and ND to 2.07 mg/kg ww, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs in sediments were significantly correlated with some indicators of the discharge sources and water quality variables, indicating that SCCPs were released via human activities and various discharges into rivers and accumulated in sediments. The bioaccumulation of SCCPs in fish exhibited species-specific profiles and was related to environmental contamination levels and the living pattern and trophic level of the fish. The SCCP levels in sediments from 20 major rivers in Taiwan might pose a potential ecological risk to river ecosystems according to the criteria of the Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines in Canada, the biota-sediment accumulation factor and the risk quotient. Consumption of SCCP-contaminated river fish by different gender and age groups showed no significant health risk to residents in Taiwan evaluated by the estimated daily intake and hazard quotient. However, there was a health concern for the 0- to 3-year-old group due to the consumption of contaminated river fish at a bioaccessibility of 100% for SCCPs by the margin of exposure. Routine monitoring of SCCPs in river ecosystems is needed to protect aquatic organisms and human health.

2.
Toxics ; 9(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564367

RESUMO

The phthalate and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are modern chemical substances and extensively existing in the indoor environment. The European Commission stipulated the "European Unified Test Criteria", since 2011, for the declared specifications of building products (CEN/TS 16516), based on the "lowest concentrations of interest (LCI)", the index pollutants, test method, and emission standard of "phthalate" and "SVOC" were specified in detail. The purpose of this study is to use six common indoor floor construction products in Taiwan (regenerated pseudoplastic rubber flooring, healthy pseudoplastic imitation wood floor, regenerated pseudoplastic rubber flooring, PVC floor tile/floor, plastic click floor, composite floor covered with carpet) to detect the changes in the concentration of phthalate emitted to the air. The ISO 16000-25 Indoor air-Part 25: Determination of the emission of semi-volatile organic compounds by building products-micro-chamber method is used to build a DS-BMEMC (glass micro-chamber: volume 630 mL), the SVOC, including phthalate, is collected in two stages, in the stable conditions of temperature 25 °C, relative humidity 50% and air change rate 2 times/h, the Stage 1 emission detection experiment (24 h) is performed, and then the Stage 2 heating-up desorption emission detection experiment (40 min air sampling) is performed, the temperature rises to 200-220 °C, the phthalate and SVOC adsorbed on the glass micro-chamber is desorbed at a high temperature to catch the air substances, the air is caught by Tenax®-TA and Florisil® adsorption tube, and then the GC/MS and LC/MSMS analysis methods are used for qualitative and emission concentration analyses of SVOC of two-stage emission, respectively. The findings show that the floor construction materials emit nine phthalate SVOCs: DEHP, DINP, DNOP, DIDP, BBP, DBP, DIBP, DEP, and DMP, the two-stage emission concentrations are different, Stage 1 (normal temperature) emission concentration of six floor construction materials is 0.01-1.2% of Stage 2 (high temperature) emission concentration, meaning the phthalate SVOC of floor construction materials is unlikely to be volatilized or emitted at normal temperature. An interesting finding is that only S3 was detected DINP 72.6 (µg/m3) in stage 1. Others were detected DINP in stage 2. This might be because S3 has carpet on the surface. This implies that floor material with carpet may have an emission of DINP at normal temperature. The result of this study refers to the limited value evaluation of EU structural material standard emission TSVOC ≤ 0.1 ug/m3, the floor building material emissions are much higher than the evaluation criteria, increasing the health risk of users. The detection method and baseline can be used as the standard for controlling the emission of phthalate SVOC of Taiwan's green building material labeling system in the future.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148867, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328933

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are diverse contaminants of global concern because of their ubiquity, toxicity, and carcinogenicity to many organisms, including humans. This study determines the distribution and sources of PAHs in sediments and fish from 30 major rivers in Taiwan, and the risks these PAHs pose to river ecosystems and human health. The total concentrations of 26 PAHs in sediments and fish were 0.016-7.44 mg/kg dw and 0.096-5.51 mg/kg ww, respectively. The PAH composition in sediments differed from that in fish, indicating that sediments may not be the major contributor of PAHs to fish. The accumulation of different PAH compounds in fish was species-specific, depending on the lipid content, living pattern, and trophic level of each fish species, and on the level of environmental contamination. The diagnostic ratios revealed that PAHs in the sediment primarily originated from pyrogenic sources, with some contribution from petrogenic sources. The contribution of each source varied with the sampling site and season. Several water and air quality variables were found to significantly correlate with PAH concentration in sediments and fish, suggesting that PAHs were mainly derived from wastewater discharge and combustion emissions. The 95th percentile risk quotient values suggested that PAHs in sediment from six rivers pose high ecotoxicological risks. The toxic equivalents of benzo[a]pyrene for 16 PAHs in fish were 12-108 µg/kg dw. A human risk assessment using the 95th percentile values of hazard quotient, hazard index, and margin of exposure revealed that the consumption of contaminated fish muscle poses no remarkable risk to human health. However, the 95th percentile carcinogenic risk values indicated that benzo[a]pyrene concentrations in some fish muscles may pose a carcinogenic risk. Benzo[a]pyrene risk management measures are, therefore, necessary.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Taiwan , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147371, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965815

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are one of the most widely used plasticizers in polymer products and humans are increasingly exposed to them. The constant exposure to PAEs-contained products has raised some concerns against human health. Thus, the impacts of PAEs and their metabolites on human health require a comprehensive study for a better understanding of the associated risks. Here, we attempt to review eight main health effects of PAE exposure according to the most up-to-date studies. We found that epidemiological studies demonstrated a consistent association between PAE exposure (especially DEHP and its metabolites) and a decrease in sperm quality in males and symptom development of ADHD in children. Overall, we found insufficient evidence and lack of consistency of the association between PAE exposure and cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, atherosclerosis, and CHD), thyroid diseases, respiratory diseases, diabetes, obesity, kidney diseases, intelligence performance in children, and other reproductive system-related diseases (anogenital distance, girl precocious puberty, and endometriosis). Future studies (longitudinal and follow-up investigations) need to thoroughly perform in large-scale populations to yield more consistent and powerful results and increase the precision of the association as well as enhance the overall understanding of potential human health risks of PAEs in long-term exposure.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Criança , China , Dibutilftalato , Ésteres , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Plastificantes/toxicidade
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The regulation of thyroid hormones in the early stages of gestation plays a crucial role in the outcome of a pregnancy. Furthermore, thyroid hormones are fundamental for the fetal development of all organs, including endocrine hormone changes in uterus. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been shown to have an effect on thyroid hormone homeostasis in newborns, which affects their later development. Few studies have proposed how phthalates could alter thyroid function through several mechanisms and the possible effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis of phthalates on pregnant women. However, the effects of cord blood phthalates and prenatal phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones in newborns remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aim to follow up on our previous established subjects and determine the correlation between phthalate exposure and thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 61 pregnant women from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a medical hospital in southern Taiwan and followed up. High performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyze urine samples for five phthalate metabolites. Serum levels of thyroid hormones were analyzed using electrochemoluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method. We used Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients to evaluate the correlation between each phthalate metabolites in serum and the thyroid hormone levels in fetus and parturient. Finally, multiple logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between hormones and their corresponding phthalate metabolites in cord blood. RESULTS: High MBP in cord blood was correlated with negative cord serum TSH in newborns (r = -0.25, p < 0.06). By using multiple linear regression after adjusting for potential confounders (gestational and maternal age), cord serum MBP levels showed a negative association with cord serum TSH (ß = 0.217, p < 0.05), cord serum T4 (ß = 1.71, p < 0.05) and cord serum T4 × TSH (ß = 42.8, p < 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that levels of cord serum TSH and T4 in newborns was significantly negatively associated with cord serum MBP levels after adjusting for significant covariate. The fall in TSH in newborns may potentially be delaying their development.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Taiwan , Hormônios Tireóideos
6.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115732, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045582

RESUMO

The health effects of non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) include liver, immune, neurodevelopmental, and neurobehavioral effects in addition to hormone alteration. Among 209 PCB congeners, six indicator PCBs (ICES-6) account for about half of NDL-PCBs present in feed and food. The objectives of the current study were first to examine the levels of total PCBs, NDL-PCBs, and ICES-6 PCBs in 200 foods commonly consumed in Taiwan and, second, to estimate the cumulative health risks of NDL-PCB consumption. We suggest a risk management strategy that identifies foodstuffs with particularly high NDL-PCB content. In 200 food samples, which were grouped into 12 categories and 64 food types, 51 PCB congeners were detected. The concentrations of ICES-6 PCBs in all samples were lower than the maximum levels for NDL-PCBs in foodstuffs set by the European Union. PCB-153, PCB-138, and PCB-180 were the major congeners in all food, indicating that the food was contaminated in the past. ICES-6 PCBs contributed 42.2%-52.9% of total NDL-PCBs in all tested foodstuffs. The average estimated daily intake (EDI) of PCBs ranged from 1.22 ng/kg bw/day to 2.89 ng/kg bw/day in different age groups (95th quantile [P95]: 4.12-10.28 ng/kg bw/day). The P95 EDI in 3-6-year-olds was higher than 10 ng/kg/day. A qualitative sensitivity analysis in ICES-6 PCBs exposure showed that for the 3- to 6-year-old group, the highest sensitivity was how much fish they ate (37.6%) and its concentration (32.5%). The consumption of pork, eggs, fish, and other seafood accounts for over 90% of ICES-6 PCBs intake, and these foods should be highlighted in guidelines regarding NDL-PCB intake.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124241, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187795

RESUMO

3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol (glycidol), and their esters are well-known food contaminants mainly formed by the heat processing of certain refined oils and coexist in various kinds of foodstuffs. However, the combined health effect and the underlying mechanism of 3-MCPD and glycidol coexposure are not well-understood. In this study, we investigated the systemic toxicity effects and the nephrotoxicity mechanisms of 3-MCPD and glycidol coexposure with in vitro and in vivo models, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. It was found that 3-MCPD and glycidol coexposure for 28 days synergistically induced toxicity in the kidney, lung, testis, and heart in C57BL/6 mice. Kidney was the most sensitive organ to coexposure, and the coexposure had a synergistic effect on inflammation and cytotoxicity through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and the induction of necroptosis, and autophagic cell death in NRK-52E cells. Moreover, the NGS results revealed the genes changes associated with nephrotoxicity, inflammation and with the broad toxicity effects induced by 3-MCPD or glycidol alone or in combination, which were consistent with the results of in vitro and in vivo models. In summary, we report for the first time of the comprehensive toxicity effects and the mechanisms caused by 3-MCPD and glycidol coexposure.


Assuntos
Morte Celular Autofágica , alfa-Cloridrina , Animais , Compostos de Epóxi , Ésteres/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inflamassomos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Necroptose , Propanóis , alfa-Cloridrina/análise , alfa-Cloridrina/toxicidade
8.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1852, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013501

RESUMO

There are a multitude of factors influencing student employability, with all previous studies basing their conclusions upon predetermined variables according to different theories and exploring the relevance between them. In this study, teachers' knowledge transfer and market orientation-are put forward on the basis of the marketing concepts in order to explore the conspicuousness between various factors within the structural model. This study uses students from colleges in Taiwan and mainland China, and purposive sampling is adopted to acquire samples required for statistics. A total of 1,222 valid questionnaires were collected from Taiwanese and Mainland China students. The results indicate that knowledge transfer, market orientation and absorptive capacity have significant impacts on student employability, that the absorptive capacity has a positive moderating effect on the influence of knowledge transfer and market orientation on student employability. Based on results and findings, this study will provide suggestions for theoretical and practical implications.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115486, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911335

RESUMO

Perchlorate is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that contaminate various foodstuffs. Exposure to perchlorate may cause severe health problems, mainly thyroid dysfunction. However, information on perchlorate contamination of consumer foods in Taiwan is limited. This study investigated perchlorate levels in 310 food samples belonging to 12 food groups collected from Taiwanese markets. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to assess the related exposure to Taiwanese people. Perchlorate was detected in 65% of the samples and high levels were identified in certain plant-origin, fruit, and processed food samples. A probabilistic approach was used to estimate daily dietary dose (Monte Carlo-estimated 95th percentile dietary exposure [MCS 95]) by using the Taiwan National Food Consumption database for 14 sex/age groups. The highest and lowest average daily doses (ADDs) were in the age groups of >65 years (MCS 95 = 3.60/3.90 [male/female] µg/kg bw/day) and 16-18 years (MCS 95 = 1.70/1.47 [M/F] µg/kg bw/day), respectively. The 95th percentile of the hazard index of exposure to perchlorate of all sex/age groups far exceeded the tolerable daily intake (0.3 µg/kg bw/day) and reference dose (0.7 µg/kg bw/day) set by the European Food Safety Authority and US EPA, respectively, but it was lower than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (10 µg/kg bw/day) suggested by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The intake quantity and concentrations of perchlorate from vegetables, fruits, and whole grains are the critical contributors for the ADDs and integrated risk of dietary exposure to perchlorate. Long-term exposure through diets should be considered, instead of focusing on individual EDC during dietary risk assessment in specific populations. Furthermore, cumulative risks for exposure to multiple contaminants, particularly those causing thyroid adverse effects, may be higher than that from perchlorate exposure alone.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Percloratos , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Percloratos/análise , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825657

RESUMO

Concerns about the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on human health are being raised by researchers because the risks of nanocosmetics like sunscreen are unknown. We explored the association between urinary oxidative stress markers and exposure of cosmetics salesclerks to 20 cosmetics that might contain titanium dioxide (TiO2)/zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs. We then recruited 40 cosmetics salesclerks and 24 clothing salesclerks and categorized them based on their exposure to ZnO and TiO2 NPs. Nineteen and 15 samples met the EU definition for TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials, respectively. Participants with a higher co-exposure index of ZnO and TiO2 NPs had a significantly higher base level of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosin (8-OHdG) concentrations than the lower co-exposure group (5.82 vs. 2.85 ng/mL, p < 0.001). After potential confounding factors had been adjusted for, the TiO2 and ZnO NP co-exposure index was significantly positively associated with the urinary 8-OHdG base concentration (ß = 0.308, 95% CI = 0.106 to 0.510) and the creatinine-adjusted concentration (ß = 0.486, 95% CI = 0.017 to 0.954). Current evidence suggests that the likelihood of harm from using sunscreens containing nanoparticles might result in higher urinary 8-OHdG. However, our limited number and types of sample cosmetics might underestimate the risk.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Titânio , Óxido de Zinco , Adulto , Afeto , Comércio , Cosméticos/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Titânio/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
11.
Biosci Rep ; 40(9)2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856711

RESUMO

The oral cancer incidence rate is slowly increasing and is now the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death due to its high metastasis and recurrence rate. Juniperus communis is used as a traditional Chinese medicine and has been proven to have anti-cancer activity against neuroblastomas. In the present study, we further investigated the anti-cancer mechanisms of J. communis extract (JCo) on oral cancer and evaluated the synergistic effects of JCo combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We found that JCo inhibited oral cancer cell growth, and that JCo might be less cytotoxic to normal cells than to cancer cells. After JCo treatment, cell cycle arrest was observed at the G0/G1 phase through modulation of p53/p21 and Rb signaling. JCo also caused an increase in the sub-G1 phase and cell apoptosis via the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. JCo combined with 5-FU presented a synergistic effect to reduce cell viability. In conclusion, JCo inhibited oral cancer cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and activating cell apoptosis, and JCo significantly synergized with 5-FU. JCo might have the potential to be an adjuvant and a new therapeutic drug for oral cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135488, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757555

RESUMO

The hepatic toxicity of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) has often been reported, but few studies have assessed insulin resistance or adipose tissue dysfunction. We analyzed the chronic health effects of moderate exposure to VCM on factory workers in Taiwan. Data were collected from personal air samples, urine samples, and immunohistochemical (IHC) examinations of 122 recruited voluntary participants. Air samples were analyzed to assess personal levels of exposure to VCM and ethylene dichloride (EDC). Urine samples were collected from each worker before they started and after they finished their daily shift. Urinary thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) levels were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). IHC examinations included liver function and serum adipokine level tests for insulin resistance. Consequently, the participants included for the final analysis were 113. After confounders had been adjusted for, the airborne VCM concentration significantly (P = 0.043) correlated with pre-shift urinary TDGA levels (ß = 0.194). A multivariate analysis showed a significant (P = 0.013) inverse correlation between the adiponectin:leptin ratio and the airborne VCM concentration (ß = -0.283), which means that exposure to VCM might increase the risk of insulin resistance and adiponectin abnormalities. We hypothesized that pre-shift urinary TDGA levels can be used as exposure biomarkers for the exposure of workers to VCM.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Leptina/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Cloreto de Vinil/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Taiwan
13.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113733, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838387

RESUMO

The occurrence of emergent contaminants, 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP), was investigated in sediments and fishes collected from the Tamsui River system to determine the factors that influence their distribution and their risk to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The concentrations of total PBDEs, DEHP, DBP, BBP, DEP, DMP, DnOP, BPA and NP in sediments were 1-955, ND-23570, <50-411, <50-430, ND-80, ND-<50, ND-<50, 1-144, 3-19624 µg/kg dw, respectively. The spatial-temporal distribution trends of these compounds in sediments could be attributed to urbanization, industrial discharge and effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The PBDE congener distribution patterns (BDE-209 was the dominant congener) in sediments reflected the occurrence of debromination of BDE-209 and the elution of penta-BDE from the treated products. The concentrations of total PBDEs, DEHP, DBP, BBP, DEP, DMP, DnOP, BPA and NP in fish muscles were 2-66, 17-1046, <10-231, <10-66, <30, ND-<30, ND-<30, 0.4-7 and 3-440 µg/kg ww, respectively. The species-specific bioaccumulation of these compounds by fish was found and four species particularly showed high bioaccumulation potential. BDE-47 was the predominant BDE congener in fish muscles, suggesting high bioavailability and bioaccumulation of this compound. The results of biota-sediment accumulation factors showed that BDE-47, 99, 100, 153 and 154 had relatively high bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential for some fish species. The ecological risk assessment showed that the concentrations of BPA and NP in sediments were likely to have adverse effects on aquatic organisms (risk quotients > 1). The human health risk assessment according to hazard quotients (HQs) and carcinogenic risks (CRs) revealed no remarkable risk to human health through consumption of fish contaminated with BDE-47, 99, 100, 154, 209, DEHP, BPA and NP.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Taiwan
14.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 728-734, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933770

RESUMO

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is commonly used in commercial products and factories. HBCDs can be detected in the air, bioaccumulated deposits, water, soil, sediments, and in biota and foodstuffs in the food-chain because they are not chemically bound to the polymer. We determined the levels of α-, ß-, and γ-HBCDs in 270 foodstuffs and the doses of HBCDs Taiwanese are normally exposed to. We also wanted to create a strategy of risk management for HBCDs based on margins of exposure (MOE). HBCDs were frequently detectible in fish, seafood, and poultry. Their highest concentrations were in fish, oil, poultry, and livestock. The highest estimated daily intake was in 0- to 3-year-olds (1.576 ng/kg/day), and lower in 3- to 6- (1.064 ng/kg/day), 6- to 12- (0.899 ng/kg/day), and lowest in 12- to 16- (0.632 ng/kg/day) year-olds. The exposure doses to HBCDs indicated no health concern for Taiwanese. Except for fish, significant concentrations of α- and γ-HBCDs were detected in many other foodstuffs, which might indicate that exposure to HBCD is a relatively recent problem. Therefore, one goal of a management policy should be to follow-up the flow direction of HBCDs in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Produtos Avícolas/análise , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Solo/química , Taiwan
15.
Environ Int ; 126: 184-192, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798199

RESUMO

Prostatic enlargement might affect up to 30% of men and can cause signs and symptoms in the lower urinary tract in the elderly. Imbalanced estrogen and androgen secretions are important in prostatic physiopathology. Phthalates-environmental endocrine disruptors-affect androgen secretion and disrupt sexual organs, including testes and the prostate, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Using European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines, we recruited from urology clinics in southern Taiwan 207 elderly men diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic enlargement between 2015 and 2017. We took blood and urine samples from all patients on the same day. We used multivariate linear regression, associations, and potential interactions after we had measured and analyzed oxidative stress (OS) markers, steroidal hormones, and 11 urinary phthalate metabolites, and then we adjusted for confounders. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite levels, particularly urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, were positively associated with androgen, estrogen, hormone ratios, inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and prostate volume (PV) (p < 0.05). PV and PSA were positively associated with androgen, estrogen, hormone ratios and OS markers (p < 0.05). The estimated percentages of exposure to phthalates in prostatic enlargement mediated by androgen, estrogen, and OS markers ranged from 3.5% to 63.1%. Exposure to DEHP promoted the progress of BPH by increasing dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E2), the converted enzymes aromatase and 5α reductase, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (8-OHdG and iNOS) production. Sex hormones and OS might be important hyperplasia-promoters after a patient has been exposed to phthalates, especially to DEHP.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/urina , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Androgênios/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Estrogênios/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/sangue , Taiwan
16.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210416, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677054

RESUMO

The adsorption of volatile organic compounds by building materials reduces the pollutant concentrations in indoor air. We collected three interior building materials with adsorption potentials-latex paint, micro-carbonized plywood, and moisture-buffering siding-used the sorptive building materials test (SBMT) to determine how much they reduced indoor formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations, and then assessed the consequent reduction in human cancer risk from HCHO inhalation. Adsorption of HCHO by building materials significantly improved the effective ventilation efficiency. For example, the equivalent ventilation rate for Celite siding-used for humidity control-was 1.44 m3/(m2·h) at 25°C, 50% relative humidity (RH); the loading factor (L) was 0.4 m2/m3, and the HCHO concentration was 0.2 ppm; this effect is equivalent to a higher ventilation rate of approximately 0.6 air changes per hour in a typical Taiwanese dwelling. There was also a substantial reduction of risk in Case MCP-2 (Cin,te: 245 µg/m3, 30°C, 50% RH): males: down 5.73 × 10-4; females: down 4.84 × 10-4). The selection of adsorptive building materials for interior surfaces, therefore, significantly reduces human inhalation of HCHO. Our findings should encourage developing and using innovative building materials that help improve indoor air quality and thus provide building occupants with healthier working and living environments.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Materiais de Construção/análise , Formaldeído/análise , Adsorção , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Feminino , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pintura , Medição de Risco , Taiwan , Ventilação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Madeira
17.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 143-152, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326386

RESUMO

4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are high-production and high-volume chemicals used to manufacture various commercial products. They are also ubiquitous contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems in wildlife and humans. We collected, from Taiwan cities with the highest food production, and analyzed, using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS), 278 food samples for NP and BPA from 11 categories. We found background levels of 100% for NP and 72% for BPA in total samples. High levels of contamination (up to 918 and 49.4 µg/kg) were found in some foods of seafood and animal origin. We used a probabilistic approach to calculate daily dietary dose (Monte Carlo-estimated 95th percentile dietary exposure [MCS 95]) from the Taiwan National Food Consumption database for each sex- and age-specified population. For NP and BPA, the highest average daily dose (ADDs) were in the 4- to 6-year-old group (MCS 95 = 1.57/1.28 and 0.157/0.147 [Male/Female] µg/kg bw/day, respectively), and the lowest ADDs were in the ≥65-year-old group (MCS 95 = 0.674/0.581 and 0.054/0.045 [M/F] µg/kg bw/day, respectively). Based on the European Food Safety Authority (4 µg/kg bw/day for BPA) and Danish Institute of Safety and Toxicology guidelines (5 µg/kg bw/day for NP), the 95th percentile HQ of NP and BPA intake in different sex- and age-specified groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary exposure. The intake quantity and concentrations of grains, livestock, and seafood are important variables for the integrated risk of NP and BPA. In conclusion, a combination of multiple and long-term exposure via food consumption should be considered rather than individual endocrine-disrupting chemicals during dietary risk assessment in specific populations. SUMMARY: The 95th percentile HQ of NP and BPA intake in different age and sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary exposure based on probabilistic and sensitive approach.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Fenóis/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Med Syst ; 42(11): 213, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264375

RESUMO

Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) is one of the most successful insurance programs in the world. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHIA) established the NHI-PharmaCloud as a platform to reduce medication duplication and other medication errors among the NHI-contracted facilities. The NHI-PharmaCloud can help pharmacists access patient medication information from the preceding 3 months to improve drug safety. The use of NHI-PharmaCloud can improve the quality of healthcare, but improvements cannot occur if pharmacists are unwilling to use the platform. Therefore, the main objective of our study is to investigate the factors affecting pharmacists' adoption of the NHI-PharmaCloud. This study develops a research model using theories of technology adoption, self-efficacy, and perceived risk and uses randomly distributed survey questionnaires to collect data from local pharmacists. The results show that self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, and perceived psychological risk are 3 critical factors that could affect pharmacists' willingness to use the NHI-PharmaCloud. The research results may also help NHIA to effectively promote the usage of the NHI-PharmaCloud in Taiwan. In addition, governments in other countries may refer to the results of this study when implementing their own PharmaCloud-type systems to improve drug safety.


Assuntos
Computação em Nuvem , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Farmacêuticos , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Taiwan
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 351: 215-223, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550555

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), recognised emerging contaminants, widely exist and persist in the environment. Samples were taken from a heavily contaminated farm in Taiwan located near a factory known to regularly use PBDEs. Sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas L., a commonly consumed vegetable in Asia) growing in the surrounding farmlands were found to contain a high concentration of PBDEs of 19.36 ng/g. The possibility of PBDEs translocation into sweet potato vines from soil samples was evaluated. To prevent the PBDEs from air through that factory, the pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse, which showed that the PBDEs concentration of 24 congeners (tri- through deca-BDE) in the sweet potato vine after 14-days cultivation was 29.90 ng/g, 40-times higher than that in the contaminated soil. After another 14-days, the PBDE concentration decreased to 12.30 ng/g as high-brominated PBDEs were transformed to medium- and/or low-brominated PBDEs in the sweet potato vine. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) values exceeded 20.0 for most of the deca-, nona-, and octa-BDEs but BCFs were below 18.9 for the rest of the medium- and low-brominated PBDEs. Our results demonstrate that high-brominated PBDEs can translocate into leafy vegetables from soils, and sweet potato vines tend to accumulate high-brominated PBDEs into their edible parts.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental
20.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 2): 1179-1184, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808488

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that prostates exposed to environmental endocrine disruptors and trace metals will cause adverse health outcomes. We assessed the association between urinary phthalate metabolites and serum trace metal levels, and oxidative damage in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients, prostate cancer (PCa) patients, and healthy controls. Levels of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu) were significantly higher in BPH patients than in controls, and mercury (Hg) was highest in PCa patients. An Hg level >1 µg/L posed a significant risk (OR: 42.86, 95% CI: 1.092-1684) for PCa, but a zinc (Zn) level >1 µg/L was marginally negative (OR: 0.979, 95% CI: 0.957-1.002). We also found strong associations between PCa and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), and between BPH and mono-isodecyl phthalate (MiDP), malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were significantly higher in PCa and BPH patients than in controls; 8­hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8­OH­dG) and DNA strand breakage were highest in BPH patients and lowest in controls. When the prostate was simultaneously co-exposed to phthalates and trace metals, phthalates had a less significant effect on PCa and BPH. Thus, we hypothesize that, for patients with prostate disease, exposure to trace metals is more significant than is exposure to phthalates.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Metais/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Oligoelementos/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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